- Madame de Pompadour
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson Portrait by François Boucher Spouse(s) Charles-Guillaume Le Normant d'Étiolles Issue Guillaume-Charles Le Normant d'Étiolles
Alexandrine Le Normant d'Étiolles
Father François Poisson Mother Madeleine de La Motte Born 29 December 1721
Died 15 April 1764(aged 42)
Occupation Maîtresse-en-titre to Louis XV
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour, also known as Madame de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764, French pronunciation: [pɔ̃.pa.duːʁ]) was a member of the French court, and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to her death.
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, otherwise known as Reinette to her friends, was born on 29 December 1721 in Paris to François Poisson and his wife Madeleine de La Motte. However, it is suspected that her biological father was either the rich financier Pâris de Montmartel or the tax collector (fermier général) Le Normant de Tournehem, who became her legal guardian when François Poisson was forced to leave the country in 1725 after a scandal over a series of unpaid debts, a crime at that time punishable by death. Poisson was cleared eight years later and allowed to return to France. Her younger brother was Abel-François Poisson de Vandières, who would later become the marquis de Marigny.
Jeanne Antoinette was intelligent, beautiful, and refined. She spent her younger childhood at the Ursuline convent in Poissy where she received a good education. At adolescence, her mother took personal charge of her education at home by hiring teachers who taught her to recite entire plays by heart, play the clavichord, dance, sing, paint and engrave. She became an accomplished actress and singer, and also attended Paris's Club de l'Entresol (formed in 1724 and suppressed in 1731). The greatest expense of her education was undoubtedly the employment of renowned singers and actors, such as Pierre Jélyotte, much of it paid for by Le Normant de Tournehem; and it may have been this in particular that sparked rumours of his paternity to Jeanne Antoinette.
She later claimed that, at the age of nine, she was taken by her mother to a fortune teller and told that she would someday reign over the heart of a king. Apparently, her mother believed the prophecy and accordingly nicknamed her "Reinette".
In 1741, at the age of nineteen, Jeanne Antoinette was married to Charles-Guillaume Le Normant d'Étiolles, nephew of her guardian, who accepted the match and the large financial incentives that came with it. These included the estate at Étiolles (28 km south of Paris), a wedding gift from her guardian, which was situated on the edge of the royal hunting ground of the forest of Sénart. With her husband, she had two children, a boy who died the year after his birth in 1741 and Alexandrine-Jeanne (nicknamed "Fanfan"), born 10 August 1744. Contemporary opinion supported by artwork from the time considered the young Mme d'Étiolles to be quite beautiful, with her small mouth and oval face enlivened by her wit. Her young husband was soon infatuated with her and she was celebrated in the fashionable world of Paris. She founded her own salon, at Étiolles, and was joined by many philosophes, among them Voltaire.
Introduction to court
As Mme d'Étiolles became known in society, the King came to hear of her. In 1745, a group of courtiers, including her father-in-law, promoted her acquaintance with the monarch, who was still mourning the death of his second official mistress, the duchesse de Châteauroux.
Jeanne Antoinette was invited to a royal masked ball at the Palace of Versailles on the night of 25 to 26 February 1745, one of the many fêtes given to celebrate the marriage of the Dauphin Louis de France (1729–1765) to the Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain (1726–1746). By March, she was the King's mistress, installed at Versailles in an apartment directly below his. On 7 May, the official separation between her and her husband was pronounced.
To be presented at court, she required a title. The King purchased the marquisate of Pompadour on 24 June and gave the estate, with title and coat-of-arms, to Jeanne Antoinette, making her a Marquise. On 14 September, she was formally introduced to the court by the king's cousin, the Princess de Conti. She quickly mastered the highly-mannered court etiquette. Her mother died on Christmas Day of the same year, and did not live to see her daughter's achievement at becoming the undisputed royal mistress.
The Marquise de Pompadour never had much direct political influence, but supported the Maréchal de Belle-Isle and endorsed the duc de Choiseul to the king. However, she did wield considerable power and control behind the scenes, which was highlighted when another of the king's mistresses, Marie-Louise O'Murphy de Boisfaily, "la belle Morphyse", attempted to replace her around 1754. In 1755, the younger and less experienced Morphyse was married off to an Auvergne nobleman, Jacques de Beaufranchet, seigneur d'Ayat (Lord of Ayat) and uncle of the illustrious General Louis Desaix, who fought during the French Revolution under General Napoleon Bonaparte. Their son (1757–1812), Louis Charles Antoine de Beaufranchet, a maréchal de camp, was present at the execution of Louis XVI.
The Marquise de Pompadour had many enemies among the royal courtiers, who felt it a disgrace that the king would thus compromise himself with a commoner. She was very sensitive to the unending libels called poissonnades, a pun on her family name, Poisson, which means "fish" in French. Only with great reluctance did Louis take punitive action against known enemies such as the duc de Richelieu.
Her importance was such that she was even approached in 1755 by Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz, a prominent Austrian diplomat, asking her to intervene in the negotiations which led to the 1756 Treaty of Versailles. This was the beginning of the Diplomatic Revolution, which saw France allied to her former enemy Austria.
Under these changed alliances, the European powers entered the Seven Years' War, which saw France, Austria, and Russia pitted against Britain and Prussia. France suffered a defeat at the hands of the Prussians in the Battle of Rossbach, in 1757, and eventually lost her American colonies to the British. After Rossbach, Madame de Pompadour is alleged to have comforted the king saying this now famous by-word: "au reste, après nous, le Déluge" ("After us, the Deluge"). France emerged from the war diminished and virtually bankrupt.
However, Mme de Pompadour persisted in her support of these policies, and when Cardinal de Bernis failed her, she brought Choiseul into office and supported him in all his great plans: the Pacte de Famille, the suppression of the Jesuits and the Treaty of Paris (1763) sealing the loss of Canada. Britain's victories in the war had allowed it to surpass France as the leading colonial power—something which was commonly blamed on Pompadour.
There were several reasons for the Marquise de Pompadour’s lasting influence over Louis that distinguished her from past mistresses. First, she decidedly established a cordial relationship with Marie Leszczyńska. The Queen had been snubbed by the king’s previous mistresses but Pompadour realized that showing respect for Marie eased Louis' guilt and allowed him to have a strong relationship with his children. The Queen often said " If there must be a mistress, better her than any other. " She also put all of her effort into bringing fun into the melancholy life of the King. Unlike the other females in the King's life the Marquise de Pompadour accompanied him while hunting, playing cards, and touring properties. She also threw dinner parties for him and put on plays that exalted him. Lastly, the royal mistress continuously reminded Louis of her beauty by frequently commissioning paintings, mostly by Francois Boucher, that highlighted her exquisite features and hid her aging looks.
Positions at court
The Marquise de Pompadour was an accomplished woman with a good eye for Rococo interiors. She was responsible for the development of the manufactory of Sèvres, which became one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers in Europe and which provided skilled jobs to the region. She had a keen interest in literature. She had known Voltaire before her ascendancy, and he apparently advised her in her courtly role. After the War of the Austrian Succession, when economy was the thing the French state needed most, she drew more and more resources into the lavish court. Her influence over Louis increased markedly through the 1750s, to the point where he allowed her considerable leeway in the determination of policy over a whole range of issues, from military matters to foreign affairs.
Madame de Pompadour was a woman of verve and intelligence. She planned buildings like the Place de la Concorde (then called Place de Louis XV) and the Petit Trianon with her brother, the Marquis de Marigny. She employed the stylish marchands-merciers—trendsetting shopkeepers who turned Chinese vases into ewers with gilt-bronze Rococo handles and mounted writing tables with the new Sèvres porcelain plaques. Numerous other artisans, sculptors and portrait painters were employed, among them the court artist Jean-Marc Nattier, in the 1750s François Boucher, Jean-Baptiste Réveillon and François-Hubert Drouais. Moreover, she defended the Encyclopédie edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Madame de Pompadour suffered two miscarriages in 1746 and 1749, and she is said to have arranged lesser mistresses for the King's pleasure to replace herself. Although they had ceased being lovers after 1750, they remained friends, and Louis XV was devoted to her until her death from tuberculosis in 1764 at the age of forty-two. Even her enemies admired her courage during the final painful weeks. Voltaire wrote: "I am very sad at the death of Madame de Pompadour. I was indebted to her and I mourn her out of gratitude. It seems absurd that while an ancient pen-pusher, hardly able to walk, should still be alive, a beautiful woman, in the midst of a splendid career, should die at the age of forty." Yet, at the time of her death, many enemies were greatly relieved and she was publicly blamed for the Seven Years' War. Looking at the rain during the departure of his mistress' coffin from Versailles, the King reportedly said: "La marquise n'aura pas de beau temps pour son voyage." ("The marquise won't have good weather for her journey.")
- The 56th (West Essex) Regiment of Foot, a unit of the British Army that existed from 1755 to 1881, was nicknamed "The Pompadours", as the purple facing of the regiment's uniform was allegedly Pompadour's favourite colour. Some soldiers of the regiment preferred to claim that it was the colour of her underwear. Its successor, the Essex Regiment, kept the colour and the nickname.
- The classic pink of Sèvres porcelain is rose de Pompadour.
- The Pompadour hairstyle is named after her.
- "Pompadour heels" (more commonly known as "Louis heels") are named after her.
- The "coupe de champagne" (French champagne glass) is sometimes claimed to have been modelled on the shape of her breast, although this is probably not the case.
- She is referenced in the song "Personality" written by Johnny Burke and Jimmy Van Heusen
Film and television
Madame de Pompadour has been depicted on screen in film and television on many occasions, beginning with Madame Pompadour directed by Herbert Wilcox in 1927, in which she was played by Dorothy Gish. Other actresses to have played her include:
- Anny Ahlers (Die Marquise von Pompadour, 1931)
- Jeanne Boitell (Remontons les Champs-Élysées, 1938)
- Micheline Presle (Si Versailles m'était conté, 1954)
- Monique Lepage (Le Courrier du roy, 1958)
- Elfie Mayerhofer (Madame Pompadour, 1960)
- Noemi Nadelmann (Madame Pompadour, 1996)
- Katja Flint (Il Giovane Casanova, 2002)
- Sophia Myles (as adult) and Jessica Atkins (as child) ("The Girl in the Fireplace", an episode of the BBC science fiction series Doctor Who, 2006. She is the titular character in the episode.)
- Hélène de Fougerolles (Jeanne Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour, 2006).
- Madame Pompadour, a German operetta with music by Leo Fall and book and lyrics by Rudolph Schanzer and Ernst Welisch that also had successful adaptations in London (1923) and Broadway (1924).
- She was the subject of several portraits throughout her lifetime.
- During the musical Evita by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice, she is mentioned by an Argentine senator, comparing Eva Perón to her.
- In the anime Le Chevalier d'Eon, she is portrayed as a character that monitors the movements of d'Eon and his men against the Revolutionary brethren. She is voiced by Mayumi Yangisawa in Japanese and by Shelley Calene-Black in the English dub.
- According to legend, the navette-cut diamond, also called marquise diamond was commissioned by Louis XV to resemble the mouth of Madame de Pompadour.
- In the Robert A. Heinlein novel Have Spacesuit Will Travel, the female protagonist 'Peewee' is accompanied by her 'neurosis', a rag doll named Madame Pompadour.
- ^ a b c Antoine, Louis XV, Fayard, Paris (1989), p. 493-495.
- ^ Nancy Mitford; Amanda Foreman (31 March 2001). Madame de Pompadour. New York Review of Books. p. 25. ISBN 9780940322653. http://books.google.com/books?id=pEjxtxanbCwC&pg=PA25. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- ^ Antoine, Louis XV, p. 504-505.
- ^ Oxford Journals (Firm) (1891). Notes and queries. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–. http://books.google.com/books?id=aVAA_Mba2aIC&pg=RA1-PA430. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- ^ Mitford,Nancy Madame de Pompadour Hamish Hamilton 1954
- ^ Mitford Madame de Pompadour
- ^ a b c Jones, The Fabrication of Madame de Pompadour, p. 39-42.
- ^ Mitford, Nancy Madame de Pompadour
- ^ a b Holmes, Richard (2002) (paperback). Redcoat. London: HarperCollins. p. 43. ISBN 0-00-653152-0.
- ^ Adams, Cecil (27 September 1985). "Were champagne glasses modeled on the breasts of Madame de Pompadour?". Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_151.html. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- ^ Pixley, Andrew (6 November 2006, cover date). "Episode 4: The Girl in the Fireplace". Doctor Who Magazine – Series Two Companion (Special Edition 14): 44–50.
- ^ "Henri Matisse. Madame de Pompadour. Los Angeles County Museum of Art". Collectionsonline.lacma.org. http://collectionsonline.lacma.org/mwebcgi/mweb.exe?request=record;id=25227;type=101. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- ^ "Madame de Pompadour". Madame de Pompadour. http://www.madamedepompadour.com/_eng_pomp/galleria/ditutto/gioielli.htm. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
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Look at other dictionaries:
Madame De Pompadour — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pompadour et Poisson (homonymie). Jeanne Antoinette Lenormant d’Étiolles, marquise de Pompadour Jeanne Antoinette Poisson … Wikipédia en Français
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Madame de Pompadour — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pompadour et Poisson (homonymie). Jeanne Antoinette Poisson marquise de Pompadour … Wikipédia en Français
Madame de Pompadour — Marquise de Pompadour, François Boucher, 1756 Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, dame Le Normant d’Étiolles, marquise (Markgräfin) de Pompadour, duchesse (Herzogin) de Menars (* 29. Dezember 1721 in Paris; † 15. April 1764 in … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Madame de Pompadour — Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, más conocida como la Marquesa de Pompadour (París, 29 de diciembre de 1721 † Versalles, Francia, 15 de abril de 1764) Cortesana francesa. Hija de una familia de acomodada posición económica, en 1741 contrajo matrimonio… … Enciclopedia Universal
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Madame Le Normant d'Etiolles — Madame de Pompadour Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pompadour et Poisson (homonymie). Jeanne Antoinette Lenormant d’Étiolles, marquise de Pompadour Jeanne Antoinette Poisson … Wikipédia en Français
Madame d'Etiolles — Madame de Pompadour Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pompadour et Poisson (homonymie). Jeanne Antoinette Lenormant d’Étiolles, marquise de Pompadour Jeanne Antoinette Poisson … Wikipédia en Français
Madame Pompadour (operetta) — Madame Pompadour is an operetta in three acts, composed by Leo Fall with a libretto by Rudolf Schanzer and Ernst Welisch. It opened at the Berliner Theater in Berlin on September 9 1922 and the Carltheater in Vienna on March 2 1923. English… … Wikipedia