Canaan Banana


Canaan Banana

Infobox President
name = Canaan Banana
nationality = Zimbabwean



imagesize = 205px
caption =
order = 1st
office =President of Zimbabwe
term_start = 18 April 1980
term_end = 31 December 1987
predecessor = Josiah Gumede (Zimbabwe Rhodesia)
successor = Robert Mugabe
primeminister = Robert Mugabe
birth_date = birth date|1936|03|05
birth_place = Esiphezini, Southern Rhodesia
death_date = death date and age|df=yes|2003|11|10|1936|03|05
death_place = London, United Kingdom
spouse = Janet Banana
party = ZANU
vicepresident =

Canaan Sodindo Banana (5 March 1936ndash 10 November 2003) served as the first President of Zimbabwe from 18 April 1980 until 31 December 1987. A Methodist minister, he held the largely ceremonial office of the presidency while his eventual successor, Robert Mugabe, served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe.

During his lifetime, Banana brought together two of the country's political parties, the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), became a diplomat for the Organisation of African Unity, and headed the religious department of the University of Zimbabwe. His later life was complicated by charges of sodomy - a crime in Zimbabwe - which he denied and for which he was later imprisoned.

Early life

Banana was born in 1936 in Esiphezini Communal Area, Southern Rhodesia near Esigodini. His parents were a Ndebele-cultured mother and a Malawian father who had emigrated to Rhodesia. He was educated by missionaries in a local school and later studied at a teacher training institute."Canaan Banana." Biography Resource Center Online. Gale, 2004.]

He married Janet Mbuyazwe [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/the-rev-canaan-banana-730396.html The Independent - Obituary - The Rev Canaan Banana] ] in 1961, and they had four children together. He took a diploma in theology at Epworth Theological College in Harare and was ordained as a United Methodist minister in 1962. He was a student at Wesley Theological Seminary in Washington, D.C. in 1974 and 1975. Becoming involved in politics, he denounced Ian Smith's practices as a prime minister, took part in the rising [http://www.disa.ukzn.ac.za/index.php?option=com_browse&rid=rep] transnational black liberation ideo-religious movements, and came to be vice-president of the African National Council.

He wrote a book entitled "The Gospel According To The Ghetto", and a personalised version of the Lord's Prayer.

Presidency of Zimbabwe

When many Council members were arrested in the late 1960s, Banana and his family fled to the United States and did not return until 1975. Banana was arrested on his return but was released a year later, kept under house arrest, and then allowed to participate in Abel Muzorewa's plans for the country. However, he abandoned that effort and joined ZANU (led by Robert Mugabe), which was dedicated to overthrowing the Smith administration. Returning to Rhodesia in December 1976, Banana was arrested once more for his support of ZANU; upon the appointment of Christopher Soames as British governor, he was released from prison.cite web |title=Canaan Banana |work=Telegraph |publisher=Telegraph Media Group Limited |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1446451/Canaan-Banana.html |date=2003-11-11 |accessdate=2008-06-26 ]

Under the country's new constitution Banana became the first president in 1980 and first black leader of Zimbabwe. In 1982 a law was passed forbidding citizens from making jokes about his name. In 1987 his largely ceremonialcite web |title=Former President of Zimbabwe Convicted of Sodomy | work=The New York Times | url=http://www.ilga.info/Information/Legal_survey/africa/supporting%20files/zimbabwe_banana.htm | accessdate=2007-07-08 ] post was taken over by Mugabe, who made himself executive president. Banana then became a diplomat for the Organisation of African Unity and head of the religious department at the University of Zimbabwe. He played a large role in bringing the two major groups of independence fighters, ZANU and ZAPU, together to form the Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front, a merger that took place in 1988.Fact|date=July 2007

odomy charges and imprisonment

The former president's term in office was a subject of scandal in later years, marking his legacy to national independence social movements in Africa and abroad. In 1997, Banana was arrested in Zimbabwe on charges of sodomy, following accusations made during the murder trial of his former bodyguard, Jefta Dube. The charges related to allegations from the state prosecutor that Banana had misused his power while he was president to coerce numerous men in positions of service (ranging from domestic staff to security guards, and even members of sports teams for whom he had acted as referee) into accepting sexual advances. Banana was found guilty of eleven charges of sodomy, attempted sodomy and indecent assault in 1998. He denied all charges, saying that homosexuality is "defiant, abominable and wrong", and the allegations made against him were "a mortuary of pathological lies" intended to destroy his political career. Janet Banana later acknowledged her husband's indiscretions, even though she considered the charges against him to be politically motivated. [Taylor, Rebecca. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/zimbabwe/article/0,2763,637796,00.html 'They say that power corrupts - and it does'] . "The Guardian". 2002-01-23.]

He fled to South Africa whilst released on bail before he could be imprisoned, apparently believing Mugabe was planning his death. He returned to Zimbabwe in December 1998, after a meeting with Nelson Mandela, who convinced him to face the ruling. Banana was sentenced on 18 January 1999 to ten years in jail, nine years suspended, and was also defrocked. He actually served six months in an open prison (being allowed to leave for shopping) before being released in January 2001.

Death

On 10 November 2003, Banana died of cancer, [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3258969.stm Canaan Banana of Zimbabwe dead] . "BBC News". 2003-11-10. Retrieved 2008-07-24.] in London, according to a report delivered by the Zimbabwean High Commissioner. The "Guardian Unlimited", a London-based newspaper, has claimed that Banana had traveled to South Africa, where he eventually died, in order to receive appropriate treatment for his cancer; however, this dispute relies upon uncorroborated testimonial evidence. He was buried in Zimbabwe in late November 2003. President Robert Mugabe called him "a rare gift to the nation" in a radio address. [ [http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ArticleNews/TPStory/LAC/20031112/OBBRF12-1 Zimbabwe's first black president, hit by scandal] . "The Globe and Mail". 2003-11-12. Retrieved 2008-07-24.] Banana was buried without the full honours that are traditionally accorded to former heads of state. The then politburo Secretary for Information and Publicity Nathan Shamuyarira told state radio that "they (the politburo) could not accord Banana hero status as a matter of principle." [ [http://www.zic.com.au/updates/2003/25november2003.htm Zimbabwe Information Centre Archives of November 2003] . Retrieved 2008-07-01.] His wife sought political asylum in Britain in October 2000 under a preexisting accord.

ee also

*Politics of Zimbabwe
*Religious pluralism

References

*Obituaries, "The Guardian", [http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2003/nov/12/guardianobituaries.zimbabwe, Wednesday, 12 November 2003 on-line edition] . Retrieved on 22 8 June.

External links

* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/zimbabwe/article/0,2763,637796,00.html "The Guardian" article on Janet Banana]

Persondata
NAME = Banana, Canaan
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = 1st President of Zimbabwe
DATE OF BIRTH = 5 March 1936
PLACE OF BIRTH = Esiphezini, Southern Rhodesia
DATE OF DEATH = 10 November 2003
PLACE OF DEATH = London


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