Baha' al-Daula


Baha' al-Daula

Baha' al-Daula (d. December 22 1012) was the Buyid amir of Iraq (988-1012), along with Fars and Kerman (998-1012). He was the third son of 'Adud al-Daula.

Upon the death of his brother Sharaf al-Daula in 988, Baha' al-Daula succeeded him, whereupon he took the additional title of "Diya' al-Milla". Another brother, Samsam al-Daula, prevented Baha' al-Daula from gaining all of Sharaf al-Daula's possessions by taking control of Fars, Kerman and Khuzestan. Both Baha' al-Daula and his brother, however, were threatened by their granduncle Fakhr al-Daula, who was the ruler of Jibal. Fakr al-Daula invaded Khuzestan in an attempt to split the two brothers' territories. This act prompted the brothers to draw up an alliance. Samsam al-Daula recognized Baha' al-Daula as the ruler of Iraq and Khuzestan, while he himself kept Arrajan, Fars and Kerman. Both promised to consider each other as equals, and took the title of "king".

In 991 Baha' al-Daula attempted to gain supremacy over Samsam al-Daula's realm. He took the title of "Shâhanshâh" and invaded the latter's territory. His forces were defeated, however, and Samsam al-Daula regained Khuzestan, and even gained control of the Buyid territories in Oman. He then recognized Fakhr al-Daula as senior amir, submitting to his authority.

Fakhr al-Daula's death in 997, coupled with Samsam al-Daula's increasing troubles within his realm, provided Baha' al-Daula with the opportunity to assert his authority in Persia. He gained the support of the Kurdish ruler Badr ibn Hasanwaih and prepared for the expedition. The invasion began in December of 998; scarcely had it commenced when Samsam al-Daula was killed by one of the sons of 'Izz al-Daula who had risen in revolt. Baha' al-Daula took Shiraz and defeated 'Izz al-Daula's sons. For the rest of his life Baha' al-Daula remained in Fars. He also managed to gain indirect control over northern Iran, where Fakr al-Daula's two sons Majd al-Daula and Shams al-Daula recognized him as senior amir by 1009 or 1010.

Baha' al-Daula's reign coincided with the beginning of the decline of the Buyids. A Kurdish chief, Badr, laid the foundations for the Marwanid amirate in Diyarbakr, while the initially subservient 'Uqailids of Mosul expanded into Iraq at the Buyid's expense. By the time Baha' al-Daula died, Baghdad and Wasit were the only two major Iraqi cities directly under his control. In the north, where Fakhr al-Daula's sons ruled, the Buyid frontier also fell back. The Ziyarids of Gorgan and Tabaristan permanently wrested themselves from Buyid control. The Ghaznavids kept putting pressure on the Khurasan border, while the Kakuyids began to set up a state in Isfahan.

For various reasons, Baha' al-Daula did not actively defend the borders. Having gained undisputed control of the Buyid state, he seemed content to allow external enemies to seize territories in the west and north. He died in Arrajan in December of 1012. Shortly before his death, he named his son Sultan al-Daula as his successor.

References

*R. N. Frye (1975). "The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume Four: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs". ISBN 0-521-20093-8
*Nagel, Tilman. "Buyids", Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/articles/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home1/iranica/articles/v4_articles/buyids&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/logs/pdfdownload.html


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Samsam al-Daula — Marzuban (c. 963 December 998) was the Buyid amir of Iraq (983 987), as well as Fars and Kerman (988 or 989 998). He was the second son of Adud al Daula.During Adud al Daula s lifetime, Marzuban was assigned the governorships of Buyid Oman and… …   Wikipedia

  • Fakhr al-Daula — (Arabic: فخر الدولة) (d. October or November 997) was the Buyid amir of Jibal (976 980, 984 997), Hamadan (984 997) and Gurgan and Tabaristan (984 997). He was the second son of Rukn al Daula.Rise to power and depositionIn January of 976 Rukn al… …   Wikipedia

  • Sultan al-Daula — Abu Shuja (993 ndash; December 1024) was the Buyid amir of Fars (1012 1024) and Iraq (1012 1021). He was the son of Baha al Daula.Abu Shuja lived in Baghdad during his youth. Shortly before Baha al Daula s death, he named Abu Shuja as his… …   Wikipedia

  • Sharaf al-Daula — Shirdil Abu l Fawaris (c. 960 September 7, 988 or September 6, 989) was the Buyid amir of Kerman and Fars (983 988/9), as well as Iraq (987 988/9). He was the eldest son of Adud al Daula.When Kerman was conquered by his father in 968, Abu l… …   Wikipedia

  • Musharrif al-Daula — Abu Ali (1003 – May 1025) was the Buyid amir of Iraq (1021–1025). He was the youngest son of Baha al Daula. In 1021 the Turkish establishment in Baghdad, which had become upset over the influence of amir Sultan al Daula s Daliam troops, raised… …   Wikipedia

  • Shams al-Daula — Abu Taher (d. 1021) was the Buyid ruler of Hamadan from 997 to 1021. He was the son of Fakhr al Daula.Fakhr al Daula died in 997; his elder son Abu Taleb Rostam ( Majd al Daula ) took power in the bulk of his father s possessions in Jibal. Abu… …   Wikipedia

  • Jalal al-Daula — Abu Tahir Jalal al Daula (993 or 994 March 1044) was the Buyid amir of Iraq (1027 1044). He was the son of Baha al Daula.In 1012 Jalal al Daula s father died. His brother, Sultan al Daula came to the throne and appointed him as governor of Basra …   Wikipedia

  • Qawam al-Daula — Abu l Fawaris (April 1000 ndash; October/November 1028) was the Buyid ruler of Kerman (1012 1028). He was the son of Baha al Daula.When Abu l Fawaris brother Sultan al Daula became the senior amir of the Buyids in 1012, he appointed Abu l Fawaris …   Wikipedia

  • Muslim dynasties of Iran — This is a list of kings of Persia of the medieval Islamic period, AD 820 to 1432, arranged genealogically. For the early Islamic period before 820, see: Rashidun Caliphate: Umar (634 644), Usman (644 656), Ali (656 661) Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750 …   Wikipedia

  • Liste der Herrscher des Iran — Aufgelistet sind alle bekannten Herrscher, die das Land Iran/Persien (in seinen heutigen Grenzen!) oder einen Teil davon jemals regiert haben. Bei Dynastien, die nur eine bestimmte Zeit über iranisches Gebiet herrschten, ist (nach „in Persien:“)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.