- Mary of Hungary
: "For the Habsburg consort of
Louis II of Hungary, later Regent of the Netherlands, see Mary of Austria (1505-1558)"Infobox Monarch
title=Queen regnant of Hungary, Croatia and Dalmatia
date of birth=1371
place of birth=
date of death=
May 17, 1395
place of death=
place of burial=
Louis I of Hungary
Elizabeth of Bosnia
Sigismund of Luxembourg
predecessor = Louis I
successor = Sigismund
Mary of Hungary (c. 1371 –
17 May 1395, Buda, Hungary) (in Hungarian and Slovakian: "Mária", in Croatian and Bosnian "Marija Anžuvinska") was Queen of Hungary, Croatia, Rascia, etc. from 1382 until her death in 1395.
She was the third of four, but the eldest surviving daughter of Louis I "the Great" of Hungary and his second wife
Elizabeth of Bosnia.
She was intended to inherit both of her father's kingdoms, Hungary and
Poland, or at least the hereditary kingdom of Poland.
Her father king Louis had arranged marriages for her and her younger sister Jadwiga. Ultimately
Sigismund of Luxemburg(1368–1437), an heir of the Polish Kujavian dynasty and a member of Bohemian royal family, married Mary in 1385 in Zvolen Castle. William of Habsburgthen was to marry her younger sister, who however, after Sigismund was expelled by Poles, where he had been living in Krakówsince 1381, unexpectedly became Queen Jadwiga of Poland, William married Mary's relative Joan II of Naplesinstead, and Jadwiga became married to Jogailaof Lithuania.
Queen regnantof Hungary as a ten-year-old child after her father's death in 1382 (her elder sister Catherine having died four years earlier, and the eldest, Elizabeth, years earlier). The country was ruled by her mother, the Dowager Queen Elisabeth, Elizabeta Kotromanicof Bosnia, and by Palatine Miklós Garai, Nikola I GorjanskiStariji. Sigismund, his powerful brother Emperor Wenceslausand many noblemen of Hungary were opposed to them; some noblemen helped Mary's relative Charles of Durazzo, King of Naples to become briefly the King of Hungary in 1385. Queen Elizabeth and Garai had Charles II assassinated in 1386. Charles's heir was his underage son Ladislas of Naples(d. 1414) who attempted all his life to conquer Hungary, but despite some support in the country, did not succeed.
Magnates of Lesser Poland had been deeply unsatisfied with
personal union(1370–82) with Hungary, and despite of decreed succession order, chose the nine-year-old Jadwiga as the Queen of Poland in 1384. After a couple of years, Jadwiga was compelled to leave Hungary for Poland. Mary and her guardians never managed in governing nor obtaining Poland. Halych, the Ruthenian province recently (1340–66) annexed by Poland, however was taken by Hungary, and only after several years, Poland recovered it.
Capture and rescue
Elisabeth and Mary were captured in 1386 by the powerful Horvat brothers, Paul Bishop of Machva and Ladislaus, but probably on the orders of Mary's smart but wicked seventeen-year-old husband and
On the first anniversary of the death of Charles II, January 1387, Elizabeth was strangled before Mary's eyes. Mary bitterly accused her husband, King-consort Sigismund for arranging the kidnapping and murder of her mother Elisabeth. Mary did not want to live with Sigismund, due to the matricide of his Mother-in-Law, therefore keeping a separate household. She accused Sigismund of squandering her patrimony on "cheap women", and "short-sighted politics". She reconciled with the Horvats and granted them estates in Slavonia and Northern Bosnia.
In July 1387 Mary was rescued from captivity by troops of
Trvtko I of Bosnia(cousin and adoptive brother of queen Elisabeth) and the Croatian noble family later known as the Frangipani (who were relatives of the Garay(Gorjanskih) clan), main support of the Bosnian faction.
It has been claimed that Sigismund took revenge on the murderers of Elizabeth.
Mary might have designated her uncle Stephen
TvrtkoI, also a descendant of the Árpád dynastythrough Catherine (a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary), as her heir in Hungary as early as 1386. However, Trvtko died, being probably murdered in 1391.
From 1387, Mary and Sigismund were officially joint rulers of Hungary but in fact the estranged husband Sigismund ruled alone. Mary died on
May 17, 1395, the same day as the Battle of Rovine, under suspicious circumstances, while heavily pregnant, but leaving no surviving children. In 1405, probably on Christmas Day, somewhat secretly, Sigismund remarried, or was compelled to marry, Barbara of Celje, Mary's kinswoman. In 1410, Sigismund was elected Holy Roman Emperor.
Mary was the last scion of the
Angevindynasty on the throne of Hungary.
Mary's closest heir was her youngest sister,
Jadwiga of Polandwho, however, also died in 1399 of childbirth complications leaving no surviving children. Mary's widower Sigismund kept her kingdom, and was eventually succeeded by his daughter from his second marriage with Mary's cousin Barbara of Celje, whose grandmother Katarina Kotromanicwas Mary's maternal aunt.
After the death of Jadwiga, the heir of Mary's line was their distant cousin Ladislas of Naples, the rival claimant. His line went extinct in 1435, after which the succession of these lines went, in principle, to king
Charles VII of France, heir-general to the eldest daughter of Charles II of Naplesand Maria of Hungary.
* Glenda Goss Thompson. "Benedictus Appenzeller: Maître de la Chappelle to Mary of Hungary and Chansonnier." Ph.D. diss., Univ. of North Carolina, 1975. 2 vols.
* Glenda Goss Thompson. “Mary of Hungary and Music Patronage.” "Sixteenth Century Journal" 15 (1984): 401–418.
* Glenda Goss Thompson. “Music in the Court Records of Mary of Hungary.” "Tijdschrift van de Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis" 34 (1984): 132–173.
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