portmanteauof and ) is a welfare statemodel with a pro-active labour marketpolicy. The model is a combination of easy hiring and firing ( flexibilityfor employers) and high benefits for the unemployed ( securityfor the employees). It was first implemented in Denmarkby the social democratic Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussenin the 1990s.
The term refers to the combination of both
labour market flexibility[The term flexibility effectively encompasses two different models, on the one hand ‘numerical flexibility’, i.e. the idea of easier to hire and fire contracts as well as ‘functional flexibility’, closely linked to the concept of ‘knowledge society’ or ‘lifelong learning’ (LLL), whereby the European workforce is being prepared for a changing working life, where only a multitude of skills (polivalency) will ensure employment (Crouch, 1999).] in a dynamic economy as well security for workers. The Government of Denmarkviews flexicurity as entailing a “golden triangle” with a “three-sided mix of (1) flexibility in the labour marketcombined with (2) social securityand (3) an active labour market policy with rights and obligations for the unemployed” [See http://www.bm.dk/sw3792.asp. Another widely referred to definition is “… a degree of job, employment, income and combination security that facilitates the labour market careers and biographies of workers with a relatively weak position and allows for enduring and high quality labour market participation and social inclusion, while at the same time providing (2) a degree of numerical (both external an internal), functional and wage flexibility that allows for labour markets’ (and individual companies’) timely and adequate adjustment to changing conditions in order to maintain and enhance competitiveness and productivity.” Wilthagen and Tros (2004: 170)]
The concept developed in Denmark, where negotiations among employers and
trade unionsduring the so-called September Compromise of 1899 (also called Labour Market Constitution) laid the ground for a mutually beneficial (profitable and secure) state. [Jørgensen, 2000] The ‘Constitution’ was revised in 1960 and renamed Basic Agreement. It settled the freedom of trade union association as well as the managerial prerogative to manage and divide the work including the right to hire and dismiss the labour force at any time necessary. “It is thus important to understand that the Danish model of labour market regulation, including the right to form associations, is based on these voluntaristic principles and that legislation or interference of the state is kept on a minimum. The right of association and the recognition of labour market associations are based on the mutual recognition of conflicting interests.” [Jørgensen (2004)] The Danish tripartite agreements amongst employers, workers and the state are supported by an intricate system that allows for an active response from the state, which supports the ‘activation’ of workers.
In the early 1990s, following many years of economic underperformance compared to
European Unioncounterparts and culminating in a sharp fall in the value of the Danish Kroneand subsequent exit from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, Danish policymakers and economists began to question Denmark's strong position as a traditional socialist state. They established a fiscal policy aimed at breaking the unemployment trend, coupled to the first active labour market policy (ALMP) of 1994 which sought to reduce structural unemployment. [Jørgensen, 2000:119] Although some believed that the natural unemployment rate had simply increased, the Danish Government sought to improve the situation by implementing what came to be called the flexicurity model. The policy shift thus came about with the 1994 and 1996 labour market reforms, when the introduction of flexibility [The idea of ‘flexibility’ in the labour market emerged in the 1980s and has since then been introduced to varying degrees in several European countries (Esping-Andersen, 1999). In fact, ‘atypical’ labour contracts have been introduced in countries where employment protection legislation is or has been restrictive (e.g. temporary work). This may have brought flexibility for the private sector but “at the expense of reduced employment and income security” (EC, 2006:75).] was linked to security through the continued provision of generous welfare schemes [Despite criticisms and the previously mentioned correlations between UBs and unemployment spells, studies also show that these could have positive effects as they lead to higher output and welfare and hence encourage productivity (see for example Acemoglu and Shimer, 2000). Research further shows that “moral hazard problems linked to UB systems can be largely offset by adopting and implementing appropriate ALMPs” (EC, 2006:93).] as well as the ‘activation’ of the labour force through a set of active LMPs. [Björklund, 2000:155] Activation in Denmark is regarded as “a right and an obligation”. [Jørgensen, 2000:127] The effects expected from this combination were twofold: qualification effects of the LMPs as well as motivational effects through the welfare schemes. [Madsen, 2006]
Denmark’s current low
unemploymentfigures (2.8% in 2008) and its low social exclusion rates, coupled to output growth of over 3% have led the European Unionto adopt flexicurity as its leitmotiv in its European Employment Strategy. In particular, Guideline No.21 of the "Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Employment" for the period 2005-2008 calls on Member States to “…promote flexibility combined with employment security and reduce labour market segmentation, having due regard to the role of the social partners”. [EC, 2005] Unlike the controversial youth labour laws proposed in France, this strategy does not discriminate against youth, but rather holds the same expectations for all Danes: an unemployed person is required to constantly seek employment or further education in order to receive full benefits. Flexicurity strategies have been implemented in other European countries, such as Finlandand The Netherlands.
The high benefits and training provision that this system requires also require a higher burden of taxation upon the higher earning members of the society. Denmark currently has the highest total taxation of any country in the world.
labour market flexibility
*Acemoglu, S. and R. Shimer (2000) “Productivity gains form unemployment insurance” in European Economic Review.
*Björklund, A. (2000) “Going Different Ways: Labour Market Policies in Denmark and Sweden” in G. Esping-Andersen and M. Regini (Eds.) Why Deregulate Labour Markets? Oxford University Press: Oxford.
*Bredgaard, T., F. Larsen and P. K. Madsen (2005) “The Flexible Danish Labour Market – A Review” Centre for Labour Market Research (CARMA) Research Paper 31:2005, CARMA: Aalborg, Denmark.
*Bredgaard, T., F. Larsen and P. K. Madsen (2006) “The challenges of identifying flexicurity in action” Centre for Labour Market Research (CARMA), paper presented during the conference “Flexicurity and Beyond”, 12-13 October 2006, Aalborg, Denmark.
*Crouch, C. (1999) Social Change in Western Europe, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
*EC (European Commission) (2005) Working Together for Growth and Jobs. Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Jobs (2005-2008), Office for Official Publication of the European Communities: Luxembourg.
*EC (European Commission) (2006) “Vladimír Špidla, Member of the European Commission responsible for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities, Informal Ministerial Meeting: “Flexicurity”, Informal Ministerial Meeting: “Flexicurity”, Villach (Austria), 20 January 2006” Press release, http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/06/20&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en.
*EC (European Commission) (2006) Employment in Europe 2006, Office for Official Publication of the European Communities: Luxembourg.
*EC (European Commission) (2007) “New EU report shows active labour policy can increase employment rate despite low growth”, http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/emplweb/news/news_en.cfm?id=81.
*Esping-Andersen, G. (1999) Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies, Oxford University Press: Oxford.
*Esping-Andersen, G. and M. Regini (Eds.) (2000) Why Deregulate Labour Markets? Oxford University Press: Oxford.
*European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (2007) “Flexicurity”, http://www.eurofound.eu.int/areas/industrialrelations/dictionary/definitions/FLEXICURITY.htm.
*Jørgensen, H. (2000) “Danish labour market policy since 1994 – the new ‘Columbus’ egg’ of labour market regulation?” in P. Klemmer and R. Wink (Eds.) Preventing Unemployment in Europe, Ruhr Research Institute for Regional and Innovation Policy, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham.
*Madsen, P.K. (2006) “How can it possibly fly? The paradox of a dynamic labour market in a Scandinavian welfare state” in J.L. Campbell, J.A. Hall, O.K. Pedersen (Eds.) National Identity and a variety of Capitalism: The Case of Denmark, McGill University Press: Montreal.
*Nickell, S. and R. Layard (1999) “Labour market institutions and economic performance” in O. Ashenfelter and D. Card (Eds.) Handbook of Labour Economics, Elsevier: Amsterdam.
*Wilthagen, T. and F. Tros (2004) “The Concept of ‘Flexicurity’: a new approach to regulating employment and labour markets” in ‘Flexicurity: Conceptual Issues and Political Implementation in Europe’ Tanfer, European Review of labour and research, vol. 10, No.2.
* [http://www.tilburguniversity.nl/flexicurity Flexicurity Research Team]
* [http://www.socsci.auc.dk/carma/indexenglish.htm Centre for Labour Market Research at Aalborg University (CARMA)]
* [http://flexicurity.blogspot.com European Foundation Flexicurity Blog]
* [http://www.euractiv.com/en/socialeurope/social-partners-flexicurity-labour-market-reforms/article-164260 Newsarticle EurActiv 06-04-2007]
* [http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri=tcm:29-144592-16&type=News Newsarticle EurActiv 09-21-2005]
* [http://www.politiek-digitaal.nl/europa/archief_200509#2483 Newsarticle Politiek-digitaal 09-21-2005] "(Dutch)"
* [https://www2.indymedia.org.uk/en/2004/10/298956.html Indymedia 2004]
* [http://www.pmefocus.be/flexicurity/index_en.php Towards Common Principles of Flexicurity] More and Better Jobs through Flexibility and Security
* [http://www.flexicurity.tk FLEXICURITY: Economic Miracle or Social Draw Back? - A Critical Analysis Of The Danish Social Model] A study based on facts and figures
* [http://www.tilburguniversity.nl/faculties/frw/research/schoordijk/flexicurity/ILP/ Innovating Labour Market Policies Conference site]
* [http://www.issa.int/engl/reunion/2007/Warsaw/2warsaw.htm 5th International Research Conference on Social Security]
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