Canon of Kings

Canon of Kings

The Canon of Kings was a dated list of kings used by ancient astronomers as a convenient means to date astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses. The Canon was preserved by the astronomer Claudius Ptolemy, and is thus sometimes's called Ptolemy's Canon. It is one of the most important bases for our knowledge of ancient chronology.

The Canon derives originally from Babylonian sources. Thus, it lists Kings of Babylon from 747 BC until the fall of Babylon to the Persians in 539 BC, and then Persian kings from 538 to 332 BC. At this point, the Canon was taken up by Greek astronomers in Alexandria, and lists the Macedonian kings from 331 to 305 BC, the Ptolemies from 304 BC to 30 BC, and the Roman Emperors from 29 BC to 160 AD.

The Canon only deals in whole years. Thus, monarchs who reigned for less than one year are not listed, and only one monarch is listed in any year with multiple monarchs. Usually, the overlapping year is given to the monarch who died in that year, but not always. Note that both periods where no king is listed represent times when Sennacherib, King of Assyria, held effective control over Babylon. His name is not listed because of the hatred the Babylonians held for him due to his destruction of the city in 689 BC.

The Canon is generally considered by historiansFact|date=November 2007 to be extremely accurate. The dates have been confirmed to be essentially accurate whenever they are checked against independent sourcesFact|date=November 2007. Thus, the vast majority of historians and archaeologists view Babylonian chronology back to 747 BC as settled.

Babylonian Kings, 747-539 BC

*Nabonassar ("Nabonassáros"): 747-734 BC
*Nabu-nadin-zer ("Nadíos"): 733-732 BC
*Nabu-mukin-zeri ("Khinzêr") and Pulu ("Póros"): 731-727 BC
*Ululas ("Iloulaíos"): 726-722 BC
*Marduk-apla-iddina II ("Mardokempádos"): 721-710 BC
*Sargon II ("Arkeanós"): 709-705 BC
*no kings: 704-703 BC
*Bel-ibni ("Bilíbos"): 702-700 BC
*Ashur-nadin-shumi ("Aparanadíos"): 699-694 BC
*Nergal-Ushezib ("Rhegebélos"): 693 BC
*Mushezib-Marduk ("Mesêsimordákos"): 692-689 BC
*no kings: 688-681 BC
*Esarhaddon ("Asaradínos"): 680-668 BC
*Shamash-shum-ukin ("Saosdoukhínos"): 667-648 BC
*Kandalanu ("Kinêladános"): 647-626 BC
*Nabopolassar ("Nabopolassáros"): 625-605 BC
*Nebuchadrezzar II ("Nabokolassáros"): 604-562 BC
*Amel-Marduk ("Illoaroudámos"): 561-560 BC
*Neriglissar ("Nêrigasolassáros"): 559-556 BC
*Nabonidus ("Nabonadíos"): 555-539 BC

Persian Kings, 538-332 BC

*Cyrus: 538-530 BC
*Cambyses: 529-522 BC
*Darius I: 521-486 BC
*Xerxes I: 485-465 BC
*Artaxerxes I: 464-424 BC
*Darius II: 423-405 BC
*Artaxerxes II: 404-359 BC
*Artaxerxes III ("Ochus"): 358-338 BC
*Arses ("Arogus"): 337-336 BC
*Darius III: 335-332 BC

Macedonian Kings, 331-305 BC

*Alexander the Great: 331-324 BC
*Philip III: 323-317 BC
*Alexander IV: 316-305 BC

Ptolemies of Egypt, 304-30 BC

*Ptolemy I Soter ("Ptolemy, son of Lagus"): 304-285 BC
*Ptolemy II Philadelphus: 284-247 BC
*Ptolemy III Euergetes: 246-222 BC
*Ptolemy IV Philopator: 221-205 BC
*Ptolemy V Epiphanes: 204-181 BC
*Ptolemy VI Philometor: 180-146 BC
*Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II: 145-117 BC
*Ptolemy IX Soter II: 116-81 BC
*Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus: 80-52 BC
*Cleopatra Thea Philopator: 51-30 BC

Roman Emperors, 29 BC-AD 160

*Augustus: 29 BC-AD 14
*Tiberius: 15-36
*Gaius: 37-40
*Claudius: 41-54
*Nero: 55-68
*Vespasian: 69-78
*Titus: 79-81
*Domitian: 82-96
*Nerva: 97
*Trajan: 98-116
*Hadrian: 117-137
*Aelius Antoninus: 138-160

ee also

*Classical authorities on Babylonia and Assyria

External links

* [ Explanation of Ptolemy's Canon]

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