- Equilibrium thermodynamics
Equilibrium Thermodynamics is the systematic study of transformations of matter and energy in systems as they approach equilibrium. The word equilibrium implies a state of balance. Equilibrium thermodynamics, in origins, derives from analysis of the
Carnot cycle. Here, typically a system, as cylinder of gas, is set "out of balance" via heat input from a combustion reaction. Then, through a series of steps, as the system settles into its final equilibrium state, work is extracted.
In an equilibrium state there are no unbalanced potentials, or driving forces, within the system. A central aim in equilibrium thermodynamics is: given a system in a well-defined initial state, subject to accurately specified constraints, to calculate what the state of the system will be once it has reached equilibrium. An equilibrium state is obtained by seeking the extrema of a thermodynamic potential function, whose nature depends on the constraints imposed on the system. For example, a chemical reaction at constant temperature and pressure will reach equilibrium at a minimum of its components'
Gibbs free energyand a maximum of their entropy.
Equilibrium thermodynamics differs from
non-equilibrium thermodynamics, in that, with the latter, the state of the system under investigation will typically not be uniform but will vary locally in those as energy, entropy, and temperature distributions as gradients are imposed by dissipative thermodynamic fluxes. In equilibrium thermodynamics, by contrast, the state of the system will be considered uniform throughout, defined macroscopically by those quantities as temperature, pressure, or volume. Here, typically, systems are studied as they change from one state to another
* Adkins, C.J. (1983). "Equilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
* Cengel, Y. & Boles, M. (2002). "Thermodynamics – an Engineering Approach, 4th Ed." (textbook). New York: McGraw Hill.
* Kondepudi, D. & Prigogine, I. (2004). "Modern Thermodynamics – From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures" (textbook). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
* Perrot, P. (1998). "A to Z of Thermodynamics" (dictionary). New York: Oxford University Press.
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