Emperor Fushimi


Emperor Fushimi

Emperor Fushimi (伏見天皇 "Fushimi-tennō") (May 10, 1265 – October 8, 1317) was the 92nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1287 through 1298. [Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). "Annales des empereurs du Japon," pp. 269-274; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). "Jinnō Shōtōki." pp. 237-238.]

Genealogy

Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his "imina") was nihongo|Hirohito"-shinnō"|熈仁親王. [Titsingh, p. 269; Varley, p. 237.]

::"Note": Although the Roman-alphabet spelling of the name of this 13th-century emperor is the same as the personal name of Emperor Shōwa, the kanji are different:::: Emperor Fushimi, formerly Prince Hirohito (熈仁)::: Emperor Shōwa, formerly Prince Hirohito (裕仁)

He was the second son of Emperor Go-Fukakusa. They were from the Jimyōin-tō line.
*Empress: Saionji (Fujiwara) ?? (西園寺(藤原)金章子)
*Lady-in-waiting: Daughter of Miki (Minamoto) ?? (三木(源)具氏)
*Lady-in-waiting: Itsutsuji (Fujiwara) Tsuneko ?? (五辻(藤原)経子)
**First son: Imperial Prince Tanehito (胤仁親王) (Emperor Go-Fushimi)
*Consort: Tōin Fujiwara ?? (洞院(藤原)季子)
**First daughter: Imperial Princess ?? (甝子内親王 (甝 = 王壽))
**Second daughter: Imperial Princess Shigeko ?? (誉子内親王)
**Second son: Imperial Prince ?? (寛性入道親王) (Buddhist Lay Priest)
**Third daughter: Imperial Princess ?? (延子内親王)
**Fourth son: Imperial Prince Tomihito (富仁親王) (Emperor Hanazono)

His name comes from the palace of the Jimyōin-tō.

Events of Fushimi's life

Hirohito"-shinnō" was named Crown Prince and heir to his first cousin, the Daikakuji-tō Emperor Go-Uda. Political maneuvering by Fushimi's father, the Jimyōin-tō Emperor Go-Fukakusa, were a crucial factor in this choice.

* "Kōan 10", in the 10th month (1287): In the 13th year of Go-Uda"-tennō"'s reign (後宇多天皇13年), the emperor abdicated; and the succession (‘‘senso’’) was received by his cousin. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Fushimi is said to have acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’). [Titsingh, p. 269; Varley, p. 44. [A distinct act of "senso" is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have "senso" and "sokui" in the same year until the reign of Go-Murakami.] ]

After this, there was a short period of time in which the two lines alternated power. Two years later, the retired Emperor Go-Fukakusa ended his reign as Cloistered Emperor, Fushimi taking direct control.

In 1289, by making his own son (the future Emperor Go-Fushimi) Crown Prince, he increased the antagonism of the Daikakuji line.

In 1290, the family of Asawara Tameyori made an assassination attempt on the Emperor.

During his reign, efforts were made by the noble families to defeat the government, but the power of the Bakufu increased. In 1298, Fushimi abdicated and began his reign as cloistered emperor.

But, three years later, in 1301, the Daikakuji Line rallied and forced Emperor Go-Fushimi to abdicate.

In 1308, his co-operation with the Bakufu succeeding, his fourth son's enthronement as Emperor Hanazono took place, and he again became cloistered Emperor.

During Fushimi's reign, the alternating plan for the Daikakuji and Jimyōin lines had not yet come into being, and the two lines fought each other for the throne.

In 1317, Former-Emperor Fushimi died.

Kugyō

"Kugyō" (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Fushimi's reign, this apex of the "Daijō-kan included:
* "Sadaijin"
* "Udaijin"
* "Nadaijin"
* "Dainagon"

Eras of Fushimi's reign

The years of Fushimi's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or "nengō". [Titsingh, p. 269.]
* "Kōan" (1278-1288)
* "Shōō" (1288-1293)
* "Einin" (1293-1299)

References

* Titsingh, Isaac, ed. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/Hayashi Gahō, 1652] , "Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, tr. par M. Isaac Titsingh avec l'aide de plusieurs interprètes attachés au comptoir hollandais de Nangasaki; ouvrage re., complété et cor. sur l'original japonais-chinois, accompagné de notes et précédé d'un Aperçu d'histoire mythologique du Japon, par M. J. Klaproth." Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. [http://books.google.com/books?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ&dq=nipon+o+dai+itsi+ran ...Click link for digitized, full-text copy of this book (in French)]
* Varley, H. Paul , ed. (1980). [ Kitabatake Chikafusa, 1359] , "Jinnō Shōtōki ("A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa" translated by H. Paul Varley)." New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04940-4


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