- USS Oklahoma (BB-37)
USS "Oklahoma" (BB-37), the only ship of the
United States Navyto ever be named for the 46th state, was a World War I-era battleship and the second of two ships in her class, with her sister USS|Nevada|BB-36|2.
After being launched in 1912, "Oklahoma" served in World War I as a member of BatDiv 6, [Fitzsimons, p.1982.] protecting Allied convoys on their way across the Atlantic. After years of spending time in the Pacific and the
Scouting Fleets, "Oklahoma" was modernized from 1927 to 1929. She rescued American citizens and refugees from the Spanish Civil Warin 1936; after returning to the West coast in August of that year, she spent the rest of her life in the Pacific. She was sank by Japanese bombs and torpedoes on 7 December 1941, in the attack on Pearl Harbor, taking 429 of her crew with her as she capsized.
"Oklahoma" was the last ship of the U.S. Navy to be installed with
vertical triple expansionreciprocating machinery instead of steam turbines; she had a vibration problem throughout her lifetime as a result.
keelwas laid down on 26 October 1911 by the New York Shipbuilding Corporationof Camden, New Jersey. She was launched on 23 March 1914, being sponsored by Miss Lorena J. Cruce. She was commissioned at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 2 May 1916 with Captain Roger Welles in command.
"Oklahoma" joined the Atlantic Fleet and was homeported at
Norfolk, Virginia. She trained on the eastern seaboarduntil 13 August 1918, when she joined sister ship"Nevada" in the task of protecting Allied convoys in European waters. In December she was among the ships that escorted President Woodrow Wilsonto France, departing 14 December for New York City and winter fleet exercises in Cuban waters. She returned to Brest on 15 June 1919 to escort President Wilson in "George Washington" home from his second visit to France, returning to New York on 8 July.
Overhauled and re-assigned
A part of the Atlantic Fleet for the next two years, "Oklahoma" was overhauled and her crew trained. The secondary battery was reduced from twenty to twelve
5"/51 caliber guns in 1918.Breyer 1973 p. 210] Early in 1921, she voyaged to South America's west coast for combined exercises with the Pacific Fleet, and returned later that year for the Peruvian Centennial. She then joined the Pacific Fleet for six years, highlighted by the cruise of the Battle Fleet to Australia and New Zealand in 1925. Joining the Scouting Fleet in early 1927, "Oklahoma" continued intensive exercises during that summer's MidshipmenCruise, voyaging to the East Coast to embark midshipmen, carrying them through the Panama Canalto San Francisco, and returning by the way of Cuba and Haiti.
Rescuing Americans and refugees in Spain
After being modernized by addition of eight
5"/25 caliber guns at Philadelphia between September 1927 and July 1929, "Oklahoma" rejoined the Scouting Fleet for exercises in the Caribbean, then returned to the west coast in June 1930 for fleet operations through spring 1936. That summer, she carried midshipmen on a European training cruise, visiting northern ports. The cruise was interrupted with the outbreak of civil war in Spain, as "Oklahoma" sped to Bilbao, arriving on 24 July 1936 to rescue American citizens and other refugees whom she carried to Gibraltarand French ports. She returned to Norfolk on 11 September, and to the West Coast 24 October.
The Pacific Fleet operations of the "Oklahoma" during the next four years included joint operations with the Army and the training of reservists.
Pearl Harbor assignment
attack on Pearl Harbor.]
She was based at
Pearl Harborfrom 6 December 1940 for patrols and exercises, and was moored in Battleship Rowon 7 December 1941, when the Japanese attacked. Outboard alongside USS|Maryland|BB-46|6, "Oklahoma" took three torpedo hits almost immediately after the first Japanese bombs fell. As she began to capsize, two more torpedoes struck home, and her men were strafed as they abandoned ship. Within 12 minutes after the attack began, she had rolled over until halted by her masts touching bottom, her starboard side above water, and a part of her keel clear.
Many of her crew, however, remained in the fight, clambering aboard "Maryland" to help serve her anti-aircraft batteries. 429 officers and enlisted men were killed or missing. One of those killed—
Father Aloysius Schmitt—was the first American chaplain of any faith to die in World War II. Thirty-two others were wounded, and many were trapped within the capsized hull, to be saved by heroic rescue efforts. Such an effort was that of Julio DeCastro, a civilian yard worker who organized the team which saved 32 "Oklahoma" sailors. Some of those who died later had ships named after them such as Ensign John England for whom USS|England|DE-635 and DLG-22 are named.
The difficult salvage job was commenced on 15 July 1942 by Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard men under the immediate command of Captain F.H. Whitaker, USN. Preparations for righting the overturned hull took 7¾ months. The actual righting took 3¼ months, between 8 March 1943 and 16 June, with "Oklahoma" being towed into
dry dockon 28 December. Decommissioned 1 September 1944, "Oklahoma" was stripped of guns and superstructure, and sold on 5 December 1946 to Moore Drydock Company of Oakland, California. "Oklahoma" sank on 17 May 1947, 540 miles out of Pearl Harbor, while under tow to San Francisco for scrapping.
*Beigel, Harvey M. "Parallel Fates: The USS Utah (BB 31/AG-16) and the USS Oklahoma (BB-37) in Peace and War." Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 2004. ISBN 1575101130.
List of U.S. Navy losses in World War II
*cite book| title= Resurrection-Salvaging the Battle Fleet at Pearl Harbor|author=Madsen, Daniel |publisher=U. S. Naval Institute Press| year=2003
* [http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-o/bb37.htm US Navy Historical Center gallery]
* [http://www.nps.gov/usar/oklahoma.htm USS Oklahoma - Death of a Battleship] (1916-1941)
* [http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/uss_oklahoma_bb37.htm Maritimequest USS Oklahoma BB-37 Photo Gallery]
* [http://www.kfor.com/Global/story.asp?S=1347383 2003: Survivors dedicate Pearl Harbor USS Oklahoma Memorial highway]
* [http://www.navsource.org/archives/01/37a.htm NavSource Online: Battleship Photo Archive BB-37 USS OKLAHOMA 1912 - 1926]
* [http://www.ussoklahoma.com/ USS Oklahoma (BB-37) official web site]
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