- Faisal I of Iraq
name =Faisal I of Iraq and Syria
title =King of Iraq and Syria
caption = King Faisal I
reign =11 March 1920 – 25 July 1920 (Syria)
23 August 1921 –
8 September, 1933(Iraq)
full name =Faisal bin Al Hussein Bin Ali El-Hashemi
predecessor =Sharif Hussein bin Ali
successor =Ghazi I
royal house =
royal anthem =
Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca
Abdliya bin Abdullah
date of birth =20 May 1883
place of birth =
date of death =death date and age|1933|9|8|1883|5|20
place of death =
Faisal bin Al Hussein Bin Ali El-Hashemi ,
GCB, GCMG( _ar. فيصل بن حسين "Fayṣal ibn Ḥusayn"; 20 May 1883 – September 8, 1933) was for a short time king of Greater Syriain 1920 and king of Iraq from 23 August 1921, to 1933. He was a member of the Hashemitedynasty, a descendant of the tribe of Muhammad.
He was born in
Ta'if(in present-day Saudi Arabia) in 1883, the third son of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, the Grand Sharif of Mecca.
In 1913 he was elected as representative for the city of
Jeddahfor the Ottoman parliament.
In 1916, on a mission to
Istanbul, he visited Damascustwice. On one of these visits he received the Damascus Protocol, joined with the Al-Fatatgroup of Arab nationalists, and his father became king of Hejaz.
First World War
Faisal sided with
Great Britainin World War Iand with the help of T. E. Lawrenceorganised a revolt against the Ottoman Empireand this way helped ending the Caliphate. He conquered Medinaafter a long siege, after defeating the defense organized by the Ottoman Fakhri Pasha. Some of Faisal's critics considered fighting alongside Christians as a betrayal to Islam. This motivated Iqbalto write against him. Though Faisal was a descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Arabnationalism and independence, not religion, was his main motivation.
Faisal also worked with the Allies during
World War Iin their conquest of Greater Syriaand the capture of Damascus, where he became part of a new Arab government in 1918.
He led the Arab delegation to the
Paris Peace Conference of 1919and, with the support of the knowledgeable and influential Gertrude Bell, argued for the establishment of independent Arab emirates for the area previously covered by the Ottoman Empire. His role in the Arab Revoltwas described by T. E. Lawrencein " Seven Pillars of Wisdom", although the accuracy of that book has been criticized by historians.
On 3 January 1919, Faisal and Dr.
Chaim Weizmann, President of the World Zionist Organizationsigned the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement, in which Faisal conditionally accepted the Balfour Declaration based on the fulfillment of British wartime promises of independence to the Arabs. These promises were not immediately fulfilled, [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/faisal_balfour.html Faisal's Acceptance of the Balfour Declaration] Jewish Virtual Library] [http://domino.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/361eea1cc08301c485256cf600606959/364a6ac0dc52ada785256e8b00716662!OpenDocument Official records of the Second Session of the General Assembly (A/364/Add.2 PV.21)] , United Nations, July 8, 1947] but Arab states were granted autonomy from the European powers years after the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement, [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/myths2/Boundaries.html Boundaries; dates that Arab nations were partitioned and recognized by U.N.] ] and these new Arab nations were recognized by the Europeans and the U.N., so Weizmann argued that the fulfillment was kept eventually and therefore the agreement still held.
King of Iraq
On 7 March 1920, he was made king of Greater Syria by the Syrian National Congress. In April 1920, the
San Remo conferencegave Francethe mandate for Syria, which led to the battle of Maysalunon 24 July 1920. Faisal was expelled from Syriaby the French and went to live in the United Kingdomin August of that year.
British government, mandate holders in Iraq, were concerned at the unrest in the colony. They decided to step back from direct administration and create a monarchyto head Iraqwhile they maintained the mandate. Following a plebisciteshowing 96% in favor, Faisal agreed to become king. In August 1921 he was made king of Iraq.
He was instrumental in making his country nominally independent in 1932.
A square is named in his honour at the end of
Haifa Street, Baghdad, where an equestrian statue of him stands. The statue was knocked down following the overthrow of the monarchy in 1958, but later restored.
Marriage and children
Faisal married twice: Huzaima bint Nasser and Latifa bint Hameed.He had two sons and three daughters:
*Princess Azza bint Faisal
*Princess Rajiha bint Faisal
*Princess Raifia bint Faisal
*HM Ghazi I, King of Iraq born 1912 died 4 April 1939, married Princess Aliya bin Ali daughter of HM King Ali of Hejaz.
He has been portrayed on film three times: in the 1951 film "Sirocco" (dealing with the Syrian insurrection against France), by
Jeff Corey; David Lean's epic "Lawrence of Arabia" (1962), played by Alec Guinness, and in the unofficial sequel to "Lawrence", "" (1990) by Alexander Siddig. On video, he was portrayed in "The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones: Chapter 19 The Winds of Change" (1995) by Anthony Zaki.
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