Mortality rate


Mortality rate
Crude death rate by country

Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.5 in a population of 100,000 would mean 950 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.95% out of the total. It is distinct from morbidity rate, which refers to the number of individuals in poor health during a given time period (the prevalence rate) or the number of newly appearing cases of the disease per unit of time (incidence rate). The term "mortality" is also sometimes inappropriately used to refer to the number of deaths among a set of diagnosed hospital cases for a disease or injury, rather than for the general population of a country or ethnic group. This disease mortality statistic is more precisely referred to as "case fatality".

One distinguishes:

  1. The crude death rate, the total number of deaths per year per 1000 people. As of July 2009 the crude death rate for the whole world is about 8.37 per 1000 per year according to the current CIA World Factbook.[1]
  2. The perinatal mortality rate, the sum of neonatal deaths and fetal deaths (stillbirths) per 1000 births.
  3. The maternal mortality rate, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in same time period.
  4. The infant mortality rate, the number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per 1000 live births.
  5. The child mortality rate, the number of deaths of children less than 5 years old per 1000 live births.
  6. The standardised mortality ratio (SMR)- This represents a proportional comparison to the numbers of deaths that would have been expected if the population had been of a standard composition in terms of age, gender, etc.[2]
  7. The age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) - This refers to the total number of deaths per year per 1000 people of a given age (e.g. age 62 last birthday).

In regard to the success or failure of medical treatment or procedures, one would also distinguish:

  1. The early mortality rate, the total number of deaths in the early stages of an ongoing treatment, or in the period immediately following an acute treatment.
  2. The late mortality rate, the total number of deaths in the late stages of an ongoing treatment, or a significant length of time after an acute treatment.

Note that the crude death rate as defined above and applied to a whole population can give a misleading impression. The crude death rate depends on the age (and gender) specific mortality rates and the age (and gender) distribution of the population. The number of deaths per 1000 people can be higher for developed nations than in less-developed countries, despite life expectancy being higher in developed countries due to standards of health being better. This happens because developed countries typically have a completely different population age distribution, with a much higher proportion of older people, due to both lower recent birth rates and lower mortality rates. A more complete picture of mortality is given by a life table which shows the mortality rate separately for each age. A life table is necessary to give a good estimate of life expectancy.

Contents

Statistics

World historical and predicted crude death rates (1950–2050)
UN, medium variant, 2008 rev.[3]
Years CDR Years CDR
1950–1955 19.5 2000–2005 8.6
1955–1960 17.3 2005–2010 8.5
1960–1965 15.5 2010–2015 8.3
1965–1970 13.2 2015–2020 8.3
1970–1975 11.4 2020–2025 8.3
1975–1980 10.7 2025–2030 8.5
1980–1985 10.3 2030–2035 8.8
1985–1990 9.7 2035–2040 9.2
1990–1995 9.4 2040–2045 9.6
1995–2000 8.9 2045–2050 10

During ancient times and the Middle Ages, the crude death rate was about 40 deaths per year per 1,000 people.[citation needed]

The ten countries with the highest crude death rate, according to the 2009 CIA World Factbook estimates, are:

Rank Country Death rate
(annual deaths/1000 persons)
1  Swaziland 30.83
2  Angola 24.08
3  Lesotho 22.20
4  Sierra Leone 21.91
5  Zambia 21.34
6  Liberia 20.73
7  Mozambique 20.07
8  Afghanistan 19.18
9  Djibouti 19.10
10  Central African Republic 17.84

See list of countries by death rate for worldwide statistics.

According to the World Health Organization, the 10 leading causes of death in 2002 were:

  1. 12.6% Ischaemic heart disease
  2. 9.7% Cerebrovascular disease
  3. 6.8% Lower respiratory infections
  4. 4.9% HIV/AIDS
  5. 4.8% Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  6. 3.2% Diarrhoeal diseases
  7. 2.7% Tuberculosis
  8. 2.2% Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers
  9. 2.2% Malaria
  10. 2.1% Road traffic accidents

Causes of death vary greatly between first and third world countries. See list of causes of death by rate for worldwide statistics.

Scatter plot of the natural logarithm of the crude death rate against the natural log of per capita real GDP. The slope of the trend line is the elasticity of the crude death rate with respect to per capita real income. It indicates that a 10% increase in per capita real income is associated with a 1.5% decrease in the crude death rate. Source: World Development Indicators.

According to Jean Ziegler (the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food for 2000 to March 2008), mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58% of the total mortality in 2006: "In the world, approximately 62 millions people, all causes of death combined, die each year. In 2006, more than 36 millions died of hunger or diseases due to deficiencies in micronutrients".[4]

Of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds—100,000 per day—die of age-related causes.[5] In industrialized nations, the proportion is much higher, reaching 90%.[5]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ CIA World Factbook -- Rank Order - Death rate Search for "World".
  2. ^ Everitt, B.S. The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics, CUP. ISBN 0-521-81099-X
  3. ^ UNdata: Crude death rate (per 1,000 population)
  4. ^ Jean Ziegler, L'Empire de la honte, Fayard, 2007 ISBN 978-2-253-12115-2, p.130.
  5. ^ a b Aubrey D.N.J, de Grey (2007). "Life Span Extension Research and Public Debate: Societal Considerations" (PDF). Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 1 (1, Article 5). doi:10.2202/1941-6008.1011. http://www.sens.org/files/pdf/ENHANCE-PP.pdf. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • mortality rate — mortality, mortality rate The death rate, usually standardized by age and sex, to facilitate comparisons between areas and social groups. It provides a measure of health risks, improvements in the quality of health care, and the comparative… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • mortality rate — ➔ rate1 * * * mortality rate UK US noun [C] INSURANCE ► DEATH RATE(Cf. ↑death rate) …   Financial and business terms

  • mortality rate — 1) the rate at which the numbers in a population decrease with time due to various causes. The proportion of the total stock (in numbers) dying each year is the annual mortality rate. To facilitate calculations, mortality is expressed as an… …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • Mortality rate — A death rate. There are a number of different types of mortality rates as, for examples, the following: {{}}The fetal mortality rate: The ratio of fetal deaths to the sum of the births (the live births + the fetal deaths) in that year. The infant …   Medical dictionary

  • mortality rate — noun the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year • Syn: ↑deathrate, ↑death rate, ↑mortality, ↑fatality rate • Hypernyms: ↑rate • Hyponyms: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • mortality rate — the incidence of death in the population in a given period. The annual mortality rate is the number of registered deaths in a year, multiplied by 1000 and divided by the population at the middle of the year. See also: infant mortality rate,… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • mortality rate — noun The percentage of deaths per some period of time. The mortality rate of people aged 50 or more that smoke is much higher than the one of non smokers in the same age group. Ant: birth rate …   Wiktionary

  • mortality rate — mirtingumas statusas T sritis biomedicinos mokslai apibrėžtis Mirčių per tam tikrą laikotarpį ir ↑vidutinio gyventojų skaičiaus santykis ↑arba mirčių ir ↑rizikos populiacijos narių stebėjimo laikotarpių sumos santykis. Dažniausiai apskaičiuojamas …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • mortality rate — death rate The crude death rate, i. e. the number of deaths per 1000 of the average population in a given year. It can be subdivided into different rates for different age groups of the population and for different regions …   Big dictionary of business and management

  • mortality rate — /mɔˈtæləti reɪt/ (say maw taluhtee rayt) noun the rate at which members of a given population die, usually expressed as a ratio of deaths to total population. Also, death rate …   Australian English dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.