- Banda music
Banda (often referred to as banda sinaloense in Spanish in order to distinguish it from other types of bands, since banda simply means "band" in Spanish) is a brass-based form of traditional Mexican music. Bandas play a wide variety of songs, including
rancheras, corridos, cumbias, baladas, and boleros. Bandas are most widely known for their rancheras, but they also play modern pop, rock, and cumbias.
Banda el Recodo, Banda Machos, Banda Maguey, Banda Cuisillos, La Arrolladora Banda El Limón, Banda Jerez, El Coyote, Sergio Vegaand Julio Preciadoare some of the most famous banda artists. Banda is primarily a male-dominated genre; however, there are also a few all-female bandas such as Banda Las Tapatíasand Banda Soñadoras, Los Horoscopos de Durango, as well as a few prominent female singers such as Yolanda Pérez, Graciela Beltránand Jenni Rivera.
History and origins
Established in the late 1930s in
Sinaloa, a state in northwestern Mexico, banda music exploded in popularity in the late 1990s throughout Mexico. Its roots come from the overlapping of Mexican music with German polka music. At the time, many German-Americanslived in southern Texas. This greatly influenced northern Mexican music. Immigrants from northern Mexico brought the music to the United States. Initially popular in the southwest United States, primarily in Texas, Californiaand Arizona, banda has followed the movement of Mexican immigrants into, and the Midwest United Statesand the rest of the country. Although rarely found near the east coast of the United States, a wide collection of banda music can be found in the personal collection of Arturo Barrios Martinez, a famous student and collector of the banda genre. Other notes on the origin of "Banda" music resembling mid 20th century Jazz: Mexican immigrants whom came in contact with Latin-based Jazz of Chicanos or Mexicans born and raised in southern California adopted Jazz-like sounds in banda to further enrich the music type.
The sound of banda
A typical banda is made up of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments. The most notable instrument is the tambora, which is a type of bass drum with a head made from animal hide. Bandas were previously called "tamboras", named after this drum. The tambora is played in a strong and embellished manner, which provides the drive for the rest of the band. The percussion section also includes the
tarolawhich is a snare with timbales which would resemble the tom-toms on a regular drumset, cowbells, and cymbals. Banda el Recodo, the most famous banda, features 3 Trumpets, 4 clarinets, 3 valve trombones, 2 Eb alto horns, and 1 sousaphone.Like an orchestra, a banda can be organized into different sections.
#Bass: The lowest-pitched part is played by the
sousaphone(referred to as a " tuba" in Mexico), accompanied by the tambora, a large bass drum.
#Harmony: Two Armonias, "charchetas" or "saxores" in Mexico (Eb alto horns), play chords using different rhythms depending on the style.
valve trombones play the lower-pitched part of the melody/arrangement.
Trumpets play the higher-pitched part of the melody/arrangement.
Clarinets and sometimes saxophones play as "singing" instruments that may play with the voice.
Banda el Recodoand Banda Jerezconsists of trios, but many bandas also consist of dual and solo singers.Most banda arrangements feature 3 part harmony and melodic sections which contrast the timbres of the clarinet, trumpet, and valve trombone sections.
Bandas play many different styles including waltzes, cumbias, polkas, marches, foxtrots, rock ballads, rancheras and sones. Historically bandas were village brass bands called on to entertain the town, and would play anything from opera overtures to big band jazz. This tradition continues today in many towns, especially during festivals and celebrations.
Bandas usually have a strong percussion. The percussionists generally provide the accents and do not usually play all the time or keep a 'groove'. Often the percussionists will enter only when the singer is not singing, such as in an instrumental chorus. The groove is mostly provided by the sousaphone (or bass guitar in a few recordings) playing the bass line, and the alto horns playing sharp upbeats. Typically when a banda plays a cumbia, the alto horn players switch to Latin percussion instruments such as Congas, bongos and guiro.
Bandas generally contain between 10 and 20 members. They usually have a lead singer and a second voice, and occasionally a third voice. The voice often consists of a duet, but solo singers and trios are also common.
In the late 80's and throughout the 90's many new bandas were so-called "technobandas" or "electrobandas", in which some or all of the horns were replaced by electric instruments. A typical technobanda will substitute sousaphone with electric bass and the two alto horns with a synthesizer and a guitar. The clarinets were frequently replaced with saxophones also. However the bass part is still played in a style imitating a sousaphone, using a
Synthesizeror substituting using a double bassor a bass guitar.
* [http://www.chalino.com/ Banda Fans a la musica de banda]
* [http://www.musicamexicanafm.com Musica Mexicana FM.com]
Music of Mexico
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