Easterhouse


Easterhouse

infobox UK place
country = Scotland
official_name= Easterhouse
gaelic_name= Glaschu
scots_name= Eisterhus/Easterhoose
population= 26,495 (2001 Census)cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/scotland.stm|title=Born Abroad - Countries of Birth - Scotland - Overview|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-09-28]
os_grid_reference= NS590655
map_type=Scotland
latitude=55.868578
longitude=-4.123956
unitary_scotland= City of Glasgow
lieutenancy_scotland= Lanarkshire
constituency_westminster= Glasgow East
constituency_scottish_parliament= Glasgow Baillieston
post_town= Glasgow
postcode_district = G34
postcode_area= G
dial_code= 0141 771/773

Easterhouse is a post-war suburb to the north-east of the Scottish city of Glasgow. It was built on land gained from the county of Lanarkshire as part of a boundary expansion of Glasgow before the Second World War. It was the in middle 1950's when building of the government assisted housing scheme started- with the aim of providing better housing for the people of the east end living in sub-standard conditions. The area is situated on a high elevation north of the River Clyde and south of the River Kelvin and Campsie Fells. The current population (based on the 2001 census) was 26,495, of which 96.85% were born in Scotland. 172 people or 0.63% of this population were born outside Scotland, making it the lowest number of people born outside of Scotland in the whole of Scotland.cite web

url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/around_britain/html/scotland.stm

title=Born Abroad - Around Britain - Overview|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-09-28]

History of the area and Easterhouse village

The remains of Iron Age Crannogs were found in Bishop Loch, dating from around 700 BC by an archaeological dig in 1898.cite web|url=http://www.greatereasterhouse.co.uk/trondra/early.html|title=Hidden history|publisher=Trondra Group|accessdate=2008-09-28] The Bishops of Glasgow were granted the land on which much of modern Easterhouse was built when the church of Glasgow was elevated into a bishopric in the 1100s. The remains of the bishop of Glasgow's country palacecite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/4875774.stm|title=Bishop's country palace uncovered|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-09-28] have been revealed by archaeologists from the West of Scotland Archaeology Service next to Bishops Loch (an SSI) at Lochwood. Local oral history talks of the Bishops of Glasgow sailing in a Venetian gondola from Glasgow Cathedral to his palace at Bishops Loch. Hogganfield Loch is the source of the Molindinar Burn next to the Cathedral, so some truth may lie in this claim.

The Forestry Commission administers land around Easterhouse under the name 'Bishops Estate',cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/4875774.stm|title=Bishop's country palace uncovered|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-09-28] thus maintaining a link to the medieval bishops.

The far western and far northern part of modern day Easterhouse are believed to have been administered by the prebends of Barlanark, called the 'Lands of Provan' but the boundaries of this has never been accurately defined. The fifteenth century mansion house, Provan Hall is a reminder of this ecclesiastical Pre-Reformation Papal administration.

The southern and eastern parts of the area, Bartiebeith, Blairtummock, Dungeonhill, Easterhouse, Hallhill, Netherhouse and Commonhead were also part of the Bishopric although granted by Malcolm IV to the Monks of Newbattle a little after 1162 in an un-named charter by permission of Bishop Herbert of the See of Glasgow. The lands remained under the monks until 1268 when Bishop John de Cheyan redeemed the 'lands along the Clud' (Clyde) called Kermyl (Carmyle) - most of the area now comprising modern Easterhouse were included in this grant - to sustain three chaplains to 'minister for the salvation of the Bishop's soul and also for the souls of all the faithful deceased'.

Origin of Name

The village of Easterhouse was built to the south of a farm of that name, in the immediate area where Easterhouse railway station stands. The village was bounded to the north by the Monkland canal and to the south, almost continuously with, the village of Swinton. Easterhouse farm was opposite (to the east) to the farm called Westerhouse. Easterhouse farm was located on what is now Ervie Street, off Easterhouse Road. The small group of remaining trees still present lead to the site.

In Timothy Pont's map and manuscript of 1596 the area where the nineteenth century village of Easterhouse later developed was called Conflat. Variations of this name are contained in the rental book of the Baronie de Glasgow (1513-1570) when it is recorded that one 'Johannes Woyd (John Wood) was rentaller of the 18s 8d land of Conflattis. The William Forrest map of 1816 [cite web|url=http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/images/exhibitions/maps/Mu2_d22_mapdf.jpg|title=The County of Lanark from actual survey|publisher=Glasgow University|accessdate=2008-09-28] calls the area Wamnat, while also showing the surrounding farms and estates, whose names are easily recognised today.

Some cottages and other buildings (now a public house) can still be found on Easterhouse Roadcite web|url=http://groups.msn.com/Bailliestonnet/holewestmaryston.msnw|title=The Hole and West Maryston|last=Murray|first=Robert|publisher=MSN Groups|accessdate=2008-09-28] that were part of the nineteenth century village of Easterhouse. A modern corruption of the ancient Conflats name can be seen at Whamflet Avenue in Easterhouse village.

Other farms in the area included Dungeonhill, Westerhouse, Netherhouse farms, these names are still found in local street names). Other farms, villages [cite web|url=http://www.greatereasterhouse.co.uk/trondra/villages.html|title=Villages |publisher=Trondra Group|accessdate=2008-09-28] and country estates [cite web|url=http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/smihou/smihou036.htm|title=XXXVI. Drumpellier|publisher=Glasgow Digital Library|accessdate=2008-09-28] included West Maryston (or Merryston), Queenslie Farm, Netherhouse, Provanhall, Blairtummock and Lochwood. [cite web|url=http://www.theglasgowstory.com/image.php?inum=TGSA00721|title=Lochwood House|publisher=Mitchell Library, Glasgow Collection|accessdate=2008-09-28]

Architecture

Auchinlea [http://www.greatereasterhouse.co.uk/trondra/provanhall.html] and Blairtummock parks both contain listed mansion houses.

Provan Hall [http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/glasgow/provanhall/index.html] is the best-preserved medieval fortified country house in Scotland. [http://www.theglasgowstory.com/image.php?inum=TGSA00843&t=2&urltp=searchq.php%3Fqsearch%3Deasterhouse%26amp%3Bstart%3D0%26amp%3Bend%3D20%26amp%3Bft%3D14%26amp%3Bl%3Dy] The house stands on its own grounds on the edge of Auchinlea Park [http://www.theglasgowstory.com/imageview.php?inum=TGSA00843] . The building dates from before 1460 and is one of the oldest in the Glasgow area. The original doors lead into the kitchen, a dairy and a hallway. The Kitchen boasts a fireplace capable of roasting an ox and has one of the finest examples in Scotland of a Roman style barrel vaulted ceiling. The cross vaulting in the dairy ceiling is medieval. On the upper floor, the dining hall contains an ancient oak table and dumbwaiter. There is a collection of historic chimney pieces. The hall may have been visited by Mary, Queen of Scots while her husband, Lord Darnley was ill in St.Nicholas Hospital (Provans Lordship) in the late 1500s.

Provanhall has a boundary wall dating from 1647. The coat of arms of the Hamilton family, which at that time owned the estate, is found above the entrance arch of that wall. Across the courtyard is a later building, Blochairn House, which today is occupied by Greater Easterhouse Environmental Trust. Built by a Tobacco Lord, Blochairn House was remodeled in 1760 to resemble the plantation house on his Jamaican tobacco estate. Both Blochairn and Provanhall are grade A listed by Historic Scotland (1970) [http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/wwd_listedbuildings_results.htm?Keywords=provan+hall&Council=0&Parish=0&submit.x=0&submit.y=0&CallBack=TRUE] .

Blairtummock House [http://www.gedc.org.uk/property_company/property_development.htm] and adjoining walled garden and garden house is Grade B listed (1990) [http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/wwd_listedbuildings_results.htm?Keywords=blairtummock&Council=0&Parish=0&CallBack=TRUE] . The garden pavilion was created from a demolished Robert Adam house on Queen Street, Glasgow. The house was built in three phases, Georgian (1721), Victorian (1850s) and minor alterations in the 1960’s. The house is currently being restored as offices for the Scottish Arts Council by the GEDC (Architects, Simpson and Brown, 2006) [http://www.simpsonandbrown.co.uk/profile/profile.html] . The restored building will include a modern extension replacing the 1960's alterations.

St Benedict's Church (Gillespie Kidd and Coia 1962-65) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gillespie,_Kidd_&_Coia] [http://www.gedc.org.uk/property_company/property_management.htm] is an excellent example of modernism. It was grade B listed in 1994 together with the adjoining Presbytery [http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/wwd_listedbuildings_results?StartPos=90&Keywords=church&Council=260&Parish=0&CallBack=TRUE] The church was renovated in 2005-6, given a new copper roof and function rooms. [http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php?fuseaction=wanappln.projectview&upload_id=255]

Other modern architecture includes the Easterhouse Health Centre (Gareth Hosins Architects, 2004) [http://www.glasgowarchitecture.co.uk/easterhouse_health_centre.htm] , The Bridge Arts Centre [http://www.platform-online.co.uk/index.html?pid=2] (Gareth Hosins Architects 2006) [http://www.glasgowarchitecture.co.uk/easterhouse_arts_factory.htm] , Wellhouse community centre (Chris Stewart Architects, 2004) [http://www.glasgowarchitecture.co.uk/hub_wellhouse_community.htm] and a new College building.

The Bridge or Platform, as it is also known, was short-listed in the RIAS Awards and won the Design Award from the Glasgow Institute of Architects. The Bridge was highly commended at the SURF awards in the Partnership category.

Public Art

Public art installations include a Clydesdale horse and a Phoenix sculpted from galvinised steel by noted artist Andy Scott. [cite web|url=http://www.aqza25.dsl.pipex.com/andy/|title=Andy Scot Public Art|accessdate=2008-09-28] The Phoenix was designed to represent the regeneration of the area and is located in a prominent location on Easterhouse road, in the grounds of the old Easterhouse farm. The Easterhouse mosaic (1982-4) is located on Lochend Road. [cite web|url=http://www.greatereasterhouse.co.uk/arts/mosaic.html|title=Rescue plan for famous local landmark|publisher=The Pathfinder |accessdate=2008-09-28] It covers 1500 square feet - making it the UK's biggest hand made mural and one of the largest in Europe.

Housing and the modern estate

Large-scale building commenced in the mid-1950s by the Corporation of Glasgow, replacing farms and country estates, to provide housing [cite web|url=http://www.theglasgowstory.com/image.php?inum=TGSE00506&t=1&urltp=storyf.php&PHPSESSID=be17c484746fd00ea470bcc529dff953|title=West of Scotland Archaeology Service|date=2004|publisher=The Glasgow Story|accessdate=2008-09-28] for city residents living in sub-standard accommodation in the city. The old village of Easterhouse was not developed with the new estate and declined. The old railway station was demolished, together with a number of the old villages houses.

The 1950-70's housing was an improvement from the tightly packed tenements that many people moved to Easterhouse from. These tenemented dwellings had double bedrooms and interior bathrooms with a lavatory. The population peaked at over 56,843 [cite web|url=http://www.theglasgowstory.com/story.php?id=TGSFG04|title=Neighbourhoods - Greater Easterhouse|last=McMaster|first= Catherine|date=2004|publisher=The Glasgow Story|accessdate=2008-09-28] in the early 1960s and is now around 26,000.

Easterhouse, along with other large housing projects built at that time by Glasgow Corporation, came to prominence in the wider world through its social problems and became a case study for social planners hoping to avoid the same types of problems. For example, the lack of basic amenities, such as shops, sports and other recreational grounds and cinemas, poor transport links etc. Housing was mainly of the two/three bedroom tenement type, off a common close. The lack of variety of housing types, such as detached and semi detached house types created a somewhat monotonous and bland townscape. This along with a lack of any stable pre-existing community structure and unemployment in the area tended to encourage the rise of youth gang culture. This became so notorious in the 1960s that celebrities including Frankie Vaughan became involved in community issues in an attempt to bring order and attract resources to the area. This was much to local bemusement as it served to focus public attention on surface problems but failing to address grass root problems, such as high unemployment and the lack of facilities.

Since the early 1980s Glasgow City council and more recently Glasgow Housing Association began a program of renovation, demolition and refurbishment of the housing stock. This has attracted significant amount of privately owned property and investment into the area, including the provision of better transport links and amenities.

Amenities

Shopping areas include the Glasgow Fort, which is a high street style retail park. It has many well-known high street stores, including Morrisons Scottish flagship supermarket, several restaurants including Pizza Hut and Frankie and Bennys. The Fort has excellent transport links, being built at junction 10 of the M8. There is a smaller shopping centre, Shandwick Square, which contains an attached McDonalds Restaurant. Several small, village like shopping areas are scattered throughout the suburb.

There are two Business Parks, Glasgow and Westwood. Glasgow Business Park was built to the west of the nineteenth century village. A local and M8 landmark is the sculpture of a Clydesdale horse (Andy Scott, 1997), is located in this business park. Business's located in the park include Lovell Partnership Scotland, Real Radio and Miller Homes amongst others such as MFI Distribution and Iveko Ford. Queenslie has a large Industrial Park.

Local parks include Blairtummock, Provanhall. Bishopswood is a local nature reserve and SSI. Drumpellier Country Park lies to the east of the estate in North Lanarkshire. The surrounding countryside includes 11 sites of SSI and local nature reserve, including Craigend Moss, Todds Well, Bishops Loch LNR and Gartloch woods [http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/en/Residents/Parks_Outdoors/Ecology/Wildlife_Sites/northeastsincs.htm] . Other waterways and country parks around the area include Lochend Loch, Woodend Loch, Hogganfield Loch [http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/en/Residents/Parks_Outdoors/Parks_gardens/hogganfieldpark.htm] and Drumpellier Country Park [http://www.northlan.gov.uk/leisure+and+tourism/parks+gardens+and+play+services/drumpellier+country+park/drumpellier+country+park++facilities+and+services.html] .

Leisure facilities include the Easterhouse swimming pool, sports centre, library, and an arts centre (see The Platform above) (which includes a lecture hall). Easterhouse has a resident artist, sponsored by the Scottish Arts Council, currently Katy Dove. [http://www.platform-online.co.uk/index.html?pid=30]

The area is served by several denominational and non-denominational primary schools and one High School, Lochend Community High School [http://www.glasgow.gov.uk/en/Residents/GoingtoSchool/Secondary/Schools/Non-Denominational/lochendsecondary.htm] . The John Wheately College [http://www.jwheatley.ac.uk/] has two campuses in the area - next to Westwood Business Park and in Queenslie Industrial Park.

Bibliography

* The Rental Book of the Baronia de Glasgow, p.47 pub. by the Grampian Club, London 1875
* History of Glasgow - Robert Renwick and Sir John Lindsay Vol.1
* New Monkland Parish - Its History, Industries and People - John McArthur, pub. 1881

References


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