Jarrow


Jarrow

infobox UK place
country = England
official_name = Jarrow
map_type= Tyne and Wear
latitude= 54.9797
longitude= -1.4804
population = 27,000
metropolitan_borough = South Tyneside
region= North East England
metropolitan_county = Tyne and Wear
constituency_westminster = Jarrow
post_town = JARROW
postcode_district = NE32
postcode_area= NE
dial_code = 0191
os_grid_reference = NZ332651

Jarrow (pronEng|ˈjæroʊ or IPA|/ˈjærə/) is a town on the River Tyne, England with a population around 27,000 (2001 Census). It is part of the South Tyneside district of Tyne and Wear.

History and Naming

axon foundation

The Anglo-Saxons re-occupied a 1st century Roman fort on the site of Jarrow in the 5th century. Its name is recorded around AD 750 as "Gyruum", representing Anglo-Saxon " [æt] Gyrwum" = " [at] the marsh dwellers", from Anglo-Saxon "gyr" = "mud", "marsh".

Wearmouth-Jarrow Priory

The Monastery of Saint Paul in Jarrow, part of the twin foundation Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory, was once the home of the Venerable Bede, whose most notable works include "The Ecclesiastical History of the English People" and the translation of the Gospel of John into Old English. At the time of its foundation, it was reputed to have been the only centre of learning in Europe north of Rome. In 794 Jarrow became the second target in England of the Vikings, who had plundered Lindisfarne in 793. The Monastery was later dissolved by Henry VIII. The ruins of the Monastery are now associated with and partly built into the present-day church of St. Paul, which stands on the site. One wall of the church contains the oldest stained-glass window in the world, dating from about AD 600. Just beside the Monastery is "Bede's World", a working museum dedicated to the life and times of Bede. Bede's World also incorporates Jarrow Hall, a grade II listed building and significant local landmark.

19th century to present

Jarrow remained a small town until the introduction of heavy industries like coal mining and shipbuilding. Charles Mark Palmer established a shipyard - Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Company Limited - here in 1852 and became the first armour-plate manufacturer in the world. "John Bowes", the first iron screw collier, revived the Tyne coal trade, and Palmers was also responsible for the first modern cargo ship, as well as a number of notable warships.

Palmers employed as much as 80% of the town's working population until its closure in the early 1930s following intervention by the Conservative government.Fact|date=March 2008 Around 1,000 ships were built at the yard. As from 1935, Olympic, the sister ship of RMS Titanic, was partially demolished at Jarrow (in 1937 she was towed to Inverkeithing, Scotland for final scrapping). The closure of the shipyard was responsible for one of the events for which Jarrow is most famous. Jarrow is marked in history as the starting point of the Jarrow Crusade (to London) to protest against unemployment in Britain in 1936. Jarrow MP Ellen Wilkinson wrote about these events in her book "The Town That Was Murdered "(1939). Jarrow was also one of the focuses of Philip Gibbs's absorbing book "England Speaks" (1935).

Famous former residents of the town, including Ellen Wilkinson MP, Charles Mark Palmer and William Jobling have been remembered in the names of beers produced by Jarrow Brewing Company, a microbrewery in the town.

Twin towns

Jarrow is twinned with the following towns, under the umbrella of the South Tyneside town-twinning project which saw individual twinning projects brought together in 1974:

in 1951.

in April 1963.

, originally twinned with Jarrow in June 1965.

Education

Jarrow's needs for secondary education are currently served by Jarrow School, formerly Springfield Comprehensive. Springfield was merged with another of Jarrow's secondary schools, Hedworthfield Comprehensive at Fellgate, following a gradual reduction of the number of new pupils for the yearly intake of 11 year olds to the point where keeping both schools open was no longer viable.As of 2008 plans to revamp Jarrow School have come into action. Building work has now began with aims of turning the school into a modern learning facility with Specialist Engineering Status. The Head Teacher at the school plans to improve the schools grade point average, by improving the learning facilities, costing millions of pounds.

Famous Jarrow residents

*Roger Avon, actor.
*Bede, Benedictine monk and scholar.
*Catherine Cookson, writer.
*Steve Cram, Olympic Athlete.
*Peter Flannery, playwright.
*William Goat, awarded the Victoria Cross.
*Stephen Hepburn, politician.
*Jarrow Elvis,Elvis impersonator
*William Jobling, last man to be gibbeted in Britain.
*L.S. Lowry, the artist spent time in Jarrow in 1964.
*Jem Mace Famous pugilist died at 6 Princess Street, Jarrow in 1910.
*John Miles, rock musician, singer, songwriter.
* Jarra Jim half marathon runner
*Fergus Montgomery, Conservative MP.
*Charles Mark Palmer, shipbuilder, first mayor of Jarrow.
*Alan Plater, writer
*Alan Price, musician. Alan was born in Washington and brought up in Jarrow.
*Patrick Stewart, Star Trek actor, spent the majority of his childhood living in Jarrow, although was not born here
*Paul Thompson, rock musician, drummer of Roxy Music.
*Ellen Wilkinson, Labour MP and Jarrow March organiser.
*Wee Georgie Wood, music hall star.
*Nick Evans, musician Nick was born in south shields hospital and lived in jarrow most of his life.

Transport

Road

Jarrow is reached from the south by the A1(M) via the A194, and is connected to North Tyneside and Northumberland via the Tyne Tunnel.

Metro

Jarrow is served by three stations on the Tyne and Wear Metro: Jarrow station in the centre of the town (on the Yellow line) Bede station in the Bede industrial estate (also on the Yellow line), and Fellgate station (on the Green line) to the south.

Air

The nearest major airport is Newcastle Airport, about 10 miles away.

External links

* [http://www.bedesworld.co.uk/ Bede's World]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/jarrow_01.shtml BBC History: The Jarrow Crusade]
* [http://crashedoot.brinkster.net/jarrow/roll/ Jarrow War Rolls (researched by Vin Mullen)] are also in Jarrow Library


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jarrow — (spr. dscharro), Stadt (municipal borough) in der engl. Grafschaft Durham, am Tyne, dicht bei South Shields, hat eine alte St. Paulskirche (1866 restauriert), Ruinen eines Klosters aus dem 7. Jahrh., Segeltuchfabriken, Schiffswerften, chemische… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jarrow — (spr. dschärroh), Stadt in der engl. Grafsch. Durham, am Tyne, (1901) 34.295 E.; Kohlengruben …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jarrow — Demande de traduction Jarrow → Jarrow (+ …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jarrow — /jar oh/, n. a seaport in Tyne and Wear, in NE England, near the mouth of the Tyne River. 28,779. * * * ▪ England, United Kingdom       North Sea port town, South Tyneside metropolitan borough, metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, historic… …   Universalium

  • Jarrow — Original name in latin Jarrow Name in other language Dzharrou, Jarrow, Jarrow on Tyne, Джарроу State code GB Continent/City Europe/London longitude 54.98036 latitude 1.48423 altitude 15 Population 27264 Date 2011 03 03 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Jarrow — /jar oh/, n. a seaport in Tyne and Wear, in NE England, near the mouth of the Tyne River. 28,779. * * * Jarrow [Jarrow] a town in north east England where the ↑shipbuilding and steel industries were badly affected by the ↑Depression in the 1930s …   Useful english dictionary

  • Jarrow — Jar|row an industrial town in northeast England on the River ↑Tyne, where ships were built and steel was made until 1930, when many people lost their jobs as a result of the Great Depression. In 1936 many unemployed people walked from Jarrow to… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Jarrow — noun A town on the River Tyne in north east England and part of the South Tyneside district of Tyne and Wear …   Wiktionary

  • JARROW —    (34), in Durham, on the Tyne, 7 m. below Newcastle; is a coal shipping port, and has extensive shipbuilding and iron manufactures; in ancient times its monastery was made famous by the Venerable Bede …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Jarrow —    See Benedict Biscop …   Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe


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