Johiya


Johiya

Joiya or Johiya( _ur. جوئیہ) is a Rajput clan of Northern India and Pakistan. Johiya are one of the twenty-four undivided Rajput clans or 'Eka'. In ancient chronicles they are described as "Lords of Jangladesh," as a tract which comprehended Hariana, Bhattiana, Bhatner and Nagor. They also held, in common with Dahiya with whom their name is always coupled, the banks of the Indus and Sutlej near their confluence.

Jatts also have a clan named Johiya. Jatt branches are khichar, kulhari, Gaina and Mahla . They are settled in Rajastan, Uttarpradesh and Haryana , City of Sikar in Rajastan was founded by Veerbhan Khichar. Town of Samana(Patiala)was founded by Rai Saman joiya around 1000 A.D.

Origin

Joiyas are identified with Yaudheya or Yaudheya Gana who were an ancient tribal confederation who lived in the area between the Indus river and the Ganges river. They find mention in Panini's Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha. There are other references to them namely in Mahabharata, Mahamayuri, Brihat-Samhita, Puranas, Chandravyakarana and Kashika. As references are spanned from writings of early period to the medieval period, the chronology of Yaudheyas perhaps spans from as early as 500 BCE till 1200 CE. They were in zenith of their power from about 200 BCE to 400 CE.

The Yaudheys or Yaudheya were a very famous clan of ancient India. They were the ancient republican tribes who resided in the area between the Indus river and the Ganges river. They find mention in Panini's Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha.

King Yayati’s fourth son was "Anu". Anu’s eighth son was Maharaja "Mahamana". "Ushinar" was the son of Mahamana and he was the ruler of most of the Punjab. Usinara the Anavi King, after his arrival in the Punjab, probably established himself at Multan. We are told that after the death of Usinara, his Anavi kingdom was divided among his five sons. Their modern representatives the Punjabee tribe of the Joyas, still live in this part of the province. They were known to the Greek authors of the time of the Macedonian invader Alexander the Great. Ushinar’s son was "Nrig" and "Nrig’s" son was "Yaudhey". The Yaudhey clan has originated from him.

Puranic Reference

Puranas (e.g. Brahmanda, Vayu, Brahma and Harivamsha) described Yaudheyas as the descendants of Ushinara and Nrigu [Pargiter, F.E. "Ancient Indian Historical Tradition" Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi, 1972 pp.109] .

Literary and Epigraphical References

We find earliest mention of Yaudheyas in Ashtadhyayi (V.3.116-17 and IV.1.178) of Panini (c.500 BCE) where Yaudheyas are mentioned amongst "Ayudhajivin Sangha"s. Later, the Junagadh rock inscription (c. 150 CE) of Rudradaman I [ [http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/Docs/HISTORY/PRIMARYDOCS/EPIGRAPHY/JunagadhRockInscription.htm Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman I] , accessed on 23 March 2007. ] acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas "who would not submit because they were proud of their title "heroes among the Kshatriyas"", although the inscription explains that they were ultimately vanquished by Rudradaman. [Rosenfield, "The dynastic art of the Kushans", p132] [Rapson, "A catalogue of the Indian coins in the British Museum", p.lx]

The Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta [ [http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/Docs/history/primarydocs/Epigraphy/Gupta/allahabad_pillar.htm Allahabad Posthumous Stone Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta] , accessed on 23 Marah, 2007.] also mentioned about the Yaudheyas. Varahamihira in his Brihatsamhita (XIV.28 and XVI.22) placed them in the northern division of India.

Numismatic Evidences

Their territory included on the west – Sutlej, Depalpur, Satgarha, Ajundhan, Kahror, Multan, on the east - Bhatner, Abhor, Sirsa, Hansi, Panipat and Sonapat and on the north - Kangra. These were listed based on the assumptions of coin finds. Even Haryana and Panjab were included in the territory they might have ruled.There isn’t much known about ancient tribes which are mentioned in ancient literature and inscriptions but the existence of a powerful clan known as Yaudheyas has come to light mainly from their coins and coin-moulds found in large number in this area. A large number of their coins depicted the god Brahmanyadeva or Karttikeya empire in fourth century. [Allan, John "A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum (Ancient India)", London, 1936, Pl. XXXIX.22]

Later Developments

Yaudheyas were the rulers of South-Eastern Punjab and Rajasthan. Even today these areas are inhabited by the Joiyas.Colonel Minchin, a British historian says that the extreme north-eastern portion of the state Bahawalpur and a portion of Bikaner, was inhabited by a race called the Yaudheyas to whom General Cunningham, another historian, attributes the foundation of the town of Ajudhan or Ayodhaunne, the battle field, which is evidently connected with their own name of Yaudheya or Ajudhiya inscription of Samudara Gupta and at a still early date by Panini in the Junagarh inscription of Rudra Dama. Now as the great grammarian was certainly anterior to Chandra Gupta Maurya, his mention of the Yaudhas proves that they must have been a recognized clan before the time of Alexander.Al-Idrisi,the auther of the Nuzhat-ul-Mushtak(compiled about the end of the 11th century A.D.)gives the following account of Sander,or Uch..Sander is situated three days journey south of Multan...It is considered to form part of India,and is situated on the banks of a river which falls into Mihran.From Multan to the vicinity of Mansura ,the country is occupied by a warlike race ,called Nadha(most probably Yadha,the more correct reading of Yaudhya,the joiyas). General Cunningham identifies them with the existing tribes of Joiyas, which is included by colonel Tod amongst the 24-ruling race of Rajputana. He sated that this race possessed the same haunts as the Dahia or Dahers, are now extinct, but in fact both these tribes are still found in the Bahawalpur state, and they were converted to Islam by the famous Saint Hazrat Baba Fareed Shaker Gunj, whose shrine is in Ajudhan, and from whom the place derives its modern name of Pakpattan (District in Punjab, Pakistan), meaning "the ferry of the pure ones."

The Yaudhey family tree

" Ayu
Nahusha
Yayati
Anu
Mahamana
Ushinar
Nrig
Yaudhey

"

The Joiyas during the Middle Kingdoms

The Yaudhey people inhabited the areas on the banks of the "Satadru" (Satluj) river.

The coins of the Yaudhey clan have also been found in the areas between the Satluj and the Yamuna rivers in the Sonepat fort of Rohtak in the state of Haryana in India. These coins are marked in Sanskrit as “Yaudhey Ganasya Jay”. The Yaudhey clan was in existence during the Mahabharata period also.

The Yaudheys or Joiyas were known for their bravery. They fought with the Guptas, the Mauryas and the Kushans. They occupied ancient areas like Marwar, Jodhpur, and Jaisalmer in present-day Rajasthan.Rang Mahal was one of their capital (ruined city near Ganganagar in India). Rang Mahal culture is spread over in Ghaggar valley and its painted wares are quite different from that of the Harappan period.

The Joiya and the Rathore Rajputs

Before their state in Jangladesh was annexed by the Rathores, the Joiyas had six-hundred villages under their rule.(James Tod writes in his Annals and Antiquities of Rajastan,that johyas had six hundred villages in their canton,yet at another page he writes,they united their arms i.e.Rao Beeka, Roneah and Godarraa jats and invaded the Johyas.This populous community which extended over the northern region of the desert,even to the Sutlej reckoned eleven hundred villages in their canton).In the Bikaner history it is mentioned that Johiyas and Khichis had 140 villages in Singhana,which were seized by Rao Sri Bikaji in 1488. Sher Singh was their ruler and Bhuroopal was their capital. Sher Singh was a great warrior. He gave a tough fight to the Rathores. Rao Bika, the Rathore ruler then aligned himself with the Godara Jats.

The Godara Jats were the most powerful of the six cantons of Jats ruling over Jangladesh. Bika along with the Godaras attacked the Joiyas and defeated them. The greatest war between the Rathores and the Joiyas was fought at the village of Dhaka near Sidhmukh.

In the middle of 16th century they were expelled from Joiya canton of Bikaner by the Rathore rulers with the help of Mughal Emperor Akbar.According to Ain –i-Akbari, volume II section 195,Johiyas were the predominant caste in Mahals(districts)of Sirsa, in Sarkar of Hisar Firozah,in Bhatti(Watto) and Joya parganas of the sarkar of DipalpurF and in Rajpur, Shergarh, Fathpur and Kahror in Sarkar of Bet Jalandhar Doab, where semi independent state of Fathpur (Vehari) was founded by Raja Fateh Khan Joiya/Joyia.In Multan gazetter it is written that(Fateh Khan Joiya was in revolt against Sher Shah Suri,Governor of Multan Haibat Khan Niazi was sent against him and he was forced to leave Pakpatan and fled to Fatehpur.Local legend says that Malik Fateh Khan Joya ,chief of Fatehpur refused to pay revenue to Subadar of Khai Ali Hussain who lived at Shitabgarh,Ali Hussain attacked him and they met in single combat at Halim Khichi,in which Ali Hussain was killed).In the same period Rai Jalal-ud Din and Rai Kamal -ud-Din joiya ,two brothers were sent against one Khar Bhatti who was in revolt at Kahror by the Dehli darbar,and after defeating him,they held his land in farm from the Delhi sovereign.Semi independent state of Salim Garh(Shahr Farid) was formed by the descendats of Rai Jalal Khan.The state of Shahr Farid remained in revolt throughout Emperor Aurangzeb reign but was finaly annexed at the instance of Emperor Zaman Khan by Amir Mubarak Khan,who was granted Shahr Farid ilaqa and title of nawab of Shahr Farid.During this time ,the four brothers-Lagan,Mangan,Luddan and Lal colonized the country round Luddan. Daulat Khan Joyia and his descendants (Daulatanas) ruled this area and Kahror till 1754, when Amir Mubarik Khan Abbasi conquered and made this area as part of Bhawlalpur state. In Sirsa Joiyas ruled and even helped Bhattis in conquering Bhatnair from Rathores. History of Bhatnair tells us that this fort has been ruled by Joyias, Chayal, Bhatis and Rathores. After the great famine of 1783,this area was devastated and great migration took place. This vacuum was filled by the British adventurer Thomas Cook, who ruled this area for few years and latter on taken by Marhattas and finally annexed by Britisher. Joyias (mostly Hindus) are still living in this area. Moti Chand Joiya was MP in Harayana assembly, whereas Muslim Joiyas migrated to Pakistan and are settled in Pakpattan and Sahiwal districts. The Holy shrine of Hazrat Sultan Mahmood Joiyas is in district Ferozpur and revered by Muslims and Hindus alike.

Joiyas in Bahawalpur and Multan

Joiyas still hold all the banks of the Sutlej from Wattu borders nearly as far down as its coherence with the Indus through Bahawalpur and Multan Divisions of present day Pakistan. Though the Bhattis cut them from Kabror, and later they lost their semi-independence when their possessions formed part of the Bahawalpur State; they hold a tract in Bikaner on the bed of the old Ghaggar just below Bhatner, their ancient seat. They are also found in no inconsiderable numbers on the middle Sutlej of Lahore , Ferozpur and on the lower Indus of Derajat and Muzaffargarh,in Tehsil Piplan (Distt Mianwali) they have few villages and on the banks of Jhelum, where they have two-three villages in Shahpur Tehsil of Distt Sargodha and about six villages in Tehsil Khushab and Tehsil Nurpur of Khushab disst (specially the Joiyas of Haveli Chiraq and Ainu are the biggest landlords of disst. Khushab). The Multan bar, to this day is known as as the Joiya Bar.

Few historians say that they are also to be found in Salt Range or mountains of Jud, and identify themselves with the Jodia or Yaudheya.

Conversion to Islam

Johiyas were converted to Islam by the well known sufi saint Hazrat Baba Fareed Shaker Gunj, in 12th century, whose shrine is in ,Ajoodhun and from whom the place derives its modern name of Pakpattan (District in Punjab, Pakistan), meaning 'the ferry of the pure ones'.”

Baba Fareed converted three Joiya brothers, Lunan, Ber and Wasul to Islam and blessed Lunan saying "Lunan, dunan, chaunan," i.e., "may Lunan's posterity multiply". These thee brothers wrested fortress of Bhatinda from the Slave Kings of Delhi and ruled its territory, with Sirsa and Bhatner independently. [Rose HA "Lesser Known Tribes of NW India and Pakistan", New Delhi, 1870] .

Joiya and Bika Confrontation

Lakhkho, son of Lunan, headed a confederation of Joiyas, Bhattis, and Waryas against the Bika, the founders of Bikaner, but were defeated by the powerful Rathores. Bikaner rose to become a prominent state while the Johiyas were reduced to the status of rustic chiefs.

15th Century Onwards

After Lakhkho, Salim Khan Joiya rose to power in the time of Aurangzeb. He founded Salim Garh which he gave to Pir Shauq Shah whence it became Mari Shauq Shah and founded a second Salim Garh which was however destroyed by Aurangzeb's order, but on its ruins his son Fareed Khan I founded Shehar Fareed in Bahawalpur. After the downfall of the Mughal Empire, the Joiya chiefs continued for some time to pay tribute at Multan and Nawab Wali Muhammad Khan Khakwani, its Governor married a Joiya girl, Ihsan Bibi, and thus he secured their adherence, which enabled him to find refuge among Admera and Saldera Joiyas when the Marhattas took possessions of Multan in 1757 A.D. After the Joiyas under Fareed Khan Joiya II revolted against Saleh Mohammad Khan, who the Marhattas had appointed the Governor of Multan and plundered his territory, but in 1772 when Ahmad Shah Abdali had expelled the Marhattas from Multan, he reappointed Wali Mohammad Khan to its Governorship and to him the Joiyas submitted. Under the Emperor Zaman Khan, however, the Joiyas again rose in rebellion and at the instance of Governor of Multan, Nawab Mubarak Khan of Bahawalpur annexed the territory of Fareed Khan II.

Dullah Bhadera, Shehar Fareed, and Luddan emerged as major Johiya power centres in this era.

Joiya Septs

The Joiyas septs are very numerous, 46 being enumerated as principal septs alone. Of these the more important are the Bhaderas, Lakhweras, Daultanas, Barnwals, Nihalkas, Ghazi Khananas and Jalwanas, their ancestor having been designated "Naik-o-Kar Bhai" or the "Virtuous Brothers", by Abdullah Jahanian, a Muslim saint. Most of the Joiya septs are eponymous, their names ending in -ka and sometimes in -era.

The other principal septs are Akoke, Bhalana, Bhatti, Firozke, Hassanke, Jamlera, Jhagdeke, Jugeke, Lakhuke, Langahke, Mihruke, Mummunke, Panjera, Ranuke, Sabuke, Shaikhuke, Sanatheke, Shahbake,Admera,Malkera,Mamdere,Bedane,Salyere,Taghere,Belane,Abhrere,Malere,Sangere,Adlane,Surere,Madere,Bhaon(sub sept of Jalwana),Fatwere,Bhikrane,Ajere,Wazirke,Chaweke,Jhodheke, Sahuka and Saldera.Aibak in Sahiwal,Mahars in Bahawlnagar,klassi,Shinki,Jhandeke,Latifi,Yarela and ledhra in Khushab.Sanwrepotre in Sirsa.

Joiya as a tribe appear to rank both as Rajputs and Jats. In Amritsar they are classed as Rajput and in Shahpur (Uttar Pradesh) as Jats. [ A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Vol II, 1990, 413, H.A. Rose, Denzil Ibbetson, Sir Edward Maclagan.] .

Joiyas today

Geographic distribution

The Joiyas are at present found in the states of Punjab,Harayana Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan in India. And in Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur,RahimYar khan , Pakpatten, Multan, Sahiwal , Vehari,Okara, Kasur, Sheikhupura, Sargodha, Khushab, Muzzafargarh, Bhakkar and Mianwali districts in Punjab and in northern areas of Sindh province of Pakistan. Joiyas are considered a Punjabi tribe in Pakistan. They are known as "Joyo" in the province of Sindh.

Religion

Yaudheya or Joiya are Hindus, and Muslims.

Prominent Rajput Johiyas

POLITICS

* Raja Fateh Khan Joyia (founder of Fatehpur Town and state in Akbar's reign)
* Rai Jalal-ud-Din Joiya (ruler of Kahror and Rajpur in Emperor Akbar reign)
* Allaha Ditta Shaheed(who single handed resisted a party of 50 Baloches,his bravery is commemorated and his tomb is in Taj Sarwar).
* Nawab Saleem Khan Lakhwera founder of Saleem Garh and state of Shahr Farid(Emperor Shah Jehan reign)
* Nawab Farid Khan Lakhwera 1(Founder of Shehar Farid State in Emperor Aurangzeb reign)
* Nawab Farid Khan Lakhwera(from whom Amir Mubarak Khan wrested the ilaqa of Shahr Farid in 1732)
* Malik Chiragh Khan Joiya (prominent Joiya sardar of Ainu-Khushab in the Ranjit Singh era)
*Sikander Khan Bhadera (Prominrnt Joiya Sardar from Dullah Bhadera and Zaildar with largest Zail under his supervision in Bahawalpur state)
* Gen. Bakhat Khan (Independence war hero 1857)
* Luqman Joyia (Independence war hero and companion of Ahmed Khan Kharal)
*Abdul Sattar Khan Laleka (Federal minister in Pakistan government several times)
* Mrs. Tehmina Daultana‎ MNA, Federal Science and Technology Minister from VehariEducation
* Prof. Yar Muhammad Niaz, Shaikhuka, (Rtd. Assistant Professor, Govt. College Chishtian
* Saleem Anwar, Shaikhuka, PhD Scholar The NetherlandsARTS

* Shah Afrin (Royal court poet of King Farrukh Siyar(1713-1719)

References

*Rose, H.A. Lesser Known Tribes of NW India and Pakistan. Delhi 1890.
*Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934.
*Dasgupta, K.K. A Tribal History of Ancient India: A Numismatic Approach, Calcutta, 1974.
*Lahiri, Bela Indigenous States of Northern India (Circa 200 B.C. - 320 A.D.), University of Calcutta, 1974.
*Bahawalpur gazetter.
*Vedic and Aryan India by H. S Bhatia
*Imperial Gazetter Sirsa
*District Vehari
*Sandal Bar by Ahmed Ghazali
*Dastan-e- Daultana by Wakil Anjam
*History of Bhatanier by Hari Singh Bhatti
*Multan Gazetter
*Montgomery(Sahiwal) Gazetter
*History of Bahawalpur

ee also

*Rajput Clans
*Muslim Rajputs
*Yaudheya
*Chishtian
*Daulatana

External links

* [http://prabhu.50g.com/earliest/yaudheya/yaudheya_cat.html Yaudheya Coins]


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