Industrial fermentation


Industrial fermentation

Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to make products useful to humans. Fermented products have applications as food as well as in general industry.

Contents

Food fermentation

Ancient fermented food processes, such as making bread, wine, cheese, curds, idli, dosa, etc., can be dated to more than 6,000 years ago. They were developed long before man had any knowledge of the existence of the microorganisms involved. Fermentation is also a powerful economic incentive for semi-industrialized countries, in their willingness to produce bio-ethanol.

Pharmaceuticals and the biotechnology industry

There are 5 major groups of commercially important fermentation:

  1. Microbial cells or biomass as the product, e.g. single cell protein, bakers yeast, lactobacillus, E. coli, etc.
  2. Microbial enzymes: catalase, amylase, protease, pectinase, glucose isomerase, cellulase, hemicellulase, lipase, lactase, streptokinase, etc.
  3. Microbial metabolites :
    1. Primary metabolites – ethanol, citric acid, glutamic acid, lysine, vitamins, polysaccharides etc.
    2. Secondary metabolites: all antibiotic fermentation
  4. Recombinant products: insulin, HBV, interferon, GCSF, streptokinase
  5. Biotransformations: phenyl acetyl carbinol, steroid biotransformation, etc.

Nutrient sources for industrial fermentation

Growth media are required for industrial fermentation, since any microbe requires water, (oxygen), an energy source, a carbon source, a nitrogen source and micronutrients for growth.

Carbon & energy source + nitrogen source + O2 + other requirements → Biomass + Product + byproducts + CO2 + H2O + heat

Nutrient Raw material
Carbon
Glucose corn sugar, starch, cellulose
Sucrose sugarcane, sugar beet molasses
glycerol
Starch
Maltodextrine
Lactose milk whey
fats vegetable oils
Hydrocarbons petroleum fractions
Nitrogen
Protein soybean meal, corn steep liquor, distillers' solubles
Ammonia pure ammonia or ammonium salts
urea
Nitrate nitrate salts
Phosphorus source phosphate salts
Vitamins and growth factors
Yeast, Yeast extract
Wheat germ meal, cotton seed meal
Beef extract
Corn steep liquor

Trace elements: Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Co

Antifoaming agents : Esters, fatty acids, fats, silicones, sulphonates, polypropylene glycol

Buffers: Calcium carbonate, phosphates

Growth factors: Some microorganisms cannot synthesize the required cell components themselves and need to be supplemented, e.g. with thiamine, biotin, calcium pentothenate

Precursors: Directly incorporated into the desired product: Phenyl ethylamine into Benzyl penicillin, Phenyl acetic acid into Penicillin G

Inhibitors: To get the specific products: e.g. sodium barbital for rifamycin

Inducers: The majority of the enzymes used in industrial fermentation are inducible and are synthesized in response of inducers: e.g. starch for amylases, maltose for pollulanase, pectin for pectinase,olive oil and tween are also used at times.

Chelators: Chelators are the chemicals used to avoid the precipitation of metal ions. Chelators like EDTA, citric acid, polyphosphates are used in low concentrations.

Sewage disposal

In the process of sewage disposal, sewage is digested by enzymes secreted by bacteria. Solid organic matters are broken down into harmless, soluble substances and carbon dioxide. Liquids that result are disinfected to remove pathogens before being discharged into rivers or the sea or can be used as liquid fertilisers. Digested solids, known also as sludge, is dried and used as fertilisers. Gaseous by-products such as methane, can be utilised as biogas to fuel generators. One advantage of bacterial digestion is that it reduces the bulk and odour of sewage, thus reducing space needed for dumping, on the other hand, a major disadvantage of bacterial digestion in sewage disposal is that it is a very slow process.

Phases of microbial growth

When a particular organism is introduced into a selected growth medium, the medium is inoculated with the particular organism. Growth of the inoculum does not occur immediately, but takes a little while. This is the period of adaptation, called the lag phase. Following the lag phase, the rate of growth of the organism steadily increases, for a certain period--this period is the log or exponential phase. After a certain time of exponential phase, the rate of growth slows down, due to the continuously falling concentrations of nutrients and/or a continuously increasing (accumulating) concentrations of toxic substances. This phase, where the increase of the rate of growth is checked, is the deceleration phase. After the deceleration phase, growth ceases and the culture enters a stationary phase or a steady state. The biomass remains constant, except when certain accumulated chemicals in the culture lyse the cells (chemolysis). Unless other micro-organisms contaminate the culture, the chemical constitution remains unchanged. Mutation of the organism in the culture can also be a source of contamination, called internal contamination.

See also

External links

Related journals

References

  • Schutyser, M.A.I., 2003, Solid state fermentation, PhD Thesis, Wageningen UR
  • Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by J.E. Bailey and P.F. Ollis, McGraw Hill Publication
  • Principles of fermentation technology by Stansbury, P.F., A. Whitaker and S.J. Hall, 1997
  • Penicillin: A Paradigm for Biotechnology by Richard I Mateles ISBN 1891545019

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Fermentation (food) — Fermentation in food processing typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast under anaerobic conditions. A more general definition of fermentation is the chemical conversion of carbohydrates into alcohols or acids. When… …   Wikipedia

  • Fermentation (biochemistry) — Fermentation in progress: scum formed by CO2 gas bubbles and fermenting material. See also Fermentation for particular usages of the fermentation process Fermentation is the process of extracting energy from the oxidation of organic compounds,… …   Wikipedia

  • Fermentation — may mean: * Fermentation (biochemistry), the process of energy production in a cell under anaerobic conditions (without oxygen) * Ethanol fermentation, a form of anaerobic respiration used primarily by yeasts when oxygen is not present in… …   Wikipedia

  • fermentation — /ferr men tay sheuhn/, n. 1. the act or process of fermenting. 2. a change brought about by a ferment, as yeast enzymes, which convert grape sugar into ethyl alcohol. 3. agitation; excitement. [1350 1400; ME fermentacioun < LL fermentation (s. of …   Universalium

  • Fermentation — Fer men*ta tion (f[ e]r m[e^]n*t[=a] sh[u^]n), n. [Cf. F. fermentation.] 1. The process of undergoing an effervescent change, as by the action of yeast; in a wider sense (Physiol. Chem.), the transformation of an organic substance into new… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Fermentation by an unorganized ferment — Fermentation Fer men*ta tion (f[ e]r m[e^]n*t[=a] sh[u^]n), n. [Cf. F. fermentation.] 1. The process of undergoing an effervescent change, as by the action of yeast; in a wider sense (Physiol. Chem.), the transformation of an organic substance… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Fermentation theory of disease — Fermentation Fer men*ta tion (f[ e]r m[e^]n*t[=a] sh[u^]n), n. [Cf. F. fermentation.] 1. The process of undergoing an effervescent change, as by the action of yeast; in a wider sense (Physiol. Chem.), the transformation of an organic substance… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Industrial biotechnology — (known mainly in Europe as white biotechnology) is the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes, including manufacturing, alternative energy (or bioenergy ), and biomaterials. It includes the practice of using cells or components of… …   Wikipedia

  • Industrial microbiology — or microbial biotechnology encompasses the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of food or industrial products. The use of microorganisms for the production of food, either human or animal, is often considered a branch of food microbiology.… …   Wikipedia

  • Fermentation starter — Pain poolish a type of fermentation starter for bread Fermentation starters (called simply starters within the corresponding context) are preparations to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.