- Gerard Segarelli
Gerard" or "Gherardo" or "Gherardino" "Segarelli" or "Segalelli (around 1240
Alzanoor Albazzano near Parma– July 18 1300 Parma) was the founder of the Apostolic Brethren(in Latin "Apostolici"). He was burned at the stakein 1300.
As a youth he applied for admission to a
Franciscanmonastery in Parma but was apparently refused because he exhibited the symptoms of an unsound mind. Nevertheless he remained around the monastery for some time, often visiting the convent and the church to sit or kneel before the altar of the Brotherhood of St. Francis. Influenced perhaps by a representation over the altar of the twelve Apostles, Segarelli allowed his beard and hair to grow, went around barefoot and wore only a white tunic in imitation of the primitive Christians.
After selling his possessions in 1260, he went to the market of Parma and distributed his earnings. Segarelli wandered about the streets calling the people to repentance ("penitentiam agite"), announcing that the kingdom of
Heavenwas at hand and begging for his sustenance in the name of Christ.
He continued this activity for three years until one "Robert"--who had been a servant of the Franciscans--joined him; before the end of that year about thirty more individuals had joined them. Segarelli started preaching in other cities and the number of his followers grew, drawn from among the poor. After some initial prevarication he agreed to be elected their leader. The group walked about the streets chanting hymns, preached to those who would listen and ate what the people gave to them, sharing it with the poor.
The movement eventually spread not only throughout
Lombardybut also Germany, France, Spain, and England. Some Apostles were traduced at a council in Wurtzburgand a decree was issued which forbade them to preach and beg and the people were warned against encouraging them by giving food or water. Other Apostles were proscribed in Englandat a council at Chichesterin 1289; it is not certain if these sects were directly connected to that of Segarelli, there are however many analogies between them.
At a later point in 1300 followers of the Apostles were found in Spain where one Richard of Alexandria was successful in his preaching, particularly in Galicia. In 1320, Peter of Lugo--an Apostle follower of Richard--was brought before the
It was in Lombardy where the disciples of Segarelli had great success and started to attract enemies. The
bishop of Parmawas informed in 1280 that Segarelli was directing invectives against the Church so he had him apprehended immediately. After examination the authorities concluded that he was a poor, demented visionary and released him.
In 1286 however, probably pressed by the Inquisition, the Bishop banned him from the city. It appears that he broke the ban in 1294, returning clandestinely to his hometown. He was again brought before the Bishop, abjured and condemned to perpetual imprisonment while four of his followers were burnt alive. It is not clear why, but in 1300 he was interrogated again by the Grand Inquisitor of Parma and found guilty of relapsing into errors formerly abjured and thus burnt at the stake.
Johann Lorenz von Mosheim"Geschichte des Apostel-Ordens in dreien Büchern" in "Versuch eines unparteischen und gründlichen Ketzergeschichte," Helmstaedt 1748.
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC08393176 Mariotti L. (Antonio Gallenga), "Historial memoir of Fra Dolcino and his times," Brown, London 1853, pp.85-118] .
*Berkhout, Carl T. and Jeffrey B. Russell. "Medieval heresies: a bibliography, 1960-1979," in Subsidia mediaevalia, 11. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1981 (entries Apostolici, Segarelli).
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