- Hydrogen vehicle
A hydrogen vehicle is a
vehiclethat uses hydrogenas its on-board fuel for motive power. The term may refer to a personal transportation vehicle, such as an automobile, or any other vehicle that uses hydrogen in a similar fashion, such as an aircraft. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy(torque) in one of two methods: combustion, or electrochemical conversion in a fuel-cell:
* In combustion, the hydrogen is burned in engines in fundamentally the same method as traditional
* In fuel-cell conversion, the hydrogen is reacted with oxygen to produce water and electricity, the latter of which is used to power an electric traction motor.
Buses, trains, PHB bicycle, cargo bikes, golf carts, motorcycles, wheelchairs, ships, airplanes, submarines, high-speed cars, and rockets already can run on hydrogen, in various forms and sometimes at great expense. NASA uses hydrogen to launch Space Shuttles into space. There is even a working toy model car that runs on solar power, using a reversible fuel cellto store energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygengas. It can then convert the fuel back into water to release the solar energy. [ [http://www.thamesandkosmos.com/products/fc/fc2.html Thames & Kosmos kit] , [http://www.bpa.gov/Energy/N/projects/fuel_cell/education/fuelcellcar/index.cfm Other educational materials] , and [http://www.fuelcellstore.com/cgi-bin/fuelweb/view=NavPage/cat=14 many more demonstration car kits] .]
The current land speed record for a hydrogen powered vehicle is 333.38 km/h (207.2 mph) set by a prototype Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999 Fuel Cell Race Car at Bonneville Salt Flats in Wendover, Utah on August 2007. [ [http://www.motorsportsjournal.com/archives/fuel_saving_vehicles_hybrids/ New Hydrogen-Powered Land Speed Record from Ford] ]
Many companies are currently researching the feasibility of building hydrogen cars and most of the automobile manufacturers have begun developing hydrogen cars, see
list of fuel cell vehicles. Most of these vehicles are currently only available in demonstration models or in a lease construction in limited numbers and are not yet ready for general public use. The recorded number of hydrogen-powered public vehicles in the United States was 200 as of April 2007, mostly in California. [ [http://find.galegroup.com/ips/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=IPS&docId=A134117778&source=gale&srcprod=STOJ&userGroupName=mtlib_4_1051&version=1.0 GaleGroup.com info] ] Funding has come from both private and government sources. In May 2008, " Wired News" reported that "experts say it will be 40 years or more before hydrogen has any meaningful impact on gasoline consumption or global warming, and we can't afford to wait that long. In the meantime, fuel cells are diverting resources from more immediate solutions." [Squatriglia, Chuck. [http://www.wired.com/cars/energy/news/2008/05/hydrogen?currentPage=1 "Hydrogen Cars Won't Make a Difference for 40 Years",] "Wired", May 12, 2008]
Fuel cell buses (as opposed to hydrogen fueled buses) are being trialed by several manufacturers in different locations. The
Fuel Cell Bus Clubis a global fuel cell bus testing collaboration.
Hydrogen was first stored in roof mounted tanks, although models are now incorporating inboard tanks. Some double deck models uses between floor tanks.
Pearl Hydrogen Power Sources of Shanghai, China, unveiled a hydrogen bicycle at the 9th China International Exhibition on Gas Technology, Equipment and Applications in 2007.
ENVis developing electric motorcycles powered by a hydrogen fuel cell, including the Crosscageand Biplane.
Companies such as
Boeingand Smartfishare pursuing hydrogen as fuel for airplanes. Unmanned hydrogen planes have been tested, and in February 2008 Boeing tested a manned flight of a small aircraft powered by a hydrogen fuel cell. " The Times" reported that "Boeing said that hydrogen fuel cells were unlikely to power the engines of large passenger jets but could be used as backup or auxiliary power units onboard." [Robertson, David (3 April 2008). [http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/transport/article3675188.ece "Boeing tests first hydrogen powered plane"] , "Times Online".]
Rockets employ hydrogen because hydrogen gives the highest exhaust velocity as well as giving a lower net weight of propellant than other fuels. It particularly shines on upper stages, although has been used on lower stages as well, although usually in conjunction with a dense fuel booster.
The main disadvantage of hydrogen in this application is the low density and deeply cryogenic nature, requiring insulation- this makes the hydrogen tanks relatively heavy, which greatly offsets much of the otherwise overwhelming advantages for this application.
Hydrogen internal combustion
Hydrogen internal combustion engine cars are different from hydrogen fuel cell cars. The hydrogen internal combustion car is a slightly modified version of the traditional gasoline
internal combustion enginecar. These hydrogen engines burn fuel in the same manner that gasoline engines do. Francois Isaac de Rivazdesigned in 1807 the first internal combustion engine on hydrogen [ [http://www.h2cars.de/1_cardata/c214.htm 1807 Francois Isaac de Rivaz - internal combustion engine] ] Paul Dieges patented In 1970 a modification to internal combustion engines which allowed a gasoline powered engine to run on hydrogen Cite patent|US|3844262. Mazda has developed Wankel engines that burn hydrogen. However the major car companies such as DaimlerChryslerand General Motors are investing in the more efficient hydrogen fuel cells instead. [Cite web | title = Fuel Cell Vehicles:Status 2007| date = March 20, 2007 | url = http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.12.073| accessdate = 2007-05-23]
Hydrogen fuel cell
While fuel cells themselves are potentially highly energy efficient, and working prototypes were made by
Roger E. Billingsin the 1960s, at least four technical obstacles and other political considerations exist regarding the development and use of a fuel cell-powered hydrogen car.
Fuel cell cost
Currently, hydrogen fuel cells are costly to produce and are fragile. Engineers are studying how to produce inexpensive fuel cells that are robust enough to survive the bumps and vibrations that all automobiles experience. Also, many designs require rare substances such as
platinumas a catalystin order to work properly. Such a catalyst can also become contaminated by impurities in the hydrogen supply. In the past few years, however, a nickel- tincatalyst has been under development which may lower the cost of cells. [ [http://www.engr.wisc.edu/alumni/perspective/30.1/Article08_hydrogen.html "COE researchers engineer low-cost catalyst for hydrogen production"] ]
Fuel cells are generally priced in USD/kW, and data is scarce regarding costs. Ballard Power Systems is virtually alone in publishing such data. Their 2005 figure was $73 USD/kW (based on high volume manufacturing estimates), which they said was on track to achieve the U.S. DoE's 2010 goal of $30 USD/kW. This would achieve closer parity with internal combustion engines for automotive applications, allowing a 100 kW fuel cell to be produced for $3000. 100 kW is about 134 hp. [ [http://www.ballard.com/be_informed/fuel_cell_technology/roadmap Ballard "2006 achievements" press release] ]
Temperatures below freezing 32F or 0 C are a major concern with fuel cells operations. Operational Fuel cells have an internal vaporous water environment that could solidify if the fuel cell and contents are not kept above 0 Celsius ( 32 F). Most fuel cell designs are not as yet robust enough to survive in below freezing environments. Frozen solid, especially before start up, they would not be able to begin working. Once running though, heat is a byproduct of the fuel cell process, which would keep the fuel cell at an adequate operational temperature to function correctly. This makes startup of the fuel cell a major concern in cold weather operation. Places such as Canada or Alaska where temperatures can reach -40C ( -40F) at startup would not be able to use early model fuel cells. Ballard announced that it has already hit the U.S. DoE's 2010 target for cold weather starting which was 50% power achieved in 30 seconds at -20 °C. [ [http://www.ballard.com/images/image_gallery/roadmap/2006%20Freeze%20Start%20Graph.gifFrom the Ballard website] ] Possibly the incorporation of a preheat device would help to lessen such problems if the energy drain was not too great on the vehicle's batteries.
Just as early gasoline cars struggled with the carburetion problems before becoming universally practical, so fuel cells have to work out startup and long term reliability problems. Then they will be solid enough to hold up to the extreme hardships of cold weather operation.
Although service life is coupled to cost, fuel cells have to be compared to existing machines with a service life in excess of 5000 hours [ [http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/progress07/v_0_introduction.pdf EERE Service life 5000 hours] ] for stationary and light-duty. Marine
PEMfuel cells reached the target in 2004 [ [http://www.industry.siemens.com/broschueren/pdf/Marine/Sinavy/en/SINAVY_FuelCells_e_Fr_SMM2809.pdf Marine PEM fuel cell service life] ] Research is going on especially for heavy duty like in the bus trials which are targeted up to a service life of 30,000 hours.
The molecular hydrogen needed as an on-board fuel for hydrogen vehicles can be obtained through many thermochemical methods utilizing
natural gas, coal(by a process known as coal gasification), liquefied petroleum gas, biomass( biomass gasification), by a process called thermolysis, or as a microbial waste product called biohydrogenor Biological hydrogen production. Hydrogen can also be produced from waterby electrolysisor by chemical reduction using chemical hydrides or aluminum [L. Soler, J. Macanás, M. Muñoz, J. Casado. Journal of Power Sources 169 (2007) 144-149] . Current technologies for manufacturing hydrogen use energy in various forms, totaling between 25 and 50 percent of the higher heating valueof the hydrogen fuel, to produce, compress or liquefy, and transmit the hydrogen by pipeline or truck. [F. Kreith (2004). "Fallacies of a Hydrogen Economy: A Critical Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Utilization". Journal of Energy Resources Technology 126: 249–257.] Electrolysis, currently the most inefficient method of producing hydrogen, uses 65 percent to 112 percent of the higher heating valueon a well-to-tank basis. [Ulf Bossel, [http://www.methanol.org/pdf/HydrogenEconomyReport2003.pdf Energy and the Hydrogen Economy] ] Environmental consequences of the production of hydrogen from fossil energy resources include the emission of greenhouse gases, a consequence that would also proceed from the on-board reforming of methanol into hydrogen. Studies comparing the environmental consequences of hydrogen production and use in fuel cell vehicles to the refining of petroleum and combustion in conventional automobile engines find a net reduction of ozone and greenhouse gases in favor of hydrogen. Hydrogen production using renewable energy resources would not create such emissions or, in the case of biomass, would create near-zero net emissions assuming new biomass is grown in place of that converted to hydrogen. The scale of renewable energy use today is insufficient and would need to be greatly increased to meet demand for widespread use in transportation. [http://www.eia.doe.gov/aer/txt/ptb1101.html US Energy Information Administration, "World Primary Energy Production by Source, 1970-2004"] ] However, in a few countries, hydrogen is being produced using renewable sources. For example, Icelandis using geothermal power to produce hydrogen, [ [http://www.detnews.com/2005/autosinsider/0501/14/autos-60181.htm Iceland's hydrogen buses zip toward oil-free economy] accessed 17-July-2007] and Denmarkis using wind. [ [http://www.renewableenergyaccess.com/rea/news/story?id=48873 First Danish Hydrogen Energy Plant Is Operational] accessed 17-July-2007]
In addition to the inherent losses of energy in the conversion of feed stock to produce hydrogen which makes hydrogen less advantageous as an energy carrier, there are economic and energy penalties associated with packaging, distribution, storage and transfer of hydrogen.
Hydrogen has a very low volumetric energy
densityat ambient conditions, equal to about one-third that of methane. Even when the fuel is stored as liquid hydrogenin a cryogenictank or in a compressed hydrogenstorage tank, the volumetric energy density (megajoules per liter) is small relative to that of gasoline. Hydrogen has a three times higher energy densityby weight compared to gasoline (143 MJ/kg versus 46.9 MJ/kg). Because of the energy required to compress or liquefy the hydrogen gas, the supply chain for hydrogen has lower well-to-wheelefficiency but a higher tank-to-wheelcompared to gasoline IC's. Some research has been done into using special crystalline materials to store hydrogen at greater densities and at lower pressures.
hydrogen infrastructureconsists mainly of industrial hydrogen pipeline transportand hydrogen-equipped filling stations like those found on a hydrogen highway. Hydrogen stationswhich are not situated near a hydrogen pipeline get supply via hydrogen tanks, compressed hydrogen tube trailers, liquid hydrogen tank trucks or dedicated onsite production.
Hydrogen use would require the alteration of industry and transport on a scale never seen before in history. For example, according to GM, 70% of the U.S. population lives near a hydrogen-generating facility but has just about no access to hydrogen, despite its wide availability for commercial use. [cite web | url= http://www.businessweek.com/autos/content/oct2007/bw20071026_550384.htm?chan=autos_hybrids+index+page_news+%3Cspan+style%3D%22font-family%3Aarial%3B%22%3E%2B%3C%2Fspan%3E+features | title= "GM's Fuel-Cell Hedge" | last= Henry | first= Jim | date= October 29, 2007 | publisher= "
BusinessWeek" | accessdate= 2008-05-09 ] The distribution of hydrogen fuel for vehicles in the U.S. would require new hydrogen stations costing, by some estimates, 20 billion dollars. [cite web | url= http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/science/20041122-9999-1n22hydrogen.html | title= "Is 'hydrogen highway' the answer?" | last= Gardner | first= Michael | date= November 22, 2004 | publisher= " accessdate= 2008-05-09 ] and 4.6 billion in the EU. [ cites web | url= http://www.hydrogenforecast.com/ArticleDetails.php?articleID=250 | title= Shell Takes Flexible Approach to Fueling the Future | last= Stanley | first= Dean |date= |year= |month= |format= |work= | publisher= hydrogenforecast.com | accessdate= 2008-05-09 ] Other estimates place the cost as high as half trillion U.S. dollars in the United States alone. [cite book|last=Romm|first=Joseph|year=2004|title=The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate|location=New York|publisher=Island Press (ISBN 1-55963-703-X), Chapter 5]
Hydrogen codes and standards
Hydrogen codes and standardsare codes and standards (RCS) for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
Additional to the codes and standards for hydrogen vehicles, there are codes and standards for
hydrogen safety, for the safe handling of hydrogen and the storage of hydrogen.
Codes and standards have repeatedly been identified as a major institutional barrier to deploying
hydrogen technologiesand developing a hydrogen economy. To enable the commercialization of hydrogenin consumer products, new model building codes and equipment and other technical standards are developed and recognized by federal, state, and local governments. [ [http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/codes_standards.html DOE codes and standards] ]
Hydrogen does not come as a pre-existing source of
energylike fossil fuels, but rather as a carrier, much like a battery. It can be made from both renewable and non-renewable energy sources. The common internal combustion engine, usually fueled with gasoline (petrol) or diesel liquids, can be converted to run on gaseous hydrogen. However, the more energy efficient use of hydrogen involves the use of fuel cells and electric motors. Hydrogen reacts with oxygen inside the fuel cells, which produces electricityto power the motors. A primary area of research is hydrogen storage, to try to increase the range of hydrogen vehicles, while reducing the weight, energy consumption, and complexity of the storage systems. Two primary methods of storage are metal hydrides and compression.
A potential advantage of hydrogen is that it could be produced and consumed continuously, using solar, water, wind and
nuclear powerfor electrolysis. Currently, however, hydrogen vehicles utilizing hydrogen produce more pollution than vehicles consuming gasoline, diesel, or methanein a modern internal combustion engine, and far more than plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. [http://www.efcf.com/reports/E21.pdf EFCF paper on hydrogen efficiency] This is because, although hydrogen fuel cells generate no CO2, production of the hydrogen creates additional emissions. [See Novelli, P.C., P.M. Lang, K.A. Masarie, D.F. Hurst, R. Myers, and J.W. Elkins. (1999). "Molecular Hydrogen in the troposphere: Global distribution and budget". J. Geophys. Res. 104(30): 427-30.] While methods of hydrogen production that do not use fossil fuel would be more sustainable,F. Kreith, "Fallacies of a Hydrogen Economy: A Critical Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Utilization" in "Journal of Energy Resources Technology" (2004), 126: 249–257.] currently such production is not economically feasible, and diversion of renewable energy (which represents only 2% of energy generated) to the production of hydrogen for transportation applications is inadvisable.
The production of hydrogen with electricity makes it an
energy carrier, and not an energy source, so the energy the car uses would ultimately need to be provided by a conventional power plant or a home hydrogen station. A suggested benefit of large-scale deployment of hydrogen vehicles is that it could lead to decreased emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors.Schultz, M.G., Thomas Diehl, Guy P. Brasseur, and Werner Zittel. Air Pollution and Climate-Forcing Impacts of a Global Hydrogen Economy. Science 24 October 2003 302: 624-627 [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/302/5645/624] ] Further, the conversion of fossil fuels would be moved from the vehicle, as in today's automobiles, to centralized power plants in which the byproducts of combustion or gasification may be better controlled than at the tailpipe.
However, there are both technical and economic challenges to implementing wide-scale use of hydrogen vehicles, as well as less expensive alternatives. The time frame in which challenges may be overcome is likely to be at least several decades, and hydrogen vehicles may never become broadly available. [http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/18301/ From TechnologyReview.com "Hell and Hydrogen", March 2007] ] [cite web | url= http://www.wired.com/cars/energy/news/2008/05/hydrogen| title= "Hydrogen Cars Won't Make a Difference for 40 Years" | last=Squatriglia | first= Chuck | date= May 12, 2008 |work= Wired|publisher= CondéNet, Inc| accessdate= 2008-05-13] For mobile applications, hydrogen has been called "one of the least efficient, most expensive ways to reduce greenhouse gases".cite web|url= http://www.mcclatchydc.com/staff/robert_boyd/story/16179.html | title= "Hydrogen cars may be a long time coming" | last= Boyd | first= Robert S. | date= May 15, 2007 |work= |publisher= McClatchy Newspapers | accessdate= 2008-05-09 ]
Most of today's hydrogen is produced using fossil energy resources. [ [http://www.airproducts.com/Products/LiquidBulkGases/HydrogenEnergyFuelCells/FrequentlyAskedQuestions.htm Air Products and Chemicals website] ] While some advocate hydrogen produced from non-fossil resources, there could be public resistance or technological barriers to the implementation of such methods. For example, the
United States Department of Energycurrently supports research and development aimed at producing hydrogen utilizing heat from generation IV reactors. Such nuclear power plants could be configured to cogenerate hydrogen and electricity. Hydrogen produced in this fashion would still incur the costs associated with transportation and compression or liquefaction assuming direct (molecular) hydrogen is the on-board fuel. Recently, alternative methods of creating hydrogen directly from sunlightand water through a metallic catalyst have been announced. This may eventually provide an economical, direct conversion of solar energy into hydrogen a very clean solution for hydrogen production. [ [http://www.rps.psu.edu/hydrogen/unbound.html Information from rps.psu.edu] ]
Some in Washington advocate schemes [ [http://www.pluginpartners.org Plug-in Hybrid Advocacy Group] ] other than hydrogen vehicles to replace the petroleum-based internal combustion engine vehicles. Plug-in hybrids, for example, would augment today's hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles with greater battery capacity to enable increased use of the vehicle's electric traction motor and reduced reliance on the combustion engine. The batteries would be charged via the electric grid when the vehicle is parked. Electric power transmission is about 93 percent efficient [ [http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/energy/graham.asp Powerwatch - Domestic Energy use in the UK ] ] and the infrastructure is already in place [http://www.pnl.gov/news/release.asp?id=204] . Tackling the current drawbacks of electric cars or
plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is believed by some to be easier than developing a whole new hydrogen infrastructure that mimics the obsolete model of oil distribution. A plug-in hybrid transportation system would face the same thermodynamic hurdles as would a system of hydrogen vehicles relying on electrolysis for its molecular hydrogen. The current electric grid, which is dominated by fossil energy resources in the United States, has a fuel-to-power efficiency of roughly 40 percent. Both the plug-in hybrids and the electrolytic hydrogen system would be subject to these comparative inefficiencies. United StatesPresident George W. Bushwas optimistic that these problems could be overcome with research. In his 2003 State of the Unionaddress, he announced the U.S. government's hydrogen fuel initiative, [ [http://www.hydrogen.gov Hydrogen.gov ] ] which complements the President's existing FreedomCARinitiative for safe and cheap hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Critics charge that focus on the use of the hydrogen car is a dangerous detour from more readily available solutions to reducing the use of fossil fuels in vehicles. K.G. Duleep speculates that "a strong case exists for continuing fuel-efficiency improvements from conventional technology at relatively low cost." Challenging perspectives to many such critics of hydrogen vehicles in particular and of a hydrogen economyin general were presented in the 2006 documentary, " Who Killed the Electric Car?"
President Bush's hydrogen car goal, in the opinion of some writers, is slipping away because "there are quicker, cleaner, safer and cheaper ways to reduce the tail-pipe emissions from cars and trucks that pollute the air and contribute to global warming." According to physicist and former
U.S. Department of Energyofficial Joseph Romm, "A hydrogen car is one of the least efficient, most expensive ways to reduce greenhouse gases." Asked when hydrogen cars will be broadly available, Romm replied: "Not in our lifetime, and very possibly never." As an article published in the March/April 2007 issue of " Technology Review" argued,
The Wall Street Journal" reported that "Top executives from General Motors Corp. and Toyota Motor Corp. Tuesday expressed doubts about the viability of hydrogen fuel cells for mass-market production in the near term and suggested their companies are now betting that electric cars will prove to be a better way to reduce fuel consumption and cut tailpipe emissions on a large scale." [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120468405514712501.html GM, Edward Taylor and Mike Spector. "Toyota Doubtful on Fuel Cells' Mass Use", "The Wall Street Journal",] March 5, 2008] In addition, Ballard Power Systems, a leading developer of hydrogen vehicle technology, pulled out of the Hydrogen vehicle business in late 2007. Research Capital analyst Jon Hykawy concluded that Ballard saw the industry going nowhere and said: "In my view, the hydrogen car was never alive. The problem was never could you build a fuel cell that would consume hydrogen, produce electricity, and fit in a car. The problem was always, can you make hydrogen fuel at a price point that makes any sense to anybody. And the answer to that to date has been no." [http://www.financialpost.com/story.html?id=356bed57-656b-4ffd-b3b0-f7f5a96ace29&k=80493 Article on Ballard's exit from the hydrogen vehicle industry] ]
The Economist" magazine in September 2008, quoted Robert Zubrin, the author of " Energy Victory", as saying: "Hydrogen is 'just about the worst possible vehicle fuel'".Wrigglesworth, Phil. [http://www.economist.com/science/tq/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11999229 "The car of the perpetual future"'] September 4, 2008, retrieved on September 15, 2008] The magazine noted the retirement of Ballard from the industry and the withdrawal of California from earlier goals: "In March  the California Air Resources Board, an agency of California's state government and a bellwether for state governments across America, changed its requirement for the number of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) to be built and sold in California between 2012 and 2014. The revised mandate allows manufacturers to comply with the rules by building more battery-electric cars instead of fuel-cell vehicles." The magazine also noted that most hydrogen is produced through steam reformation, which creates at least as much emission of carbon per mile as some of today's gasoline cars. On the other hand, if the hydrogen could be produced using renewable energy, "it would surely be easier simply to use this energy to charge the batteries of all-electric or plug-in hybrid vehicles."
hybrid carscan be plugged into the electric grid ( Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or PHEVs) and achieve much higher overall gas mileage and lower emissions than other hybrids. A 2006 article in Scientific Americanargues that PHEVs, rather than hydrogen vehicles, will soon become standard in the automobile industry. [Romm, Joseph and Prof. Andrew A. Frank[http://www.calcars.org/calcars-news/329.html "Hybrid Vehicles Gain Traction", "Scientific American" (April 2006)] ]
Electric cars, such as the General Motors EV2are typically more efficient than fuel cell-powered vehicles on a well-to-wheel basis. As "Technology Review" noted in June 2008, "Electric cars—and plug-in hybrid cars—have an enormous advantage over hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles in utilizing low-carbon electricity. That is because of the inherent inefficiency of the entire hydrogen fueling process, from generating the hydrogen with that electricity to transporting this diffuse gas long distances, getting the hydrogen in the car, and then running it through a fuel cell—all for the purpose of converting the hydrogen back into electricity to drive the same exact electric motor you'll find in an electric car. [ [http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/guest/22087/ "The Last Car You Would Ever Buy – Literally: Why we shouldn't get excited by the latest hydrogen cars", "Technology Review",] June 18, 2008] [ [http://www.teslamotors.com/display_data/twentyfirstcenturycar.pdf Energy efficiency comparison article] ] [ [http://cta.ornl.gov/data/index.shtml Information from cta.ornl.gov] ]
Alternative fuel car
Future of the car
*"Hell and High Water"
Hybrid vehiclePortalpar|Sustainable development|Sustainable development.svg
List of fuel cell vehicles
The Hype about Hydrogen"
World Green Car
* [http://www.fuelcellpartnership.net/index.html California Fuel Cell Partnership]
* [http://www.cep-berlin.de/fillingstation.html Clean Energy Partnership]
* [http://news.com.com/8301-10784_3-6172950-7.html C-Net - Hydrogen: More Polluting than Petroleum?]
* [http://www.efcf.com/reports/E21.pdf Does a Hydrogen Economy Make Sense?]
* [http://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ EERE - FreedomCAR]
* [http://www.efcf.com/ European Fuel Cell Forum]
* [http://www.hydrogencarsnow.com Hydrogen Cars Now]
* [http://www.naftc.wvu.edu/technical/technical.htm National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium - Technical Library]
* [http://www.wattgehtab.com/ Electric Mobility News]
* [http://www.thestar.com/columnists/article/268851 Toronto Star article on hydrogen trains dated October 21, 2007]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3210/01.html NOVA - Video on Fuel Cell Cars] (aired on
PBS, July 26, 2005)
* [http://www.ca.sandia.gov/crf/research/combustionEngines/PFI.php Sandia National Laboratory - Hydrogen Engine]
* [http://www.spiritofmaat.com/archive/watercar/waterenginehq.ram Spirit of Ma'at - Video of an engine running on hydrogen from water]
* [http://www.low-carbon-fuel-cell-ktn.org.uk/ UK Low Carbon and Fuel Cell Knowledge Transfer Network]
* [http://dvice.com/archives/2008/07/shift_hydrogen.php Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are a fraud]
* [http://www.hydrogen-engine.org/ Summary of the EU-funed Project HyICE to optimize the hydrogen internal combustion engine]
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