- Camille Paglia
name = Camille Paglia
imagesize = 200px
caption = Camille Paglia
birthdate = Birth date and age|1947|4|2|mf=y
Endicott, New York
occupation = Professor and
nationality = United States
period = 1974 -
Feminism, Popular Culture, Art, Poetry, Sex
notableworks = "Sexual Personae"
Harold Bloom, Norman O. Brown, Jane Ellen Harrison, Sigmund Freud, James George Frazer, Simone de Beauvoir, Marshall Mcluhan, Friedrich Nietzsche, [Paglia, "James Landrum Fessenden," "Vamps and Tramps", p.221] G. Wilson Knight, Marquis de Sade, Oscar Wilde
website = http://www.breakblowburn.com
Camille Anna Paglia (born 2 April 1947 in
Endicott, New York) is an American author, teacher, feministand social critic. Her book, "", published in 1990, became a bestseller. Since 1984 Paglia has been a Professor at The University of the Artsin Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Paglia [The "g" is silent.] is an
intellectualof many seeming contradictions: an atheistwho respects religion ["The Morning News." August 3, 2005, [http://www.themorningnews.org/archives/birnbaum_v/camille_paglia.php Camille Paglia interview] "That’s my New Age-y side. I really respect mysticism and the spiritual dimension, even though I don’t believe in God." Jan. 26, 2008] and a classicistwho champions art both high and low, with a view that human naturehas an inherently dangerous Dionysian aspect, especially the wilder, darker sides of human sexuality. [Paglia, "Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson," p. 5-6, 1990: "The Dionysian is no picnic. It is the chthonian realities which Apollo evades, the blind grinding of subterranean force, the long slow suck, the murk and ooze."] She favors a curriculum grounded in comparative religion, art history and the literary canon, with a greater emphasis on facts in the teaching of history. She came to public attention in 1990, with the publication of her first book, "Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson". Her notoriety as the author of this book made it possible for her to write on popular cultureand feminismin mainstream newspapers and magazines. Paglia challenged what she saw as the "liberal establishment", including academics, feminist advocacy groups such as National Organization for Women(NOW), and AIDS activists ACT UP.
Paglia describes herself as a
feministand as a Democrat who campaigned for John F. Kennedyas an adolescent and later voted for Bill Clintonand Ralph Nader. She has broken with liberal orthodoxy by taking controversial stances such as rejecting the idea that homosexualityis an inborn trait [Paglia, "No Law in the Arena," "Vamps and Tramps", p.72] and being skeptical about global warming. [ [http://www.salon.com/opinion/paglia/2007/04/11/global_warming/index3.html Real inconvenient truths | Salon ] ] Her views on issues such as date rape, pornography, gay rights and educational reform have led to accusations of misogyny, homophobiaand neoconservatism.fact|date=September 2008 Paglia's embrace of fetishism, pornography, prostitutionand male homosexualityputs her at odds with American social conservatives. [Paglia, "No Law in the Arena," "Vamps and Tramps", p.19-94] Her views on recreational drugs, prostitution and sexual consent laws tend to be libertarian. She has expressed admiration for U.S. Presidential candidate John McCain's running mate Sarah Palin. [O'Sullivan, John [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2008/09/02/do0205.xml&page=3 The party's just starting for John McCain] The Telegraph, Sept. 2, 2008] [Paglia, Camille. [http://www.salon.com/opinion/paglia/2008/09/10/palin/ Sarah Palin, a powerful new feminist--yes, feminist!--force] , Salon.com, Sept. 10, 2008]
Paglia is critical of the influence modern French writers have had on the humanities in the U.S. Paglia has singled out
Michel Foucault, Jacques Lacan, and Jacques Derridafor criticism, and has also made dismissive remarks about Hélène Cixous, Luce Irigaray, Monique Wittig, Georges Bataille, and Jean Baudrillard. Paglia has condemned Foucault because she believes that he deliberately spread HIV. [Huw Christie, "AIDS and Decadence" "Continuum", vol 4, issue 3, p 20.
["Huw Christie:"] What did you mean when you said of Michel Foucault that if what you'd reliably heard of his public behavior after he knew he had AIDS is true then he should be condemned by any ethical person?
["Camille Paglia:"] People say this was not true, blah blah blah. I'm sorry, I happen to believe it. This information came to me very reliably. There were only two people between me and Foucault. Foucault told a famous gay writer, who told my close friend, who told me, that when he realized he had AIDS, he was so angry that he determined he would take as many with him as he could. He would take as many to death as he could. That he deliberately went to bars and would deliberately have sex with people and not tell them and try actively to take them with him.] ["This was a man of mutilated psyche: if what I have reliably heard about his publicbehavior after he knew he had AIDS is true, then Foucault would deservethe condemnation of every ethical person." Paglia, "Sex, Art and American Culture, 230] However, Paglia's assessment of French writers is not purely negative. Paglia has called
Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex"brilliant" and "the only thing undergraduate sex study needs", and identified Jean-Paul Sartre's work as part of a high period in literature. Paglia has made positive comments about parts of Roland Barthesand Gilles Deleuze's early work, while finding their later work flawed. Gaston Bachelardhas influenced Paglia. Paglia wrote that she "loved Bachelard, whose dignified yet fluid phenomenological descriptive method seemed to me ideal for art", adding that he was "the last modern French writer I took seriously." [Paglia, "Sex, Art, and American Culture"] [Paglia, "Vamps and Tramps"] [ [http://www.salon.com/july97/columnists/paglia2970722.html Of Versace and killer prom queens, page 2| Salon] ] [ [http://www.salon.com/opinion/paglia/2007/04/11/global_warming/index4.html Real inconvenient truths| Salon] ]
Paglia wrote a column for
Salon.comfrom its inception in 1995 until 2001. Paglia rejoined Salon in February 2007. She is a contributing editor at "Interview" magazine and is on the editorial board of the classics and humanities journal " Arion". Paglia is currently writing her third collection of essays and a companion volume to "Break, Blow, Burn" dealing with the visual artsrather than poetry.
Paglia is the elder daughter of Pasquale and Lydia Anne (Colapietro) Paglia. Her mother was born in
Ceccano, Italy. Her father's ancestors came from Italy.
Despite their modest means, her parents exposed her to classical Western art and culture. The first music to make an impression on her was
Bizet's " Carmen", an opera which, in her words, "struck me with electrifying force." ["Music of my mind: Camille Paglia on the influence of music on her life and work," interview with Camille Paglia, "Interview Magazine",August 2002.] She was three when she first heard the opera, but was still enamored of it in her writing more than 40 years later.
Paglia spent her primary school years in rural
Oxford, New York, where her family lived in a working farmhouse. ["Arcadia," " The Financial Times," March 15, 1997, p22.] Her father, a veteran of World War II, [Pasquale J. Paglia, obit., Syracuse Herald Tribune, January 23, 1991. "Mr. Paglia served with the 511 Airborne Infantry in the Philippines and in the nine-month occupation of Japan."] taught at the Oxford Academy high school. In 1957, her family moved to Syracuse, New York, so that her father could begin graduate school; he eventually became a Professor of Romance Languages at Le Moyne College. She attended the Edward Smith Elementary school, T. Aaron Levy Junior High and William Nottingham High School.cite journal| last = Paglia| first =Camille| title =My Education| journal =The Scotsman| volume =| issue =| pages =| publisher =The Scotsman| date =January 26, 2000| url =| accessdate = ]
By all accounts, she was an excellent student at Nottingham High School. She spent her Saturdays in the
Carnegie Library, absorbed in books and manuscripts. In 1992 Carmelia Metosh, her Latinteacher for three years said "She always has been controversial. Whatever statements were being made (in class), she had to challenge them. She made good points then, as she does now. She was very alert, 'with it' in every way." ["Hurricane Camille," Jim McKeever, "Syracuse Herald American" (Syracuse, New York), November 22, 1992] Paglia thanked Metosh in the acknowledgements to "Sexual Personae", later describing her as "the dragon lady of Latin studies, who breathed fire at principals and school boards."
She attended Spruce Ridge Camp, a Girl Scout facility in the
Adirondackswhere, by her later account, she had crushes on the woman counselors. She took a variety of names when she was there, including Anastasia (her confirmation name, inspired by the Ingrid Bergmanfilm), Stacy, and Stanley. An iconic experience was the time the outhouse exploded when she poured too much lime into it. "It symbolized everything I would do with my life and work. Excess and extravagance and explosiveness. I would be someone who would look into the latrine of culture, into pornography and crime and psychopathology...and I would drop the bomb into it." ["New York Observer," July 5 - 12, 1993.] [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9403E1D8113EF933A15752C1A962958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2 "Advertisements for Themselves"] , WENDY STEINER, "The New York Times" November 20, 1994]
Simone de Beauvoir's "The Second Sex" in 1963. [Paglia, "Sex, Art and American Culture", p. 112, 1992,] It led Paglia to stop working on the book about Amelia Earhart she had been writing for three years, and to resolve to write a "mega-book that will take everything in", the beginning of what later became "Sexual Personae". ["The M.I.T. Lecture: Crisis in the American Universities," (lecture, September 19, 1991), in "Sex, Art and American Culture," p. 259, Camille Paglia, 1992.] On July 81963, " Newsweek" magazine published her letter about equal opportunity for American women. On November 241963, Syracuse's "Herald American" profiled her outstanding achievements as a student, noting her longtime study of feminist icon Amelia Earhart.
Binghamton University, Harpur College (1964–1968)
Binghamton University, then called Harpur College, in 1964, graduating as class valedictorianin 1968. The essays she wrote during those years on "sexual ambiguity and aggression in literature, art and history" grew into "Sexual Personae".
She had been writing poetry prior to entering college (her poem "Atrophy," had been published in her local newspaper in 1964 ["The Post-Standard," (Syrcause, New York), April 12, 1964] ), but it was at Harpur that she received an education in it, taking courses in Metaphysical poetry and
John Milton. She later wrote that the biggest impact on her thinking were the classes taught by poet Milton Kessler. "He believed in the responsiveness of the body, and of the activation of the senses to literature... And oh did I believe in that. Probably from my Italian background — that's the way we respond to things, with our body. From Michelangelo, Bernini, there's this whole florid physicality leading right down to the Grand Opera, the great arias." ["An Interview with Camille Paglia," "Bookslut", April 2005, http://www.bookslut.com/features/2005_04_005030.php ]
She wrote her senior thesis on
Emily Dickinson, and aspired to be a poet, inspired by the work of Edna St. Vincent Millayand Gerard Manley Hopkins. She submitted a reconfiguration of the Dido episode of Virgil's Aeneidto the college literary magazine, but its editor, Deborah Tannen, rejected it, saying that "Poets don't write like this anymore." ["Prickly poet still battling status quo," Margaria Fichtner, "Miami Herald," (Miami, Florida), May 8, 2005.]
At Harpur she befriended three gay men who have had a lifelong influence on her thinking:
Bruce Benderson(a classmate at Nottingham High School), Stephen Jarratt, and Stephen Feld. Her father got her a summer job working the night shift at St. Joseph's Hospital in Syracuse as an emergency ward secretary. "It was unbelievable, like being in a war without any danger to myself," she later said. "I forced myself to look at every single horrible thing — once, OK? After a while, you start to adjust. It was pivotal because it's one of the reasons I'm not sentimental at all about death or disease." ["Hurricane Camille," Jim McKeever, "Syracuse Herald American" (Syracuse, New York), November 22, 1992]
At Harpur, she did not fit the typical gender roles. Seeing a defenseless female student being groped on the street by two drunken men, she hit one of them in the teeth; she was 19 at the time. She was once put on probation for committing 39 pranks, a fact in which she takes pride. ["My Education," by Camille Paglia, "The Scotsman," (Edinburgh, Scotland), January 26, 2000, pg. 3] She told an interviewer in 2003 that she follows the model of the "
Hindu gurus, the aging masters and sages" because they're "actually very funny. They're funny, they're prankish. Zenmasters are known to be prankish." She said, "To me, comedy is a symptom of a balanced perspective on life, and people who are going around, like gloomy gusses, in that Sontag style of intellectual, these people are suffering from something coming from their childhood, it has nothing to do with the proper intellectual response to life..." ["In Depth: Camille Paglia," Book TV (C-Span2, American Television), August 3, 2003 ]
Yale Graduate School (1968–1972)
Paglia did her graduate studies at
Yalejust as the women's movement and gay liberation exploded into American consciousness, yet here too her sexual orientation and sexually ambiguous persona led to conflict. A friend of hers at the time, Robert Caserio, recalled in 1996:
She did not act in a way that convention there dictated. Yale was an extremely genteel place. Camille wasn't genteel. She was so upfront and she wore pants in a very aggressive way. She was an out-feminist and identified with gay sexuality. We were all very much more discreet.
A few months after beginning her studies, she attended a party in the home of
R. W. B. Lewis, one of her teachers, and ended up being insulted by Robert Jay Liftonand his wife for being a lesbian.Fact|date=July 2008 Lifton was, at the time, the Foundations' Fund research professorin psychiatryat Yale, a position he held until 1984. This verbal attack seems to have emboldened her not only to be out as a lesbian, but also to be in everyone's face about it. She has repeatedly noted she was openly lesbian while at Yale Graduate School, even claiming to have been the only open lesbian there from 1968 to 1972. [ As told to Dan Savage, "The Stranger" (Seattle, Washington), September 28 - October 4, 1992: "I took the career price for that. I shoved my lesbianism down people's throats when I wasn't getting any pleasure from it; I couldn't find anyone to be with! There is the irony, I took all the negatives without any of the positives! I tried. I tried to pick up women, I tried. In 1969 I traveled Europe with the handbook, "The Gay Guide to Europe". I went from place to place, every city, and I thought, "What is the problem here?" All the gay men are finding contacts everywhere! You can't avoid it! Bus terminals, toilets, diners, everywhere! Finally I had to conclude, after so many decades of frustration, that lesbians are not looking for sex. It's not about sex. They think it's about sex. It's about mommy! It's about mommy is what it's about!"]
While at Yale, Paglia quarreled with
Rita Mae Brown, whom she later characterised as "then darkly nihilist", and argued with the New Haven, Connecticut Women's Liberation Rock Band when they dismissed the Rolling Stonesas "sexist". ["Letter to the Editor," Camille Paglia, "Chronicle of Higher Education," June 17, 1998.] She also "had two close encounters with Kate Millett(author of "Sexual Politics") just after she became famous, in New Haven, Connecticut, and in Provincetown, Massachusetts, but she was too morosely self-absorbed to notice." Because of what she saw as Millett's "careless" attitude toward scholarship, Paglia became critical of her and those who supported her work.
Her study of sexuality in Western literature continued to develop with her reading of
D. H. Lawrence's " Women in Love" (1920) and Edmund Spenser's " Faerie Queene" (1590). In 1970, she wrote a 160-page paper for her last graduate seminar at Yale entitled "Male and Female in Virginia Woolf." Her original plan for her book "Sexual Personae" was that it would end with a study of Woolf and Lawrence. [Paglia, "Vamps & Tramps," p. 329, 1994.]
In 1971, she discovered Kenneth Clark's "The Nude" (1956) , a book which would have a profound impact on her dissertation and later work. "If ever I was in love with a book, it was with this one," she wrote in "Sex, Art & American Culture"; and in an article for "Women's Quarterly" in 2002, she called it "the best introduction by far to representation of the human figure in art." ["The best introduction by far to representation of the human figure in art. The Nude is a beautifully written work of sophisticated connoisseurship that analyzes art in its own terms rather than imposing strident, politicized categories on it. It outlines the major body types, male and female, in Western art and, via a wealth of illustrations, trains the reader's eye to detect and evaluate proportion. This book reveres art — an attitude all too rare at universities these days. Students who read Clark will be safely inoculated against the worst excesses of feminist theory, with its prattle about "
objectification" and "the male gaze" — terms cooked up by ideologues with glaringly little knowledge or feeling for art."]
In 1971 Paglia received an
M.Philfrom Yale, a degree awarded when all coursework and examinations towards a Ph.D.have been completed but the dissertation has not yet been written and accepted, and began her dissertation under the supervision of her mentor Harold Bloom. It was then titled "The Androgynous Dream: the image of the androgyne as it appears in literature and is embodied in the psyche of the artist, with reference to the visual arts and the cinema." [Letter, Camille A. Paglia to Professor Carolyn Heilbrun, February 13, 1972 (Knopf Archive, Humanities Research Center, Austin, Texas.)] While reading a draft of her thesis in 1971, Bloom wrote in the margin that a passage was "Mere Sontagisme!" Paglia later wrote, "It saddened me, but I knew Bloom was right. Susan Sontag, who could have been Jane Harrison's successor as a supreme woman scholar, had become synonymous with a shallow kind of hip posturing." [Paglia, "Vamps & Tramps," p. 345, 1994.]
In a letter dated February 13, 1972 to
Carolyn Heilbrunat Columbia University, Paglia inquired about her forthcoming book on androgyny; [Letter, Camille A. Paglia to Professor Carolyn Heilbrun, February 13, 1972 (Knopf Archive, Humanities Research Center, Austin, Texas.)] Heilbrun wrote back saying that her book could not deal with all available material on the subject. When asked about Paglia's letter years later, Heilbrun could not remember it. [ Email, Carolyn G. Heilbrun to D. Doohan, February 13, 1996: "I have no recollection of receiving a letter in 1972 from Paglia, which doesn't mean that I didn't. I hear she has said nasty things about me, but I haven't read them. I have no respect for her; certainly I would not have welcomed mean statements about Millett." Heilbrun had been informed that in the 1972 letter, Paglia has been critical of Millett, saying that her "shabby and humorless attempts at literary criticism in "Sexual Politics" have severely discredited Women's Liberation."] When Heilbrun's "Toward a Recognition of Androgyny" came out, Paglia panned it in a review for the Summer 1973 issue of the " Yale Review". "Heilbrun's book is so poorly researched that it may disgrace the subject in the eyes of serious scholars," she wrote. She noted that "the most distinguished commentators on androgyny are Mircea Eliadeand G. Wilson Knight"; and criticized Heilbrun for her reliance on the work of Joseph Campbell, and for including "four flattering references" to Kate Millettwhile making "fifteen glib jibes" at Sigmund Freud. The author of the review was clearly an expert on the history of androgyny, but as it was the journal's policy for reviews to be published without attribution, few knew that Paglia wrote it.
In the fall 1972, Paglia began teaching at
Bennington College, which hired her in part thanks to a recommendation from Harold Bloom. [" Girlfriends magazine", Heather Findlay (interview), September 2000.] At Bennington, she befriended the philosopher James Fessenden, who first taught there that very semester. [Paglia, "Vamps & Tramps: New Essays," 1993, p. 202. ] One of her students, Mitchell Lichtensteinbecame a prominent filmmaker, writing and directing "Teeth" in 2007, a movie that was inspired by the myth of the vagina dentata, and was heavily influenced by Paglia's work. Another student of hers was Mark W. Edmundson, now a professor at the University of Virginia, who in January 1997, wrote about her as follows:
She was appointed as my faculty advisor in her first term. I went in for my advisorial visit and she was entirely herself, talking very fast about many things I knew nothing about. I ran in fear. Alas, I was too puzzled to take any of her classes, which seemed to be full of very sophisticated people from LA and from New York. [E-mail message, Mark W. Edmundson to D. Doohan, January 23, 1997]
Professor Mark W. Edmundson
Writer Heidi Schmidt, who attended her classes, recalled in 1996:quotation
"She was thought of as peculiar. She was so full of excitement and so intense. She would light one cigarette and then forget about it and light another, so she was waving two cigarettes. I think people took her quite lightly, she was thought of as eccentric."
Author Heidi Schmidt, former student of Paglia
Yet another Bennington student from Paglia's time there was
Judith Butler, who went on to a successful academic career. In a 2005 interview, Paglia said of Butler:
She was a student when I was at my first job at Bennington in the 70s, and I saw her up close. And I know what she knows. I mean, she transferred from there, to Yale, and her background in anything is absolutely minimal. She started a career in philosophy, abandoned that, and has been taken as this sort of major philosophical thinker by people in literary criticism. But has she ever made any exploration of science? For her to be dismissing biology, and to say gender is totally socially constructed — where are her readings, her studies? It's all gameplay, wordplay, and her work is utterly pernicious, a total dead-end." ["An Interview with Camille Paglia," Bookslut, April 2005, http://www.bookslut.com/features/2005_04_005030.php ]
Paglia, on poststructuralist feminist Judith Butler
Paglia's first scholarly publication was "Lord Hervey and Pope," published in the 1973 "18th Century Studies". (A "
Times Literary Supplement" cover story on Lord Hervey, November 2, praised the paper as "brilliant."). [Also see her review of Robert Halsband's "Lord Hervey: Eighteenth-Century Courtier," in the journal "Scriblerian," Spring 1974.] The article was a revision of a term paper she wrote. In April 1973, she attended a Susan Sontag lecture at Dartmouth Collegeand later invited her to Bennington to speak there on October 4. The event proved controversial because Sontag read a short story instead of giving the expected cultural lecture. Paglia later commented, "I was stunned because I thought she was going to be a major intellectual", later writing at length about their meeting in an essay entitled "Sontag, Bloody Sontag", published in "Vamps & Tramps". Susan Sontagsaid of Paglia, "We used to think Norman Mailerwas bad, but she makes Norman Mailer look like Jane Austen." [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1479923/Susan-Sontag.html Susan Sontag] ]
Another intellectual disappointment for Paglia was
Marija Gimbutas, who published "The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe" in 1974. At the same time, Paglia launched "a detailed attack on an exhibit at Bennington's Crossett Library, ' Matriarchy: The Golden Age,' which used appallingly shoddy feminist materials alleging the existence of a peaceful, prehistoric matriarchy, later supposedly overthrown by nasty males." ["Letter to the Editor," Camille Paglia, "Chronicle of Higher Education," June 17, 1998.]
Through her study of the classics and the scholarly work of
Jane Ellen Harrison, James George Frazer, Erich Neumann and others, Paglia developed a theory of sexual history that contradicted a number of ideas in vogue at the time, hence her criticism of Gimbutas, Heilbrun, Millett and others. She laid out her ideas on matriarchy, androgyny, homosexuality, sadomasochism and other topics in her Yale Ph.D. thesis "Sexual Personae: The Androgyne in Literature and Art," which she defended in December 1974. In September 1976, she gave a public lecture drawing on that dissertation, ["Bennington Banner," September 20, 1976, announced that the lecture would take place the following day at 8:15 p.m. in Usdan Gallery in the Visual and Performing Arts Center.] in which she discussed Edmund Spenser's " Faerie Queene", followed by remarks on Diana Ross, Gracie Allen, Yul Brynner, and Stephane Audran. [In 2002, she called Stephane Audran "one of my favorite actresses" and said that "director Claude Chabrol's wife and leading lady in the '60s and '70s... prowled Parisian salons to find exactly the right handbag for a role. She'd say, 'Until I have the clothing, I don't know who the character is.'" See "Interview," November 2002.]
In March 1975, she saw
Germaine Greerspeak in Albany. She was disappointed, reporting later that "During the question period, I nervously raised my hand from the crowd and asked if Greer, a former English professor, would be writing on literary subjects again soon. Her reply was stern and swift: 'There are far more important things in the world than literature!'"
Paglia's appraisal of Greer remains ambivalent. In her MIT lecture, she said of Greer, "What a loss. What a loss! If that woman had stayed on her original track, all of feminism would have been different. She was sophisticated, sexy, literate. What happened to her? After three years, she turned into this drone, this whining, "Woe is me, all the problems of the world!" Something went wrong in feminism." [ [http://gos.sbc.edu/p/paglia.html MIT Lecture] ] Paglia also published a scathing review of Greer's "The Whole Woman" in the
New York Times, calling it "shot through with unhelpful and passe invective against men." [ [http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/05/09/reviews/990509.09pagliat.html "Back to the Barricades"] ] In contrast, Paglia said in an interview, "I am a huge admirer of Germaine Greer and consider her a paragon of the erudite and fiercely combative feminist intellectual. The exclusion of her work and life from the overwhelming majority of women's studies curricula in the U.S. is an absolute outrage." [ [http://www.threemonkeysonline.com/threemon_printable.php?id=321 Break Blow Burn--"Camille Paglia Discusses Poetry"] ]
In another disheartening experience, Paglia "nearly came to blows with the founding members of the
women's studiesprogram at the State University of New York at Albany, when they categorically denied that hormonesinfluence human experience or behavior. These women (whose field was literature) attributed my respect for science to ' brainwashing' by men." ["Letter to the Editor," Camille Paglia, " Chronicle of Higher Education", June 17, 1998.] Similar fights with feminists, lesbians, chauvinists, homophobes and academics culminated in a 1978 incident that led her to resign from Bennington a year later. [As explained by Paglia to Heather Findlay, in a cover story for "Girlfriends" magazine, September 2000. In 1978, Paglia and her lesbian partner of the time were assaulted at a Bennington dance by a male student. Paglia said "I went to the police and filed a report. Then her parents went ballistic. There was an enormous to-do from her rich parents telling the administration, 'Open homosexuals shouldn't be employed by a college. We're not sending our daughter to a place where there are gays like this on the faculty.'" After a lengthy standoff with the administration, Paglia accepted a settlement from the college and resigned the following year.]
Paglia finished "Sexual Personae" in the early 1980s, but could not get it published. She supported herself with visiting and part-time teaching jobs at Yale, Wesleyan, and other Connecticut colleges. She taught night classes at the
Sikorsky Helicopterplant. Her paper, "The ApollonianAndrogyne and the Faerie Queen," was published in "English Literary Renaissance", Winter 1979, and her dissertation was cited by J. Hillis Millerin his April 1980 article " Wuthering Heightsand the Ellipses of Interpretation," in "Journal of Religion in Literature", but her academic career was otherwise stalled at a time when her peers were moving on to important positions at major universities. In a 1995 letter to Boyd Holmes, she recalled: "I earned a little extra money by doing some local features reporting for a New Haven alternative newspaper ("The Advocate") in the early 1980s." [Feminist writer Naomi Wolfwas an intern for "The Advocate" in the early 1980s.] She wrote articles on New Haven's historic pizzerias and on an old house that was a stop on the Underground Railroad." [Letter, Camille Paglia to Boyd Holmes, February 1995.]
In 1984, she joined the faculty of the Philadelphia College of Performing Arts, which merged in 1987 with the Philadelphia College of Art to become the University of the Arts. While travelling in Europe, she wrote about German women as follows: "The women, stern-faced, melt the submissive heart...All look like
Lotte Lenya!" [Postcard to James Fessenden, dated August 18, 1984: "Dahlink! Never in Germanybefore! I rather like it. Fabulous old castle in Romantic ruins. Bavarian frivolity of architecture elsewhere. The women, stern-faced, melt the submissive heart... All look like Lotte Lenya! Paris, Genevabefore— now on to Rome."]
For some years, Paglia has shared a residence with the artist and teacher Allison Maddex. Paglia legally adopted the son Maddex bore in 2002.
Paglia and Feminism
In "Sexual Personae", and in media statements and campus appearances made after its publication, Paglia criticized leaders of the American feminist movement. Paglia claimed that they were ignorant of art, science and history, were hostile to men, and were harming young women by teaching them to see themselves as victims. Paglia compared feminists to cults such as the
Unification Church. [Paglia, "Sex, Art, and American Culture", p. 304. ] [Paglia, "Vamps and Tramps", p. 239. Paglia used the derogatory term "Moonies". ] Paglia's stance aroused controversy. Paglia has been associated with the term "postfeminism", but rejects this label. [ [http://www.bu.edu/arion/Paglia%2016-1.html Feminism Past and Present: Ideology, Action, and Reform ] ] Gloria Steinemcompared "Sexual Personae" to " Mein Kampf", and likened Paglia to Adolf Hitler. [ [http://www.divamag.co.uk/diva/features.asp?AID=1918&s=1 "DIVA Lesbian Magazine"] ] In response, Paglia called Steinem "evil" and equated her with Joseph Stalin. [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8nXzNlrePyM 60 Minutes Interview] ] Molly Ivinswrote a scathing review of "Sexual Personae" in which she accused Paglia of historical inaccuracy, demagoguery of second-wave feminists, egocentrism, and writing in sweeping generalizations. ["Mother Jones," September/October 1991. pp 8-10, http://www.its.caltech.edu/~erich/misc/ivins_on_paglia"] Ivins concluded her polemic against Paglia with this passage: "There is one area in which I think Paglia and I would agree that politically correctfeminism has produced a noticeable inequity. Nowadays, when a woman behaves in a hysterical and disagreeable fashion, we say, 'Poor dear, it's probably PMS.' Whereas, if a man behaves in a hysterical and disagreeable fashion, we say, 'What an asshole.' Let me leap to correct this unfairness by saying of Paglia, Sheesh, what an asshole." Betty Friedansaid in an interview, "How can you take her seriously? She is an exhibitionist, and she takes the most extreme elements of the women's movement and tries to make the whole movement antisexual, antilife, antijoy. And neither I nor most of the women I know are that way." [PLAYBOY. Let's discuss other feminists. What is your relationship with Betty Friedan, the founder of modern American feminism?
PAGLIA: I have always loved her – I love that style. The National Organization for Women banished her, and she has troubles with the movement leaders like I do. It was a shame she didn't embrace me from the moment I came on the scene.
PLAYBOY: In her Playboy Interview, we asked her about you and she said, "How can you take her seriously? She is an exhibitionist, and she takes the most extreme elements of the women's movement and tries to make the whole movement antisexual, antilife, antijoy. And neither I nor most of the women I know are that way. "
PAGLIA: The truth is we have similar opinions. If she had come into line with me when I came onto the scene, we could have smashed everybody.
" [http://privat.ub.uib.no/BUBSY/playboy.htm Interview with Camille Paglia] " May 1995 "Playboy"]
Naomi Wolftraded a series of sometimes personal attacks with Paglia throughout the early 1990s. In The New Republic, Wolf labeled Paglia, "the nipple-pierced person's Phyllis Schlaflywho poses as a sexual renegade but is in fact the most dutiful of patriarchaldaughters" and called Paglia's writing "full of howling intellectual dishonesty." ["The Guardian." September 1, 2001, http://www.guardian.co.uk/weekend/story/0,3605,544353,00.html"] Katha Pollittcalled Paglia "the Charles Murray of sex. You know, "There's nothing you can do about it."' [ [http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Katha+Pollitt-a015969308 Katha Pollitt] ] Pollitt also accused Paglia of "glorify [ing] male dominance". [cite web
title= Feminism's Unfinished Business
authorlink= Katha Pollitt
work= The Atlantic
quote= Some frankly glorify male dominance, among them Camille Paglia, who being a woman can say things -- that the California high school date-rape gang known as the Spur Posse is "beautiful," for example -- that might make even Rush Limbaugh blanch. ]
"Sexual Personae: The Androgyne in Literature and Art" (1974)
"Sexual Personae" is the dissertation she presented to the Graduate School of Yale University in candidacy for her Ph.D in December 1974, and which formed the basis for her 1990 book by the same name. The 451 page study, organized into four chapters, examined the appearance of sexually ambiguous figures in art and literature from classical antiquity to the modern period. She wrote that her thesis was based on the assumption that "the inner dynamic of all artistic creation is a psychic union between masculine and feminine powers." She described her method as interdisciplinary, as it combined "literary criticism, art history, and psychology in what I believe is a new synthesis." ["Sexual Personae: The Androgyne in Literature and Art" (1974), p. ii.]
"Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson" (1990)
The two-volume manuscript of "Sexual Personae" was completed in February 1981 and rejected by seven publishers and five agents throughout the 1980s before its eventual acceptance by Ellen Graham for
Yale University Pressin 1985. ["Sex, Art, And American Culture," p. xi.] For the next few years, [She cites only three books that were published in the 1980s: " Michelangelo: A Psychoanalytic Study of His Life and Images" (New Haven, 1983); "The Diary of Virginia Woolf" (London, 1980); and "The Complete Notebooks of Henry James" (New York, 1987.)] Paglia continued to teach while perfecting volume one of the book for its eventual publication in February 1990, and releasing a few additional portions of it in other journals and books.
Her paper "
Oscar Wildeand the English Epicene" was published in 1988 in "Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest", edited by Bloom; '"Sex and Violence, or Nature and Art", was published in 1988 in "Western Humanities Review"; and "Sex," was published in the "Spenser Encyclopedia" by A. C. Hamilton in 1989.
After the release of "Sexual Personae" on 15 February 1990 [In a letter to
Clayton Eshleman, Paglia included a copy of feminist Lillian Faderman's 18 February 1990 review of "Sexual Personae" in the "Washington Post" and noted that it was "the first review," as the "the book was released 2/15/90."] the book received little publicity from its publisher as was typical of university presses at the time, but it sold well for months, prompting Yale University Press to send it for a second printing by November 1990. It was nominated for a National Book Critics Circle Awardthat year, and then reprinted in paperback by Vintage Press in 1991. It became a best-seller, as did her subsequent books "Sex, Art and American Culture: Essays" (1992) and "Vamps and Tramps" (1994).
Throughout the 1990s, Paglia said that a second volume to "Sexual Personae" would be forthcoming, and was to include her thoughts on sports and popular culture. [Letter, Camille Paglia to Boyd Holmes, March 1993: "Re: the second volume of Sexual Personae. It was completed with the entire book in February 1981 and discusses modern popular culture. The contents, in order, are: movies, television, sports, rock music. I wanted to write a book that began with cave art and ended with the Rolling Stones. The title isn't totally fixed for the second volume yet; these things change up to the last minute. The subtitle to Volume One, for example, was a matter of mass hysteria, between Yale Press and me and my advisors. More items went in and out of that subtitle! Then literally at production deadline, the marketing department tried to get the main title changed (as an obscure Latinism that would limit sales), leading to a major crisis. Thank heavens the executive editor of Yale Press took my side, and the title Sexual Personae (which has now entered the language even of ad copy and captions in fashion magazines) was spared. It will probably be several more years until Volume Two appears; Yale Press will release it in hardback. Thousands more note cards have accumulated in the intervening 14 years, and I am in the process of working them in. I try to avoid subjects too recent, as those tend to date quickly. As with Volume One, I want the book to be a more permanent statement."] Eventually, she decided not to proceed with the book as planned, as it would need to undergo too many revisions in order to reflect her changing attitude towards popular culture.
"Sex, Art, and American Culture" (1992)
"Sex, Art, and American Culture" (1992) exposed readers to Paglia's views on figures such as Madonna ("the future of feminism"),
Elizabeth Taylor, Robert Mapplethorpeand Anita Hill.
Paglia's controversial piece on Madonna, which was originally published in the "New York Times" in 1990, ["New York Times," 14 December 1990 ] would be the first of several articles, reviews and other commentary about her.
In "Elizabeth Taylor: Hollywood's Pagan Queen", Paglia called Taylor Hollywood's only living queen and wrote of her devotion to her, mentioning the fact that she at one point had collected five hundred and ninety nine pictures of Taylor. [Paglia, "Sex, Art, and American Culture", p. 14-15]
"The Beautiful Decadence of Robert Mapplethorpe" defended Mapplethorpe's cultural importance and talent while criticising activists and liberals for playing down the disturbing aspects of his work. [Paglia, "Sex, Art, and American Culture", p. 38-45]
"The Strange Case of Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill" denied that Anita Hill had been sexually harassed and criticized her for not having responded properly to any incident that may have occurred between her and
Clarence Thomas. Paglia wrote, "I suspect Hill's behavior was compliant and, to use her own word about a recent exchange with a Thomas friend, "passive."" [Paglia, "Sex, Art, and American Culture", p. 46-48]
The ninth and tenth chapters of the book ("Rape and Modern Sex War" and "The Rape Debate, Continued") were mainly about
date rape, which in Paglia's view contemporary feminists had been incapable of preventing. Paglia wrote, "Rape is an outrage that cannot be tolerated in civilized society. Yet feminism, which has waged a crusade for rapeto be taken more seriously, has put young women in danger by hiding the truth about sex from them." [Paglia, "Sex, Art, and American Culture", p. 49]
In a long article titled "Junk Bonds and Corporate Raiders: Academe in the Hour of the Wolf", Paglia critically reviewed books about homosexuality in ancient Greece by classicists David M. Halperin and John J. Winkler. Paglia criticised Halperin and Winkler for what she regarded as their shoddy scholarship and careerism. Paglia attacked Michel Foucault at length in this article, questioning his learning and denying his originality as a thinker. Paglia wrote, "Foucault is the Cagliostro of our time. Nowhere is this more evident than in his treatment of
Émile Durkheim, his true source...An entire book could be written applying Harold Bloom's theory of anxiety of influence to Foucault's desperate concealment of his massive indebtedness to Durkheim, to whom he barely, dismissively, and inaccurately refers." [Paglia, "Sex, Art, and American Culture", p. 170-248]
"Vamps and Tramps" (1994)
"Vamps and Tramps" was a collection of Paglia's writings since "Sex, Art, and American Culture". The book was a bestseller and exposed a wide readership to Paglia's views on contemporary issues such as
feminism, academia, the Clinton presidency, the life of Jacqueline Kennedy, and the career of Barbra Streisand.
Paglia explained her title this way: "I want a revamped feminism. Putting the vamp back means the lady must be a tramp. My generation of Sixties rebels wanted to smash the bourgeois codes that had become the authoritarian totems of the Fifties. The 'nice' girl with her soft, sanitized speech and decorous manners had to go. Thirty years later, we're still stuck with her — in the official spokesmen and the anointed heiresses of the feminist establishment...Equal opportunity feminism, which I espouse, demands the removal of all barriers to woman's advance in the political and professional world — but not at the price of special protections for women which are infantilizing and anti-democratic."
"Vamps and Tramps" included "No Law in the Arena: A Pagan Theory of Sexuality". In it, Paglia discussed controversial sexual issues such as rape, abortion, sexual harassment, prostitution, pornography, and homosexuality. In the section on homosexuality, Paglia wrote that no one is born gay, calling the idea "ridiculous", and adding that "it is symptomatic of our overpoliticized climate that such assertions are given instant credence by gay activists and their media partisans." Paglia mentioned neuroscientist
Simon LeVay's research on the hypothalamus, writing, "Media reports, manipulated by gay activists, trumpeted that LeVay, despite his careful qualifiers, had incontrovertibly established that gay people were born that way and that moral opposition to gayness would hence cease, since homosexuality is not a matter of choice."
"Vamps and Tramps" also included transcripts of Paglia's previous TV and film appearances, including her 1993 collaboration with
Glenn Belverioin his short film "Glennda and Camille Do Downtown," which played at the Sundance Film Festivaland won first prize for best short documentary at the Chicago Underground Film Festival, and "The Return of Carry Nation", an article reprinted from Playboy, attacking anti-pornography feminists Catharine MacKinnonand Andrea Dworkin. [Paglia, "Vamps and Tramps"]
"The Birds" (1998)
In 1998 Paglia's fourth book was published. It was an analysis of
Alfred Hitchcock's "The Birds" for the British Film Institute's "Film Classics Series".
"Basic Instinct" commentary track (2001)
In 2001, Paglia recorded a commentary track for the DVD of one of her favorite films, "
Basic Instinct". She speaks about the idea that society has destroyed the tension between the sexes, which Paglia says "Basic Instinct" captures perfectly. "Today, the ideal male is the gay man," she says, "and the ideal female is the worker female, the woman who can work in a coal mine just like all the other men."
In analyzing what she calls "the strange sexual world of Basic Instinct" she notes that "Sharon Stone's performance as the vamp, Catherine Tramell, is in the mainline of
femme fataleportrayals in old Hollywood from Theda Baraand Marlene Dietrichon." She praises almost everything about the film, even the credits and score, which she says are an "homage to Alfred Hitchcock, one of the master directors of the 20th century, and the one who first fused gory crime drama with scintillating, titillating, sexual intrigue and glamour." The lyrical music by Jerry Goldsmith"seems to record mystery, ambiguity, sexual pursuit of female by male, and then the stalking of male by female."
"Break, Blow, Burn" (2005)
. It was named as one of the "New York Times Notable Books of the Year" for 2005, and was on the bestseller lists for Amazon.com, "Booksense", "The New York Times", "The Northern California Independent Booksellers Association" and the Toronto "Globe & Mail".
In this book, she wrote essays on poems by
William Shakespeare, John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell, William Blake, William Wordsworth, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, William Butler Yeats, Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams, Jean Toomer, Langston Hughes, Theodore Roethke, Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath, Frank O'Hara, Paul Blackburn, May Swenson, Gary Snyder, Norman H. Russell, Chuck Wachtel, Rochell Kraut, Wanda Coleman, Ralph Pomeroy, and Joni Mitchell.
While speaking at events during the 2006 promotional tour for the paperback version of her book, she attacked the positive reputations that poets
John Ashberyand Jorie Grahamhave enjoyed in academe. Of Graham she said, "Maybe she had some talent early on... She is like a mirror to the professors; they look into her and see themselves." ["The Heckler and the Diva," Jeffrey McDaniel, PoetryFoundation.org, May 2006, http://www.poetryfoundation.org/dispatches/dispatches.reading.html?id=178147 ]
Paglia also spoke of how she regretted not including poems by
Allen Ginsbergin the book, since she has been a fan of his since reading " Howl". She said that she tried to excerpt the first hundred lines of "Howl", but that it gave the wrong impression of the work. The poem also did not entirely meet her standards. Paglia told a reporter for the "Toronto Star:" "'Howl', when I reread it, came across as so garish, stagey, hammy. It didn't work for this book."
*"Sexual Personae: The Androgyne in Literature and Art" (Dissertation: 1974)
Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson" (1990)
*"Sex, Art and American Culture: Essays" (1992)
*"Vamps and Tramps: New Essays" (1994) ISBN 0-679-75120-3
*"The Birds (BFI Film Classics)" (1998)
*"Break, Blow, Burn: Camille Paglia Reads Forty-three of the World's Best Poems" (2005) ISBN 0-375-42084-3
Articles by Paglia
* [http://privat.ub.uib.no/BUBSY/nomore1.htm Articles, essays, etc, by Camille Paglia]
* [http://dir.salon.com/topics/camille_paglia/index.html Salon Articles by Camille Paglia]
* [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20050827/ai_n14900926 No fairy-tale ending for Madonna] article by Paglia
* [http://comment.independent.co.uk/commentators/article309925.ece Hurricane Katrina has demolished this administration's mask of confidence] article by Paglia
* [http://comment.independent.co.uk/commentators/article308372.ece Guardsmen's deaths strike at the heart of America] article by Paglia
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/28/books/review/28PAGLIA.html?ex=1126843200&en=4967aded3fac9e3c&ei=5070 'The First Poets': Starting With Orpheus] Paglia's "NYT" review of Michael Schmidt's "The First Poets: Lives of the Ancient Greek Poets."
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/14/books/review/14PAGLIAL.html?ei=5070&en=a625078c99b2d246&ex=1126843200&pagewanted=print&position= 'Zappa': Freak Out!] Paglia's "NYT" review of "Zappa" by Barry Miles
* [http://privat.ub.uib.no/BUBSY/nomore3.htm Interviews with Camille Paglia]
* [http://privat.ub.uib.no/BUBSY/playboy.htm Playboy interview] May 1995
* [http://www.oasismag.com/Issues/9606/oasis-coverstory.html Oasis - "Teen Talk" with Camille Paglia] 1 June 1996
* [http://www.virusmyth.com/aids/continuum/v4n2.pdf Continuum Magazine - interview about AIDS with Huw Christie] July/August 1996
* [http://www.salon.com/opinion/feature/2003/02/07/paglia/index.html Salon interview on the imminent Iraq war] February 2003
* [http://www.threemonkeysonline.com/threemon_article_camille_paglia_interview_break_blow_burn.htm "Break, Blow, Burn" - Camille Paglia discusses poetry] October 2005
* [http://www.salon.com/opinion/feature/2006/10/27/paglia/ Salon interview] 27 October 2006
* [http://www.salon.com/opinion/paglia/2007/04/11/global_warming/index3.html Salon interview - "Real inconvenient truths"] 11 April 2007
Articles about Paglia
* [http://privat.ub.uib.no/BUBSY/nomore2.htm Articles on Camille Paglia]
* "Racy radical; The fiesty, fast-talking Camille Paglia declares victory over the feminist establishment. Nothing is sacred to Camille Paglia. She's battled the left and the right. And now she's taking on academia.; [SOUTH SOUND Edition] , JEN GRAVES. The News Tribune, Tacoma, Wash.: 17 April 2005. p. E.01
* "Ten great female philosophers: THE THINKING WOMAN'S WOMEN; Radio 4's 'Greatest Philosopher' poll yielded an all-male Top 20. But is philosophy really a female-free zone? On the contrary, insists Camille Paglia and "here are 10 to prove the point";", [First Edition] , The., 14 July 2005. p. 18.19
* "Cover Story: Malcontent of Sexual Politics", Donahue, Deirdre. USA TODAY. McLean, Va.: 12 May 1992. p. D1
* "AN AMAZON'S RUTHLESS, REVAMPED FEMINISM"; [FINAL Edition] Jeff Simon - News Book Reviewer. Buffalo News. Buffalo, N.Y.: 27 November 1994. pg. G.7
* "Our sometime sister, now our queen"; Books, Nigella Lawson. The Times, London (UK): 30 March 1995. pg. 1
* Book review of "The Birds" by Jeffrey Crouse in The Journal of Film and Video, Volume 54, Numbers 2-3, Summer/Fall, 2002, pp. 101-102.
Notes and references
* [http://privat.ub.uib.no/BUBSY/nomore.htm Camille Paglia resources] by Marit Synnevåg
* [http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/c/camille_paglia.html Paglia Quotations]
* Paglia's [http://www.breakblowburn.com/ Official Website]
* [http://www.huffingtonpost.com/topics/Camille+Paglia Paglia's page at Huffington Post]
* [http://www.quut.com/cpc/ The Camille Paglia checklist]
* [http://groups.google.com/group/paglia Googlegroups] Paglia-L, the original Paglia discussion group founded in September 1993.
* [http://communities.livejournal.com/camillepaglia Livejournal.com] Camille Paglia discussion group.
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Camille Paglia — Camille (Anna) Paglia (* 2. April 1947 in Endicott, New York) ist eine US amerikanische Kunst und Kulturhistorikerin. Paglia ist Professorin für Geistes und Medienwissenschaft (Humanities and Media Studies) an der University of the Arts in… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Camille Paglia — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Camille Paglia Camille Anna Paglia (Endicott, Nueva York, 2 de abril de 1947 ) es una crítica social, intelectual, escritora y p … Wikipedia Español
Camille Paglia — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Paglia (homonymie). Camille Anna Paglia (née le 2 avril 1947 à Endicott, New York, États Unis) est une écrivaine américaine et critique sociale. Elle est professeur de sciences humaines à l université d arts de… … Wikipédia en Français
Camille Dalmais — Camille ist ein französischer Vorname. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Bekannte Namensträger 2.1 männlich 2.2 weiblich // … Deutsch Wikipedia
Paglia — is a surname, and may refer to:* Camille Paglia (born 1947), American social critic, author and teacher * Francesco Paglia (1636 1700), Italian painter * Vincenzo Paglia (21st century), Roman Catholic bishopee also* La Paglia … Wikipedia
Paglia — ist der Name folgender Personen: Camille Paglia (* 1947), Kunst und Kulturhistorikerin Vincenzo Paglia (* 1945), römisch katholischer Bischof von Terni Narni Amelia Paglia bezeichnet: Paglia (Fluss), einen Nebenfluss des Tiber in Italien … Deutsch Wikipedia
Camille — ist ein französischer Vorname. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Bekannte Namensträger 2.1 männlich 2.2 weiblich … Deutsch Wikipedia
Paglia, Camille — ▪ 1994 The controversial academic, aesthete, and self described feminist Camille Paglia enunciated her unorthodox views on sexuality and the development of culture and art in Western civilization in two books, Sexual Personae: Art and… … Universalium
Paglia (homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Paglia peut désigner : Sommaire 1 Patronyme 2 Toponyme … Wikipédia en Français
Camille (given name) — Infobox Given Name Revised name = Camille imagesize= caption= pronunciation= French IPA| [kaˈmij] , English IPA|/kəˈmɪl/ gender = either female or male meaning = an attendant at a religious ceremony or perfect or swift runner or helpful region =… … Wikipedia