Lignin


Lignin

Lignin or lignen is a complex chemical compound most commonly derived from wood and an integral part of the secondary cell walls of plants.cite encyclopedia |last=Lebo |first=Stuart E. Jr. |author= |authorlink= |coauthors=Gargulak, Jerry D. and McNally, Timothy J. |editor= |encyclopedia=Kirk‑Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology |title=Lignin |url= http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/emrw/9780471238966/kirk/article/lignlin.a01/current/pdf |accessdate=2007-10-14 |year=2001 |publisher= John Wiley & Sons, Inc |location= |doi=10.1002/0471238961.12090714120914.a01.pub2 ] The term was introduced in 1819 by de Candolle and is derived from the Latin word "lignum",cite book|author= E. Sjöström|title= Wood Chemistry: Fundamentals and Applications|publisher= Academic Press|year= 1993] meaning wood. It is one of the most abundant organic polymers on Earth, superseded only by cellulose, employing 30% of non-fossil organic carboncite journal| author = W. Boerjan, J. Ralph, M. Baucher| month = Jun| year = 2003| title = Lignin bios| journal = Ann. Rev. Plant Biol.| volume = 54| pages = 519–549| doi = 10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134938] and constituting from a quarter to a third of the dry mass of wood. As a biopolymer, lignin is unusual because of its heterogeneity and lack of a defined primary structure.

Biological function

Lignin fills the spaces in the cell wall between cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin components, especially in tracheids, sclereids and xylem. It is covalently linked to hemicellulose and thereby crosslinks different plant polysaccharides, conferring mechanical strength to the cell wall and by extension the plant as a whole. [cite journal|author=M. Chabannes, "et al."|year=2001|title="In situ" analysis of lignins in transgenic tobacco reveals a differential impact of individual transformations on the spatial patterns of lignin deposition at the cellular and subcellular levels|journal=Plant J.|pages=271–282|volume=28|doi=10.1046/j.1365-313X.2001.01159.x|unused_data=|volume-28] It is particularly abundant in compression wood but scarce in tension wood.

Lignin plays a crucial part in conducting water in plant stems. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls are highly hydrophilic and thus permeable to water, whereas lignin is more hydrophobic. The crosslinking of polysaccharides by lignin is an obstacle for water absorption to the cell wall. Thus, lignin makes it possible for the plant's vascular tissue to conduct water efficiently.cite book|author=K.V. Sarkanen & C.H. Ludwig (eds)|year=1971|title=Lignins: Occurrence, Formation, Structure, and Reactions|location=New York|publisher=Wiley Intersci.] Lignin is present in all vascular plants, but not in bryophytes, supporting the idea that the original function of lignin was restricted to water transport.

Lignin is indigestible by animal enzymes, but some fungi and bacteria are able to biodegrade the polymer. The details of the biodegradation are not well understood. The pathway depends on the type of wood decay - in fungi either brown rot, soft rot or white rot. The enzymes involved may employ free radicals for depolymerization reactions. [cite book|last= Carlile|first= Michael J.|coauthors= Sarah C. Watkinson|title= The Fungi|publisher= Academic Press|year= 1994|isbn= 0-12-159959-0] Well understood lignolytic enzymes are manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase and cellobiose dehydrogenase. Furthermore, because of its cross-linking with the other cell wall components, it minimizes the accessibility of cellulose and hemicellulose to microbial enzymes. Hence, lignin is generally associated with reduced digestibility of the overall plant biomass, which helps defend against pathogens and pests.

Lignin peroxidase (also "ligninase", EC number 1.14.99) is a hemoprotein from the white-rot fungus "Phanerochaete chrysosporium " with a variety of lignin-degrading reactions, all dependent on hydrogen peroxide to incorporate molecular oxygen into reaction products. There are also several other microbial enzymes that are believed to be involved in lignin biodegradation, such as manganese peroxidase, laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase.

Ecological function

Lignin plays a significant role in the carbon cycle, sequestering atmospheric carbon into the living tissues of woody perennial vegetation. Lignin is one of the most slowly decomposing components of dead vegetation, contributing a major fraction of the material that becomes humus as it decomposes. The resulting soil humus generally increases the photosynthetic productivity of plant communities growing on a site as the site transitions from disturbed mineral soil through the stages of ecological succession, by providing increased cation exchange capacity in the soil and expanding the capacity of moisture retention between flood and drought conditions.

Economic significance

Highly lignified wood is durable and therefore a good raw material for many applications. It is also an excellent fuel, since lignin yields more energy when burned than cellulose. Mechanical, or high yield pulp used to make newsprint contains most of the lignin originally present in the wood. This lignin is responsible for newsprint yellowing with age. Lignin must be removed from the pulp before high quality bleached paper can be manufactured from it.

In sulfite pulping, lignin is removed from wood pulp as sulfonates. These lignosulfonates have several uses: [cite web|url=http://www.lignin.org/whatis.html|title=Uses of lignin from sulfite pulping|accessdate=2007-09-10]

* Dispersants in high performance cement applications, water treatment formulations and textile dyes

* Additives in specialty oil field applications and agricultural chemicals

* Raw materials for several chemicals, such as vanillin, DMSO, ethanol, torula yeast, xylitol sugar and humic acid

* Environmentally sustainable dust suppression agent for roads

The first investigations into commercial use of lignin were reported by Marathon Corporation in Rothschild, Wisconsin (USA), starting in 1927. The first class of products which showed promise were leather tanning agents. The lignin chemical business of Marathon was operated for many years as Marathon Chemicals. It is now known as LignoTech USA, Inc., and is owned by the Norwegian company, Borregaard, itself a subsidiary of the Norwegian conglomerate Orkla AS.

Lignin removed via the kraft process (sulfate pulping) is usually burned for its fuel value, providing more than enough energy to run the mill and its associated processes.

More recently, lignin extracted from shrubby willow has been successfully used to produce expanded polyurethane foam. [ [http://www.genesis.co.nz/Press+Releases/2007/GREEN+PLASTIC+PRODUCED+FROM+BIOJOULE+MATERIAL.html Green plastic produced from biojoule material] BioJoule Technologies Press Release, 12 July 2007.]

Structure

Lignin is a cross-linked racemic macromolecule with molecular masses in excess of 10,000 u. It is relatively hydrophobic and aromatic in nature. The degree of polymerisation in nature is difficult to measure, since it is fragmented during extraction and the molecule consists of various types of substructures which appear to repeat in a haphazard manner. Different types of lignin have been described depending on the means of isolation. [cite web |url=http://www.lignin.org/01augdialogue.html |title=Lignin and its Properties: Glossary of Lignin Nomenclature |accessdate=2007-10-14 |last= |first= |coauthors= |month=July | year=2001 |work=Dialogue/Newsletters Volume 9, Number 1 |publisher=Lignin Institute]

There are three monolignol monomers, methoxylated to various degrees: "p"-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol [cite book|author= K. Freudenberg & A.C. Nash (eds)|year=1968|title=Constitution and Biosynthesis of Lignin|location=Berlin|publisher=Springer-Verlag] (Figure 3). These lignols are incorporated into lignin in the form of the phenylpropanoids "p"-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringal (S) respectively. Gymnosperms have a lignin that consists almost entirely of G with small quantities of H. That of Dicotyledonic angiosperms is more often than not a mixture of G and S (with very little H), and monocotyledonic lignin is a mixure of all three. Many grasses have mostly G, while some palms have mainly S.Fact|date=July 2007 All lignins contain small amounts of incomplete or modified monolignols, and other monomers are prominent in non-woody plants. [cite journal|author=J. Ralph, "et al."|year=2001|title=Elucidation of new structures in lignins of CAD- and COMT-deficient plants by NMR|journal=Phytochem.| volume=57 |pages=993–1003|doi=10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00109-1]

Biosynthesis

Lignin biosynthesis (Figure 4) begins in the cytosol with the synthesis of glycosylated monolignols from the amino acid phenylalanine. These first reactions are shared with the phenylpropanoid pathway. The attached glucose renders them water soluble and less toxic. Once transported through the cell membrane to the apoplast, the glucose is removed and the polymerisation commences.Fact|date=July 2007 Much about its anabolism is not understood even after more than a century of study.

The polymerisation step, that is a radical-radical coupling, is catalysed by oxidative enzymes. Both peroxidase and laccase enzymes are present in the plant cell walls, and it is not known whether one or both of these groups participates in the polymerisation. Low molecular weight oxidants might also be involved. The oxidative enzyme catalyses the formation of monolignol radicals. These radicals are often said to undergo uncatalyzed coupling to form the lignin polymer, but this hypothesis has been recently challenged. [cite journal |author=Davin, L.B. |coauthors=Lewis, N.G. |year=2005 |title=Lignin primary structures and dirigent sites |journal=Current Opinion in Biotechnology |volume=16 |pages=407–415 |doi=10.1016/j.copbio.2005.06.011] The alternative theory that involves an unspecified biological control is however not widely accepted.

Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis of lignin during the combustion of wood or charcoal production yields a range of products, of which the most characteristic ones are methoxy phenols. Of those, the most important are guaiacol and syringol and their derivatives; their presence can be used to trace a smoke source to a wood fire. In cooking, lignin in the form of hardwood is an important source of these two chemicals which impart the characteristic aroma and taste to smoked foods.

References

External links

* [http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/pathway/map/map00940.html Biosynthesis pathway of lignin]
* [http://www.lignin.org The Lignin Institute] A promotional site by a trade association of lignin manufacturers and users.
* [http://technology.newscientist.com/article/dn14360-chemical-breakthrough-turns-sawdust-into-biofuel.html?DCMP=ILC-hmts&nsref=news1_head_dn14360 Chemical breakthrough turns sawdust into biofuel] - breakthrough efficiency achieved in converting lignin into liquid hydrocarbons, "New Scientist", 18 July 2008


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lignin — Lig nin (l[i^]g n[i^]n), n. [L. lignum wood: cf. F. lignine.] (Bot.) A substance characterizing wood cells and differing from cellulose in its conduct with certain chemical reagents. [1913 Webster] Note: Recent authors have distinguished four… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Lignin — Lignin, nannte man sonst die Holzfaser, wenn sie bei der Behandlung des Holzes mit verschiedenen Lösungsmitteln als reine Pflanzenfaser zurückbleibt (s.u. Faserstoff 1). Payen bezeichnet als L. die auf der innern Oberfläche der Pflanzenzelle… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Lignin — (Holzstoff), eine celluloseähnliche Substanz, welche neben Cellulose in wechselnden Mengen im Holz vorkommt, den unverdaulichen Teil der Futterpflanzen, die sogenannte Rohfaser, bildet und wahrscheinlich kein einheitlicher Körper, sondern ein… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Lignin — (Chem.), s.u. Schießbaumwolle S. 158 …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • lìgnīn — m 〈G lignína〉 1. {{001f}}kem. uz celulozu, glavni sastojak drvne tvari (do 30 %), još neobjašnjene strukture, kod prerade drva u celulozu (papir) treba ga odvojiti otapanjem u lužini ili u otopini kalcijeva sulfita 2. {{001f}}vrsta tankog papira… …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

  • lignin — 1822, from L. lignum wood (see LIGNI (Cf. ligni )) + chemical suffix IN (Cf. in) (2) …   Etymology dictionary

  • lignin — lìgnīn m <G lignína> DEFINICIJA 1. kem. uz celulozu, glavni sastojak drvne tvari (do 30%), još neobjašnjene strukture, kod prerade drva u celulozu (papir) treba ga odvojiti otapanjem u lužini ili u otopini kalcijeva sulfita 2. vrsta tankog… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • lignin — ► NOUN Botany ▪ a complex organic polymer deposited in the cell walls of many plants, making them rigid and woody. ORIGIN from Latin lignum wood …   English terms dictionary

  • lignin — [lig′nin] n. [ LIGN(I) + IN1] an amorphous, cellulose like, organic substance which acts as a binder for the cellulose fibers in wood and certain plants and adds strength and stiffness to the cell walls …   English World dictionary

  • Lignin — Strukturformel Beispiel einer Ligninstruktur Allgemeines Name Lignin …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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