# Vector group

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Vector group

A Vector group is the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) method of categorizing the primary and secondary winding configurations of three-phase transformers. Within a polyphase system power transformer it indicates the windings configurations and the difference in phase angle between them. [EC&M [http://expert.ecmweb.com/resistance_grounding_experts/2006/05/02/3-phase-transformer-vector-groups/ 3 phase transformer vector groups] Retrieved on July 19, 2007]

The phase windings of a polyphase transformer can be connected together internally in different configurations, depending on what characteristics are needed from the transformer. For example, in a three-phase power system, it may be necessary to connect a three-wire system to a four-wire system, or vice versa. Because of this, transformers are manufactured with a variety of winding configurations to meet these requirements.

Different combinations of winding connections will result in different phase angles between the voltages on the windings. This limits the types of transformers that can be connected between two systems, because mismatching phase angles can result in circulating current and other system disturbances.

ymbol designation

The vector group provides a simple way of indicating how the internal connections of a particular transformer are arranged. In the system adopted by the IEC, the vector group is indicated by a code consisting of two or three letters, followed by one or two digits. The letters indicate the winding configuration as follows:
* D: Delta winding, also called a mesh winding. Each phase terminal connects to two windings, so the windings form a triangular configuration with the terminals on the points of the triangle.
* Y: Wye winding, also called a star winding. Each phase terminal connects to one end of a winding, and the other end of each winding connects to the other two at a central point, so that the configuration resembles a capital letter "Y". The central point may or may not be connected outside of the transformer.
* Z: Zigzag winding, or interconnected star winding. Basically similar to a star winding, but the windings are arranged so that the three legs are "bent" when the phase diagram is drawn. Zigzag-wound transformers have special characteristics and are not commonly used where these characteristics are not needed.
* III: Independent windings. The three windings are not interconnected inside the transformer at all, and must be connected externally.

In the IEC vector group code, each letter stands for one set of windings. The HV winding is designated with a capital letter, followed by medium or low voltage windings designated with a lowercase letter. The digits following the letter codes indicate the difference in phase angle between the windings, with HV winding is taken as a reference. The number is in units of 30 degrees. For example, a transformer with a vector group of Dy1 has a delta-connected HV winding and a wye-connected LV winding. The phase angle of the LV winding leads the HV by 30 degrees.

The point of confusion is in how to use this notation in a step-up transformer. As the IEC60076-1 standard has stated, the notation is HV-LV in sequence. For example, a step-up transformer with a delta-connected primary, and star-connected secondary, is not written as 'dY11', but 'Yd11'. The 11 indicates the LV phase lags 30 degree behind the HV side.

Transformers built to ANSI standards usually do not have the vector group shown on their nameplate and instead a vector diagram is given to show the relationship between the primary and other windings.

References

ee also

*Single phase electric power
*Three-phase electric power

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