Neon


Neon
fluorineneonsodium
He

Ne

Ar
Element 1: Hydrogen (H), Other non-metal
Element 2: Helium (He), Noble gas
Element 3: Lithium (Li), Alkali metal
Element 4: Beryllium (Be), Alkaline earth metal
Element 5: Boron (B), Metalloid
Element 6: Carbon (C), Other non-metal
Element 7: Nitrogen (N), Other non-metal
Element 8: Oxygen (O), Other non-metal
Element 9: Fluorine (F), Halogen
Element 10: Neon (Ne), Noble gas
Element 11: Sodium (Na), Alkali metal
Element 12: Magnesium (Mg), Alkaline earth metal
Element 13: Aluminium (Al), Other metal
Element 14: Silicon (Si), Metalloid
Element 15: Phosphorus (P), Other non-metal
Element 16: Sulfur (S), Other non-metal
Element 17: Chlorine (Cl), Halogen
Element 18: Argon (Ar), Noble gas
Element 19: Potassium (K), Alkali metal
Element 20: Calcium (Ca), Alkaline earth metal
Element 21: Scandium (Sc), Transition metal
Element 22: Titanium (Ti), Transition metal
Element 23: Vanadium (V), Transition metal
Element 24: Chromium (Cr), Transition metal
Element 25: Manganese (Mn), Transition metal
Element 26: Iron (Fe), Transition metal
Element 27: Cobalt (Co), Transition metal
Element 28: Nickel (Ni), Transition metal
Element 29: Copper (Cu), Transition metal
Element 30: Zinc (Zn), Transition metal
Element 31: Gallium (Ga), Other metal
Element 32: Germanium (Ge), Metalloid
Element 33: Arsenic (As), Metalloid
Element 34: Selenium (Se), Other non-metal
Element 35: Bromine (Br), Halogen
Element 36: Krypton (Kr), Noble gas
Element 37: Rubidium (Rb), Alkali metal
Element 38: Strontium (Sr), Alkaline earth metal
Element 39: Yttrium (Y), Transition metal
Element 40: Zirconium (Zr), Transition metal
Element 41: Niobium (Nb), Transition metal
Element 42: Molybdenum (Mo), Transition metal
Element 43: Technetium (Tc), Transition metal
Element 44: Ruthenium (Ru), Transition metal
Element 45: Rhodium (Rh), Transition metal
Element 46: Palladium (Pd), Transition metal
Element 47: Silver (Ag), Transition metal
Element 48: Cadmium (Cd), Transition metal
Element 49: Indium (In), Other metal
Element 50: Tin (Sn), Other metal
Element 51: Antimony (Sb), Metalloid
Element 52: Tellurium (Te), Metalloid
Element 53: Iodine (I), Halogen
Element 54: Xenon (Xe), Noble gas
Element 55: Caesium (Cs), Alkali metal
Element 56: Barium (Ba), Alkaline earth metal
Element 57: Lanthanum (La), Lanthanoid
Element 58: Cerium (Ce), Lanthanoid
Element 59: Praseodymium (Pr), Lanthanoid
Element 60: Neodymium (Nd), Lanthanoid
Element 61: Promethium (Pm), Lanthanoid
Element 62: Samarium (Sm), Lanthanoid
Element 63: Europium (Eu), Lanthanoid
Element 64: Gadolinium (Gd), Lanthanoid
Element 65: Terbium (Tb), Lanthanoid
Element 66: Dysprosium (Dy), Lanthanoid
Element 67: Holmium (Ho), Lanthanoid
Element 68: Erbium (Er), Lanthanoid
Element 69: Thulium (Tm), Lanthanoid
Element 70: Ytterbium (Yb), Lanthanoid
Element 71: Lutetium (Lu), Lanthanoid
Element 72: Hafnium (Hf), Transition metal
Element 73: Tantalum (Ta), Transition metal
Element 74: Tungsten (W), Transition metal
Element 75: Rhenium (Re), Transition metal
Element 76: Osmium (Os), Transition metal
Element 77: Iridium (Ir), Transition metal
Element 78: Platinum (Pt), Transition metal
Element 79: Gold (Au), Transition metal
Element 80: Mercury (Hg), Transition metal
Element 81: Thallium (Tl), Other metal
Element 82: Lead (Pb), Other metal
Element 83: Bismuth (Bi), Other metal
Element 84: Polonium (Po), Metalloid
Element 85: Astatine (At), Halogen
Element 86: Radon (Rn), Noble gas
Element 87: Francium (Fr), Alkali metal
Element 88: Radium (Ra), Alkaline earth metal
Element 89: Actinium (Ac), Actinoid
Element 90: Thorium (Th), Actinoid
Element 91: Protactinium (Pa), Actinoid
Element 92: Uranium (U), Actinoid
Element 93: Neptunium (Np), Actinoid
Element 94: Plutonium (Pu), Actinoid
Element 95: Americium (Am), Actinoid
Element 96: Curium (Cm), Actinoid
Element 97: Berkelium (Bk), Actinoid
Element 98: Californium (Cf), Actinoid
Element 99: Einsteinium (Es), Actinoid
Element 100: Fermium (Fm), Actinoid
Element 101: Mendelevium (Md), Actinoid
Element 102: Nobelium (No), Actinoid
Element 103: Lawrencium (Lr), Actinoid
Element 104: Rutherfordium (Rf), Transition metal
Element 105: Dubnium (Db), Transition metal
Element 106: Seaborgium (Sg), Transition metal
Element 107: Bohrium (Bh), Transition metal
Element 108: Hassium (Hs), Transition metal
Element 109: Meitnerium (Mt)
Element 110: Darmstadtium (Ds)
Element 111: Roentgenium (Rg)
Element 112: Copernicium (Cn), Transition metal
Element 113: Ununtrium (Uut)
Element 114: Ununquadium (Uuq)
Element 115: Ununpentium (Uup)
Element 116: Ununhexium (Uuh)
Element 117: Ununseptium (Uus)
Element 118: Ununoctium (Uuo)
Neon has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
10Ne
Appearance
colorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in a high voltage electric field


Spectral lines of Neon
General properties
Name, symbol, number neon, Ne, 10
Pronunciation /ˈnɒn/
Element category noble gases
Group, period, block 18, 2, p
Standard atomic weight 20.1797(6)
Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6
Electrons per shell 2, 8 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L
Liquid density at b.p. 1.207[1] g·cm−3
Melting point 24.56 K, -248.59 °C, -415.46 °F
Boiling point 27.07 K, -246.08 °C, -410.94 °F
Triple point 24.5561 K (-249°C), 43[2][3] kPa
Critical point 44.4 K, 2.76 MPa
Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 5R/2 = 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 12 13 15 18 21 27
Atomic properties
Oxidation states no data
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 2080.7 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3952.3 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 6122 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 58 pm
Van der Waals radius 154 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[4]
Thermal conductivity 49.1x10-3  W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m·s−1
Bulk modulus 654 GPa
CAS registry number 7440-01-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of neon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
20Ne 90.48% 20Ne is stable with 10 neutrons
21Ne 0.27% 21Ne is stable with 11 neutrons
22Ne 9.25% 22Ne is stable with 12 neutrons
v ·  /ˈnɒn/) is the chemical element that has the symbol Ne and an atomic number of 10. Although a very common element in the universe, it is rare on Earth. A colorless, inert noble gas under standard conditions, neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in either low-voltage neon glow lamps or in high-voltage discharge tubes or neon advertising signs.[5][6] It is commercially extracted from air, in which it is found in trace amounts.

Contents

History

Neon gas-discharge lamps forming the symbol for Neon "Ne".

Neon (Greek νέον (neon) meaning "new one") was discovered in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay (1852–1916) and Morris W. Travers (1872–1961) in London.[7] Neon was discovered when Ramsay chilled a sample of the atmosphere until it became a liquid, then warmed the liquid and captured the gases as they boiled off. The gases that boiled off, in addition to nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, were krypton, xenon, and neon.[8] The characteristic, brilliant red color that is emitted by gaseous neon when excited electrically was noted immediately; Travers later wrote, "the blaze of crimson light from the tube told its own story and was a sight to dwell upon and never forget."[9]

Neon's scarcity precluded its prompt application for lighting along the lines of Moore tubes, which used nitrogen and which were commercialized in the early 1900s. After 1902, Georges Claude's company, Air Liquide, was producing industrial quantities of neon as a byproduct of his air liquefaction business, and in December 1910 Claude demonstrated modern neon lighting based on a sealed tube of neon. In 1912, Claude's associate began selling neon discharge tubes as advertising signs. They were introduced to U.S. in 1923, when two large neon signs were bought by a Los Angeles Packard car dealership. The glow and arresting red color made neon advertising completely different from the competition.[10]

Neon played a role in the basic understanding of the nature of atoms in 1913, when J. J. Thomson, as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays, channeled streams of neon ions through a magnetic and an electric field and measured their deflection by placing a photographic plate in their path. Thomson observed two separate patches of light on the photographic plate (see image), which suggested two different parabolas of deflection. Thomson eventually concluded that some of the atoms in the neon gas were of higher mass than the rest. Though not understood at the time by Thomson, this was the first discovery of isotopes of stable atoms. It was made by using a crude version of an instrument we now term as a mass spectrometer.

Creation

Stable forms of neon are produced in stars. It is created in fusing helium and oxygen in the alpha process, which requires temperatures above 100 megakelvin and masses greater than 3 solar masses.

Isotopes

The first evidence for isotopes of a stable element. In the bottom right corner of J. J. Thomson's photographic plate are the separate impact marks for the two isotopes neon-20 and neon-22.

Neon is the second lightest inert gas. Neon has three stable isotopes: 20Ne (90.48%), 21Ne (0.27%) and 22Ne (9.25%). 21Ne and 22Ne are partly primordial and partly nucleogenic (i.e., made by nuclear reactions of other nuclides with neutrons or other particles in the environment) and their variations in natural abundance are well understood. In contrast, 20Ne (the chief primordial isotope made in stellar nucleosynthesis) is not known to be nucleogenic or radiogenic (save for cluster decay production, which is thought to produce only a small amount). The causes of the variation of 20Ne in the Earth have thus been hotly debated.[11]

The principal nuclear reactions which generate nucleogenic neon isotopes start from 24Mg and 25Mg, which produce 21Ne and 22Ne, respectively, after neutron capture and immediate emission of an alpha particle. The neutrons that produce the reactions are mostly produced by secondary spallation reactions from alpha particles, in turn derived from uranium-series decay chains. The net result yields a trend towards lower 20Ne/22Ne and higher 21Ne/22Ne ratios observed in uranium-rich rocks such as granites.[12] Neon-21 may also be produced in a nucleogenic reaction, when 20Ne absorbs a neutron from various natural terrestrial neutron sources.

In addition, isotopic analysis of exposed terrestrial rocks has demonstrated the cosmogenic (cosmic ray) production of 21Ne. This isotope is generated by spallation reactions on magnesium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium. By analyzing all three isotopes, the cosmogenic component can be resolved from magmatic neon and nucleogenic neon. This suggests that neon will be a useful tool in determining cosmic exposure ages of surface rocks and meteorites.[13]

Similar to xenon, neon content observed in samples of volcanic gases is enriched in 20Ne, as well as nucleogenic 21Ne, relative to 22Ne content. The neon isotopic content of these mantle-derived samples represents a non-atmospheric source of neon. The 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth.[14]

Characteristics

Neon discharge tube

Neon is the second-lightest noble gas, after helium. It glows reddish-orange in a vacuum discharge tube. Also, neon has the narrowest liquid range of any element: from 24.55 K to 27.05 K (−248.45 °C to −245.95 °C, or −415.21 °F to −410.71 °F). It has over 40 times the refrigerating capacity of liquid helium and three times that of liquid hydrogen (on a per unit volume basis).[1] In most applications it is a less expensive refrigerant than helium.[15]

Spectrum of neon with ultraviolet (at left) and infrared (at right) lines shown in white

Neon plasma has the most intense light discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the noble gases. The average color of this light to the human eye is red-orange due to many lines in this range; it also contains a strong green line which is hidden, unless the visual components are dispersed by a spectroscope.[16]

Two quite different kinds of neon lighting are in common use. Neon glow lamps are generally tiny, with most operating at about 100–250 volts.[17] They have been widely used as power-on indicators and in circuit-testing equipment, but light-emitting diodes (LEDs) now dominate in such applications. These simple neon devices were the forerunners of plasma displays and plasma television screens.[18][19] Neon signs typically operate at much higher voltages (2–15 kilovolts), and the luminous tubes are commonly meters long.[20] The glass tubing is often formed into shapes and letters for signage as well as architectural and artistic applications.

Occurrence

Neon is actually abundant on a universal scale; it is the fifth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass, after hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and carbon (see chemical element). Its relative rarity on Earth, like that of helium, is due to its relative lightness, high vapor pressure at very low temperatures, and chemical inertness, all properties which tend to keep it from being trapped in the condensing gas and dust clouds which resulted in the formation of smaller and warmer solid planets like Earth.

Neon is monatomic, making it lighter than the molecules of diatomic nitrogen and oxygen which form the bulk of Earth's atmosphere; a balloon filled with neon will rise in air, albeit more slowly than a helium balloon.[21]

Mass abundance in the universe is about 1 part in 750 and in the Sun and presumably in the proto-solar system nebula, about 1 part in 600. The Galileo spacecraft atmospheric entry probe found that even in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, the abundance of neon is reduced (depleted) by about a factor of 10, to a level of 1 part in 6,000 by mass. This may indicate that even the ice-planetesimals which brought neon into Jupiter from the outer solar system, formed in a region which was too warm for them to have kept their neon (abundances of heavier inert gases on Jupiter are several times that found in the Sun).[22]

Neon is rare on Earth, found in the Earth's atmosphere at 1 part in 65,000 (by volume) or 1 part in 83,000 by mass. It is industrially produced by cryogenic fractional distillation of liquefied air.[1]

Applications

"Neon" signs may use neon along with other noble gases.

Neon is often used in signs and produces an unmistakable bright reddish-orange light. Although still referred to as "neon", all other colors are generated with the other noble gases or by many colors of fluorescent lighting.

Neon is used in vacuum tubes, high-voltage indicators, lightning arrestors, wave meter tubes, television tubes, and helium-neon lasers. Liquefied neon is commercially used as a cryogenic refrigerant in applications not requiring the lower temperature range attainable with more extreme liquid helium refrigeration.

Both neon gas and liquid neon are relatively expensive – for small quantities, the price of liquid neon can be more than 55 times that of liquid helium. The driver for neon's expense is the rarity of neon, which unlike helium, can only be obtained from air.

The triple point temperature of neon (24.5561 K) is a defining fixed point in the International Temperature Scale of 1990.[2]

Compounds

Neon is the first p-block noble gas. Neon is generally considered to be inert. No true neutral compounds of neon are known. However, the ions Ne+, (NeAr)+, (NeH)+, and (HeNe+) have been observed from optical and mass spectrometric studies, and there are some unverified reports of an unstable hydrate.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Hammond, C.R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. p. 19. ISBN 0849304814. http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elements.pdf. 
  2. ^ a b Preston-Thomas, H. (1990). "The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)". Metrologia 27: 3–10. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/27/1/002. http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/its-90.html. 
  3. ^ "Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Melting, boiling, triple, and critical temperatures of the elements". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th edition ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 2005. 
  4. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  5. ^ Coyle, Harold P. (2001). Project STAR: The Universe in Your Hands. Kendall Hunt. pp. 464. ISBN 9780787267636. http://books.google.com/?id=KwTzo4GMlewC&pg=PA127. 
  6. ^ Kohmoto, Kohtaro (1999). "Phosphors for lamps". In Shionoya, Shigeo; Yen, William M.. Phosphor Handbook. CRC Press. pp. 940. ISBN 9780849375606. http://books.google.com/?id=lWlcJEDukRIC&pg=PA380. 
  7. ^ Ramsay, William, Travers, Morris W. (1898). "On the Companions of Argon". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 63 (1): 437–440. doi:10.1098/rspl.1898.0057. 
  8. ^ "Neon: History". Softciências. http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5/scenes-e/elem/e01000.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. 
  9. ^ Weeks, Mary Elvira (2003). Discovery of the Elements: Third Edition (reprint). Kessinger Publishing. p. 287. ISBN 9780766138728. http://books.google.com/books?id=SJIk9BPdNWcC&pg=PA287. 
  10. ^ Mangum, Aja (December 8, 2007). "Neon: A Brief History". New York Magazine. http://nymag.com/shopping/features/41814/. 
  11. ^ Dickin, Alan P (2005). "Neon". Radiogenic isotope geology. p. 303. ISBN 9780521823166. http://books.google.com/?id=z8ZCg2HRvWsC&pg=PA303. 
  12. ^ Resources on Isotopes. Periodic Table—Neon. explanation of the nucleogenic sources of Ne-21 and Ne-22. USGS.gov
  13. ^ "Neon: Isotopes". Softciências. http://nautilus.fis.uc.pt/st2.5/scenes-e/elem/e01093.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. 
  14. ^ Anderson, Don L.. "Helium, Neon & Argon". Mantleplumes.org. http://www.mantleplumes.org/Ne.html. Retrieved July 2, 2006. 
  15. ^ "NASSMC: News Bulletin". December 30, 2005. http://www.nassmc.org/bulletin/dec05bulletin.html#table. Retrieved March 5, 2007. 
  16. ^ "Plasma". http://www.electricalfun.com/plasma.htm. Retrieved March 5, 2007. 
  17. ^ Baumann, Edward (1966). Applications of Neon Lamps and Gas Discharge Tubes. Carlton Press. 
  18. ^ Myers, Robert L. (2002). Display interfaces: fundamentals and standards. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 69–71. ISBN 9780471499466. http://books.google.com/books?id=ilHvFwoAZDMC&pg=PA69. "Plasma displays are closely related to the simple neon lamp." 
  19. ^ Weber, Larry F. (April 2006). "History of the plasma display panel". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 34 (2): 268–278. Bibcode 2006ITPS...34..268W. doi:10.1109/TPS.2006.872440.  Paid access.
  20. ^ "ANSI Luminous Tube Footage Chart". American National Standards Institute (ANSI). http://www.allanson.com/Product%20PDFs/ANSI_Luminous_footage.pdf. Retrieved 2010-12-10.  Reproduction of a chart in the catalog of a lighting company in Toronto; the original ANSI specification is not given.
  21. ^ Gallagher, R.; Ingram, P. (2001-07-19). Chemistry for Higher Tier. University Press. pp. 282. ISBN 9780199148172. http://books.google.com/?id=SJtWSy69eVsC&pg=PA96. 
  22. ^ Morse, David (January 26, 1996). "Galileo Probe Science Result". Galileo Project. http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/gll38.html. Retrieved February 27, 2007. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • néon — néon …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • NEON — Beschreibung junges Unisex Magazin Verlag Gruner und Jahr …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • néon — [ neɔ̃ ] n. m. • 1898; gr. neos « nouveau » et suff. on; cf. argon, krypton 1 ♦ Chim. Élément atomique (Ne; no at. 10; m. at. 20,18), gaz incolore de la série des gaz rares. Le néon à basse pression émet une lumière rouge lorsqu il est traversé… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Neon — Néon Néon Fluor ← Néo …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Néon — Fluor ← Néon → Sodium He …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Neon — ? Neon Самец Neon nelli Научная классификация Царство …   Википедия

  • neon — NEÓN s.n. Element chimic, gaz nobil neinflamabil, fără miros şi fără culoare, folosit la umplerea unor lămpi electrice. [pr.: ne on] – Din fr. néon. Trimis de LauraGellner, 08.06.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  neón s. n., simb. Ne Trimis de siveco,… …   Dicționar Român

  • Neon — Sn (ein Gas, das in Leuchtröhren verwendet wird) erw. fach. (20. Jh.) Neoklassische Bildung. Entlehnt aus ne. neon, dem substantivierten Neutrum von gr. néos jung, neu . So benannt als das neuentdeckte (Gas) .    Ebenso nndl. neon, ne. neon, nfrz …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • neon — Symbol: Ne Atomic number: 10 Atomic weight: 20.183 Colourless gaseous element of group 18 on the periodic table (noble gases). Neon occurs in the atmosphere, and comprises 0.0018% of the volume of the atmosphere. It has a distinct reddish glow… …   Elements of periodic system

  • neon — (n.) 1898, coined by its discoverers, Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers, from Gk. neon, neuter of neos new (see NEW (Cf. new)); so called because it was newly discovered. Neon sign is attested from 1927 …   Etymology dictionary

  • neon — I {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż I, D. u, Mc. neonnie {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} napis, rysunek zrobiony z jedno lub wielokolorowych świetlówek, zapalany w nocy w celach reklamowych lub dekoracyjnych : {{/stl 7}}{{stl 10}}Na ulicach jarzyły się barwne… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień


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