name = Elderberry or Elder
image_width = 240px
image_caption = Black Elder ("
phylum = Magnoliophyta
genus = "Sambucus"
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text
"Sambucus" (Elder or Elderberry) is a genus of between 5 and 30 species of
shrubs or small trees (two species herbaceous), formerly treated in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae, but now shown by genetic evidence to be correctly classified in the moschatel family Adoxaceae. The genus is native to temperate to subtropical regions of both the Northern Hemisphereand the Southern Hemisphere; the genus is more widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, with Southern Hemisphere occurrence restricted to parts of Australasiaand South America.
The leaves are opposite,
pinnate, with 5-9 leaflets (rarely 3 or 11), each leaf 5-30 cm long, the leaflets with a serrated margin. They bear large clusters of small whiteor cream coloured flowersin the late spring, that are followed by clusters of small red, bluish or black (rarely yellow or white) berries.
*The common elder complex is variously treated as a single species "Sambucus nigra" found in the warmer parts of
Europeand North Americawith several regional varieties or subspecies, or else as a group of several similar species. The flowers are in flat corymbs, and the berries are black to glaucous blue; they are larger shrubs, reaching 5–8 m tall, occasionally small trees up to 15 m tall and with a stem diameter of up to 30–60 cm.
Sambucus australis" (Southern Elder; temperate eastern South America)
Sambucus canadensis" (American Elder; eastern North America; with blue-black berries)
Sambucus cerulea" (syn. "S. caerulea", "S. glauca"; Blueberry Elder; western North America; with blue berries)
Sambucus javanica" (Chinese Elder; southeastern Asia)
Sambucus mexicana" (Mexican Elder; Mexico and Central America; with blue-black berries)
Sambucus nigra" (Elder or Black Elder; Europe and western Asia; with black berries)
Sambucus palmensis" (Canary Islands Elder; Canary Islands; with black berries)
Sambucus peruviana" (Peruvian Elder; northwest South America; with black berries)
Sambucus simpsonii" (Florida Elder; southeastern United States; with blue-black berries)
Sambucus peruviana" (Andean Elder; northern South America; with blue-black berries)
Sambucus velutina" (Velvet Elder; southwestern North America; with blue-black berries)
*The Blackberry Elder "
Sambucus melanocarpa" of western North America is intermediate between the preceding and next groups. The flowers are in rounded panicles, but the berries are black; it is a small shrub, rarely exceeding 3–4 m tall. Some botanists include it in the red-berried elder group.
*The red-berried elder complex is variously treated as a single species "Sambucus racemosa" found throughout the colder parts of the
Northern Hemispherewith several regional varieties or subspecies, or else as a group of several similar species. The flowers are in rounded panicles, and the berries are bright red; they are smaller shrubs, rarely exceeding 3–4 m tall.
Sambucus callicarpa" (Pacific Coast Red Elder; west coast of North America)
Sambucus chinensis" (Chinese Red Elder; eastern Asia, in mountains)
Sambucus latipinna" (Korean Red Elder; Korea, southeast Siberia)
Sambucus microbotrys" (Mountain Red Elder; southwest North America, in mountains)
Sambucus pubens" (American Red Elder; northern North America)
Sambucus racemosa" (European Red Elder or Red-berried Elder; northern Europe, northwest Asia)
Sambucus sieboldiana" (Japanese Red Elder; Japan and Korea)
Sambucus tigranii" (Caucasus Red Elder; southwest Asia, in mountains)
Sambucus williamsii" (North China Red Elder; northeast Asia)
*The Australian elder group comprises two species from
Australasia. The flowers are in rounded panicles, and the berries white or yellow; they are shrubs growing to 3 m high.
Sambucus australasica" (Yellow Elder; New Guinea, eastern Australia)
Sambucus gaudichaudiana" (Australian Elder or White Elder; shady areas of south eastern Australia)
*The dwarf elders are, by contrast to the other species,
herbaceousplants, producing new stems each year from a perennial root system; they grow to 1.5–2 m tall, each stem terminating in a large flat umbel which matures into a dense cluster of glossy berries.
Sambucus adnata" (Asian Dwarf Elder; Himalaya and eastern Asia; berries red)
Sambucus ebulus" (European Dwarf Elder; central and southern Europe, northwest Africa and southwest Asia; berries black)
There are many uses made of
Sambucus nigra. Ornamental forms of many of the species are grown in gardens.
The berries are a very valuable food resource for many
birds. Elders are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidopteraspecies including Brown-tail, Buff Ermine, Dot Moth, Emperor Moth, The Engrailed, Swallow-tailed Mothand The V-pug. The crushed foliage and immature fruit have a strong fetid smell. Valley elderberry longhorn beetlein California are very often found around red or blue elderberry bushes. Females lay their eggs on the bark. Larvae hatch and burrow into the stems.
Dead elder wood is the preferred habitat of the mushroom "
Auricularia auricula-judae", also known as "Judas' ear fungus".
The Elder Tree was supposed to ward off evil influence and give protection from witches, a popular belief held in widely-distant countries. If an elder tree was cut down, a spirit known as the Elder Mother would be released and take her revenge. The tree could only safely be cut while chanting a rhyme to the Elder Mother. [Howard, Michael. "Traditional Folk Remedies" (Century, 1987); pp. 134-5]
*Vedel, H., & Lange, J. (1960). "Trees and Bushes in Wood and Hedgerow". Methuen & Co Ltd.
* [http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?10679 Germplasm Resources Information Network: "Sambucus"]
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-elder.html National Institute of Health - Medline page on "Sambucus nigra" L.]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3795690 Elder bush info and recipes] from the
BBCGuide to Life, the Universe, and Everything website.
* [http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/e/elder-04.html Grieve, 'A Modern Herbal' (1931)]
* [http://www.elderberries.com/ elderberries.com] Elderberry, elderflower, and why they matter. (2008)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Sambucus — ist die botanische Bezeichnung für die Pflanzengattung Holunder Johannes Sambucus (latinisiert, eigentlich János Zsámboky), ungarischer Arzt, Philosoph, Polyhistor, Kunstsammler, Dichter im 16. Jahrhundert. Diese Seite ist eine … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sambucus — Sam*bu cus, n. [L., an elder tree.] (Bot.) A genus of shrubs and trees; the elder. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Sambūcus  — Sambūcus (S. L., Hollunder od. Flieder), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Lonicereae Sambuceae Endl., Distelkarden. Rchnb., 5. Kl. 3. Ordn. L.; Kelch während der Blüthezeit halb oberständig, Saum fünfzähnig, Blumenkrone radförmig, fünfspaltig … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Sambūcus  — Sambūcus, Johann, geb. 1531 zu Tyrnau in Ungarn, war Arzt, Rath u. Historiograph des Kaisers Maximilian II., stand auch unter Rudolf II. in hohen Ehren u. st. 1584 in Wien. Seine Manuscripte u. Münzsammlung kamen in die kaiserliche Bibliothek. Er … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Sambūcus — L. (Holunder), Gattung der Kaprifoliazeen, Sträucher oder Bäume mit sehr stark entwickeltem Mark, seltener Stauden, mit gegenständigen, fiederschnittigen, selten dreischnittigen oder mehrfach geteilten Blättern, weißen, gelblichen oder rötlichen… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Sambucus — Sambūcus L., Holunder, Holder, fälschlich Flieder, Pflanzengattg. der Kaprifoliazeen; bekannteste Art S. nigra L. (gemeiner Holunder [Abb. 1582; a einzelne Blüte, b Frucht]) dessen Blüten, getrocknet, als schweißtreibendes Mittel (Holunder oder… … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Sambucus — Sambucus, Hollunder; s. Caprifoliaceae … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Sambucus — [lateinisch], die Pflanzengattung Holunder. … Universal-Lexikon
SAMBUCUS — ramis et trunco arborem refert, sed amplam continent illae medullam, quae candida expungitur, utique spongiosa, ut fistulares reddantur, excavatae arundini similes. Non multun erraverimus, si hanc arundinem delicium pucrorum dixerimus, unde viri… … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Sambucus — Saúco S. nigra … Wikipedia Español