A polynucleotide molecule is an organic polymer molecule composed of nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are examples of polynucleotides with distinct biological function. The prefix "poly" comes from the ancient Greek πολυς (polys, "many").

Polynucleotides in organisms

Polynucleotides occur naturally in all living organisms. The genome of an organism consists of complementary pairs of enormously long polynucleotides wound around each other in the form of a double helix. Polynucleotides have a variety of other roles in organisms.

Polynucleotides in scientific experiments

Polynucleotides are used in biochemical experiments such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. Polynucleotides are made artificially from oligonucleotides, smaller nucleotide chains with generally fewer than 30 subunits. An polymerase enzyme is used to extend the chain by adding nucleotides according to a pattern specified by the scientist.

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  • polynucléotide — ● polynucléotide nom masculin Substance composée par l union d un grand nombre de nucléotides. polynucléotide n. m. BIOCHIM Composé constitué de multiples nucléotides associés par des liaisons phosphate (A.R.N., A.D.N.). polynucléotide… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • polynucleotide — polynucleotide. См. полинуклеотид. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Polynucleotide — Polynucleotide, aus ⇒ Nucleotiden aufgebaute, unverzweigte, kettenförmige Moleküle, aus denen die ⇒ Nucleinsäuren bestehen. Die einzelnen Nucleotide sind jeweils über den Phosphorsäurerest am C3 des Zuckermoleküls des einen Nucleotids mit dem C5… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • polynucleotide — Linear sequences of nucleotides, in which the 5 linked phosphate on one sugar group is linked to the 3 position on the adjacent sugars. In the polynucleotide DNA the sugar is deoxyribose and in RNA, ribose. They may be double stranded or single… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • polynucleotide — polinukleotidas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Biopolimeras, sudarytas iš fosfodiesteriniais ryšiais susijungusių nukleotidų. atitikmenys: angl. polynucleotide rus. полинуклеотид …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • polynucleotide — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: 1911 a polymeric chain of nucleotides …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • polynucleotide — /pol ee nooh klee euh tuyd , nyooh /, n. Biochem. a sequence of nucleotides, as in DNA or RNA, bound into a chain. [1910 15; POLY + NUCLEOTIDE] * * * …   Universalium

  • polynucleotide — noun A polymeric macromolecule composed of many nucleotides; examples include DNA and RNA …   Wiktionary

  • polynucleotide — A linear polymer containing an indefinite (usually large) number of nucleotides, linked from one ribose (or deoxyribose) to another via phosphoric residues. Cf.:oligonucleotide. p. methyltransferases enzymes that catalyze the methylation of… …   Medical dictionary

  • polynucleotide — noun Biochemistry a linear polymer composed of many nucleotide units, constituting a section of a nucleic acid molecule …   English new terms dictionary

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