Brain drain

Brain drain

A brain drain or human capital flight is a large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge, normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity, political instability, or health risks. A brain drain is usually regarded as an economic cost, since emigrants usually take with them the fraction of value of their training sponsored by the government. It is a parallel of "capital flight" which refers to the same movement of financial capital. The term was coined by the Royal Society to describe the emigration of "scientists and technologists" to North America from post-war Europe. [ [,_new_realities.html The brain drain: Old myths, new realities] ] The converse phenomenon is brain gain, which occurs when there is a large-scale "immigration" of technically qualified persons. Brain drain can be stopped by providing individuals who have expertise with career opportunities and giving them opportunities to prove their capabilities.Fact

Brain drains are common amongst developing nations, particularly former colonies like much of Africa [cite news|date= 2001-10-17|url =|title = Brain drain costs Africa billions|publisher = BBC| accessdate = 2008-06-01] or the island nations of the Caribbean. [cite news|date= 2006-02-20|url =|title = Caribbean 'brain-drain' worsens|publisher = BBCCaribbean| accessdate = 2008-06-01]


Brain drain phenomena in Europe fall into two distinct trends. The first is an outflow of highly-qualified scientists from Western Europe mostly to the United States. [cite news|date= 2004-01-11|first = Chu|last = Jeff|url =,8599,574849,00.html|title = How To Plug Europe's Brain Drain|publisher = TIME| accessdate = 2008-06-01] The second is a migration of skilled workers from Eastern and Southeastern Europe into Western Europe, often made easy by new EU membership, [cite news|date=2006-06-28|first = Jim|last = Stenman|url =|title = Europe fears brain drain to UK|publisher = CNN| accessdate = 2008-06-01] , although there is evidence that the trend is slowing. [ [ Eastern European immigration statistics released by the UK] ] [ [ Eastern European immigration slows down in the UK] ] The European Union has noted a net loss of highly-skilled workers and introduced a "blue card" policy-much like the American green card-which "seeks to draw an additional 20 million workers from Asia, Africa and Latin America in the next two decades". [cite news|date= 2007-10-24|first = Dan|last = Bilefsky|url =|title = Europe Tries to Attract Migrants It Prefers|publisher = New York Times| accessdate = 2008-06-01]

Although the EU recognizes a need for extensive immigration in order to mitigate the effects of an aging population [ [ Open door for qualified workers] ] , nationalist political parties have gained support in many European countries by calling for stronger laws restricting immigration. [cite news|date= |first = |last = |url =,,711990,00.html|title = Europe's Far Right|publisher = The Guardian| accessdate = 2008-06-01] Immigrants are perceived as a burden on the state and cause of social problems like increased crime rates, even in the absence of hard evidence. [ [ Spotlight on Immigration: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Immigrants and Their Children] ]

Western Europe

In 2006, over 250 000 Europeans emigrated to the United States (164 285) [ [ IS-4496_LPRFlowReport_2006c.indd ] ] , Australia (40 455) [ [$File/41020_Migration%20-%20permanent%20additions%20to%20Australia's%20population%20_2007.pdf 4 (1) ] ] ,
Canada (37 946) [ [ Facts and Figures 2006 - Immigration Overview: Permanent and Temporary Residents ] ] and New Zealand (30 262) [ [] ] . Germany alone saw 155 290 people leave the country (though mostly to destinations within Europe). This is the highest rate of worker emigration since reunification, which itself was equal to the rate in the aftermath of World War II. [cite news|date=2007-06-01|first = Tony|last = Paterson|url =|title = German brain drain at highest level since 1940s|publisher = The Independent| accessdate = 2008-06-01] Portugal is suffering the largest drain in Western Europe. The country has lost 19.5% of its qualified population and is struggling to absorb sufficient skilled immigrants to cater for losses to Australia, Canada, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. [ [ Jornal de Notícias] ]

Central and Eastern Europe

Central and Eastern European countries have expressed concerns about extensive migration of skilled labourers to Ireland and the United Kingdom. Lithuania, for example, has lost about 100 000 citizens since 2003, many of them young, well-educated, to emigration to Ireland in particular.Fact|date=May 2008 (Ireland itself used to suffer serious brain drain to America, Britain and Canada before the Celtic Tiger economic programs.) Similar phenomenon occurred in Poland after its entry into the European Union. In the first year of its EU membership, 100 000 Poles registered to work in England, joining an estimated 750 000, mostly uneducated [ [ FISE bulletin nr 4 - the number of Poles, who emigrated with higher education is maximum 20% of total emigrant population, including students.] ] residents of Polish descent. [cite news|date= 2005-05-15|first = |last = |url =|title = Doctors go west in Polish brain drain|publisher = The Guardian| accessdate = 2008-06-01] However, with the rapid growth of salaries in Poland, booming economy, strong value of the "złoty", and decreasing unemployment (which fell from 14.2% in May 2006 to 8% in March 2008 [ [ Eurostat February 2008 - Euro area unemployment stable at 7.1%] ] ), the flight of Polish workers is slowing. [cite news|date= 2008-02-16|author = Alexi Mostrous and Christine Seib|url =|title = Tide turns as Poles end great migration|publisher = The Times| accessdate = 2008-06-01] In 2008 people who came back outnumbered those leaving the country.

South Eastern Europe

The rapid and large-scale departure of highly-skilled workers from Southeastern Europe has caused concern about those nations developing towards inclusion in the European Union. [Horvat, Vedran: PDFlink| [ "Brain Drain. Threat to Successful Transition in South East Europe?"] |58.6 KBIn: [ Southeast European Politics] , Volume V, Number 1, May 2004] This has sparked programmes to curb the outflow by encouraging skilled technicians and scientists to remain in the region to work on international projects. [ [ Stemming brain drain with the Grid in Southeast Europe] - UNESCO]


Conservatively speaking, "Brain drain has cost the African continent over $4 billion in the employment of 150,000 expatriate professionals annually." [ [ Brain drain in africa] ] According to UNDP, "Ethiopia lost 75 per cent of its skilled workforce between 1980 and 1991," which harms the ability of such nations to get out of poverty. Nigeria, Kenya and Ethiopia are believed to be the most affected. In the case of Ethiopia, the country produces many excellent doctors, but there are more Ethiopian doctors in Chicago than there are in Ethiopia. [ [ More Ethiopia doctors in Chicago than Ethiopia] ] . South African President Thabo Mbeki said in his 1998 'African Renaissance' speech:

"In our world in which the generation of new knowledge and its application to change the human condition is the engine which moves human society further away from barbarism, do we not have need to recall Africa's hundreds of thousands of intellectuals back from their places of emigration in Western Europe and North America, to rejoin those who remain still within our shores!

I dream of the day when these, the African mathematicians and computer specialists in Washington and New York, the African physicists, engineers, doctors, business managers and economists, will return from London and Manchester and Paris and Brussels to add to the African pool of brain power, to enquire into and find solutions to Africa's problems and challenges, to open the African door to the world of knowledge, to elevate Africa's place within the universe of research the information of new knowledge, education and information."

South Africa

Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing a "brain drain" in the past 20 years. This is believed to be potentially damaging for the regional economy [ World Bank, IMF study 2004] , and is almost certainly detrimental for the wellbeing of regional poor majority desperately reliant on the healthcare infrastructure given the HIV/AIDS epidemic. [ Health Personnel in Southern Africa: Confronting maldistribution and brain drain] The skills drain in South Africa tends to demonstrate racial contours (naturally given the skills distribution legacy of South Africa) and has thus resulted in large "white" South African communities abroad. Skilled Labour Migration from Developing Countries: Study on South and Southern Africa] For details, see human capital flight in South Africa.

Middle East


The lack of basic services and security is feeding an outflow of professionals from Iraq that began under Saddam Hussein, under whose rule 4 million Iraqis are believed to have left the country. [ [ Brain drain puts new strain on Iraq - BBC] ] The exodus is fueled by violence, which, as of 2006, has seen 89 university professors and senior lecturers killed. [ [ The Iraqi brain drain - The Guardian] ]


In 2006, the International Monetary Fund ranked Iran highest in brain drain among 90 measured countries. [cite news|first=Frances|last=Harrison|title=Huge cost of Iranian brain drain|url=|publisher=BBC News|date=2007-01-08|accessdate=2007-01-08] The estimated exodus of 150,000 people per year is thought to be due to a poor job market, and tense domestic social conditions. [BBC:]

Asia Pacific


Since China began market economic reforms in the late 70s, many Chinese began migrating to countries Western Europe, North America and Oceania. [ [ For China, brain drain key to brain gain ] ] It is estimated that 30 percent of the 100 000 Chinese students who study abroad annually return to China. The fact is there are many more job opportunities, higher standard of living and education opportunities for Chinese living abroad [ [ BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | China suffers severe brain drain ] ] . The Chinese government is trying to lure back its foreign educated professionals by tweaking its salaries, housing and job incentives. As China continues to expand and accelerate market reforms, it faces massive shortage of professionals in management, engineering, medicine, science, research and also having to compete with western countries for experts. [ [ China fears brain drain as its overseas students stay put | World news | The Guardian ] ]

New Zealand

During the 1990s, 30 000 New Zealanders were emigrating each year. An OECD report released in 2005 revealed that 24.2% of New Zealanders with a tertiary education were living outside of New Zealand, predominantly in Australia. [ [ Quarter of NZ's brightest are gone] ] In 2007, around 24 000 New Zealanders settled in Australia. [ [ NZ top source of immigrants to Australia] ] Student loans are cited as a reason, with graduates using higher foreign salaries to pay off their debts.

It has been noted that New Zealand also enjoys immigration of qualified foreigners, potentially leaving a net gain of skills. [ [ Brain Drain or Brain Exchange?] ]


The Philippines first began experiencing a noticeable brain drain in the 1970s, when the government set up a mechanism for international contract work. These "Overseas Contract Workers" were at first employed largely in Middle East nations, notably Saudi Arabia, but an increasing number of workers were taking contracts in Southeast Asia into the 1990s. The number of Filipinos working abroad in such contract work increased from 36 035 in 1975 to 214 590 in 1980. [ [ Skilled Labour Migration from Developing Countries: Study on the Philippines] ]

As of 2006, it was thought that approximately 8 million Filipinos were working abroad. [ [ Brain Drain Hits Philippines - VoA News, retrieved 29 May 2008] ] Philippine workers sent home more than $10.7 billion last year, equal to about 12% of the GDP. [ [,1,7854317.story?coll=la-headlines-frontpage&ctrack=1&cset=true The Overseas Class - Los Angeles Times ] ] The drain has a damaging effect on the country's health care system. It is estimated that approximately 100,000 nurses emigrated between 1994 and 2006 [ [ Philippine Medical Brain Drain Leaves Public Health System in Crisis - VoA News, retrieved 29 May 2008] ] . This trend continues, with around 15 000 nurses expected to emigrate from the Philippines in 2008. [ [ Western demand drains Philippines of 85 per cent of its trained nurses - The Independent] ] The outflow of medical professionals has forced the closure of medical schools and threatened hospitals. [ [ Medical brain drain threat to Philippines - The Standard] ]

In attempt to curb the migration of skilled workers, the government has implemented minor incentive packages. In 1989, the "Balikbayan" program was created to encourage Filipino emigrants, mostly living in the United States and Canada, to return to the Philippines as free-spending tourists. [ [ Balikbayan Privileges] ] Fact|date=May 2008)

North America


Colonial administrators in Canada observed the trend of human capital flight to the United States as early as the 1860s, when it was already clear that a majority of immigrants arriving at Québec were en route to destinations in the United States. Alexander C. Buchanan, government agent at Québec, argued that prospective emigrants should be offered free land to remain in Canada. The problem of attracting and keeping the right immigrants is a constant in Canadian immigration history. [ [ Moving Here, Staying Here: The Canadian Immigrant Experience] - "Immigration," "Annual Report of the Minister of the Province of Canada for the Year 1865", pages 10-15.]

In Canada today, the brain drain to the United States is occasionally a domestic political issue. At times, brain drain is used as a justification for income tax cuts, although this causal relationship has been questioned. There is a drain from Canada to the United States, especially in the financial, software, aerospace, health care and entertainment industries, due to higher wages and lower income taxes in the U.S.The evidence shows that Canada is indeed losing its homegrown talent to the USFact|date=March 2008, but while it is gaining skilled migrants from abroadFact|date=March 2008, because the qualifications of these migrants are given no standing in Canada (see credentialism), many highly skilled migrants are forced into low-paying service sector jobs. However, recent anecdotal evidence shows that stringent US security measures after September 11th, 2001 have helped to end the brain drain debate in Canada. [Jeff Colgan, "The Promise And Peril Of International Trade," (2005) pp 141ff. ]

United States

The 2000 United States Census Bureau published a special report on domestic worker migration, with a focus on the movement of young, single, college-educated migrants. [ [ Migration of the Young, Single, and College Educated] - US Census Bureau, Nov 2003] The data shows a trend of such people moving away from the Rust Belt and northern Great Plains region towards the West Coast and Southeast. The area with the largest net influx of young, single, college-educated persons was the San Francisco Bay Area.

The country as a whole does not experience a large-scale brain drain to other countries, since it is often the destination of skilled workers migrating from elsewhere in the world.

Latin America

In many Latin American nations where enrollment at local medical schools is very high, there is a chronic shortage of doctors (with the exception of Cuba, Uruguay and Argentina).

A 2000 study revealed that a number of Latin American countries had, over the years, suffered a considerable loss of professionals. As a percentage of each country's corps of university graduates, the following percentages lived overseas:

*Argentina....2.5 %
*Brazil.........3.3 %
*Chile..........5.3 %
*Colombia..11.0 %
*Ecuador....10.9 %
*Mexico.....14.3 % [ [ La otra cara de la fuga de cerebros ] ]

The same study revealed that during the 1990s, a significant number of those who emigrated from Latin America were specialized professionals, constituting the following proportions as a percent of each country's volume of emigrants:

*Argentina...19.1 %
*Chile.........15.6 %
*Mexico........2.6 %
*Peru..........10.0 % [ Argentina lidera la fuga de cerebros a Estados Unidos ] ]


In 2007, Cuban officials claimed that 31 000 Cuban doctors were deployed in 61 countries. [ Cuban Doctors Awaiting U.S. Response - The Washington Post] ] A large number practice in South America. 20 000 are employed in Venezuela in exchange for 100 000 barrels of oil per day. [ [ Cuban doctors defect from Venezuela posts] ] From Venezuela and Bolivia, where another 1 700 doctors work, it is thought that as many as 500 doctors may have fled the missions into countries nearby . Figures are dubious, since the defections are rarely made public.


Most of the Caribbean Islands endure a substantial emigration of qualified workers. Approximately 30% of the labour forces of many islands have left, and more than 80% of college graduates from Suriname, Haiti, Grenada and Guyana have emigrated, mostly to the United States. [ [,,contentMDK:21109448~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~theSitePK:4607,00.html?cid=3001 Latin America Shouldn’t Bet Everything On Remittances - World Bank] ] However, it is noted that these nationals pay valuable remittances. In Jamaica, the money sent back amounts to 18% of GNP. [ [ Brain drain or export earnings? -] ] This calls into question whether this trend can be described as a true brain drain.

Brain gain

An opposite situation, in which many trained and talented individuals seek entrance into a country, is called a brain gain; this may create a brain drain in the nations that the individuals are leaving. A Canadian symposium in 2000 gave circulation to the new term, at a time when many highly skilled Canadians were moving to the United States, while simultaneously many qualified immigrants were coming to Canada from a number of different nations. This is sometimes referred to as a 'brain exchange'.

In 2000, the US Congress announced it was raising the annual cap on the number of temporary work visas granted to highly skilled professionals under its H1B visa program, from 115,000 to 195,000 per year, effective through 2003. That suggests a ballpark figure for the influx of talent into the United States at that time. A significant portion of this program was initiated by lobbyists from the computer industry, including Bill Gates. [,0002.htm] In the same year the British government, in cooperation with the Wolfson Foundation, a research charity, launched a £20 million, five-year research award scheme aimed at drawing the return of the UK’s leading expatriate scientists and sparking the migration of top young researchers to the United Kingdom.

See also

* Human capital
* Immigration
* Instructional capital
* Edict of Fontainebleau
* Free rider problem
* Canadians of convenience
* American exceptionalism
* Forty-Eighters
* Great Migration (African American)
* Jim Crow laws
* Reverse brain drain



* Lincoln C. Chen, M.D., and Jo Ivey Boufford, M.D. "Fatal Flows Doctors on the Move" New England Journal of Medicine," Volume 353:1850-1852 October 27, 2005 Number 17 [ online version] , editorial
* Cheng, L., & Yang, P. Q. "Global interaction, global inequality, and migration of the highly trained to the United States." "International Migration Review," (1998). 32, 626-94.
* Jeff Colgan, "The Promise and Peril ff International Trade," (2005) ch 9.
* David Heenan."Flight Capital: The Alarming Exodus of America's Best and Brightest" (2005), brain drain in reverse as immigrants return home
* Devesh Kapur and John McHale. "Give Us Your Best and Brightest: The Global Hunt for Talent and Its Impact on the Developing World" (2005) []
* Kemp, Paul. "Goodbye Canada?" (2003), from Canada to U.S.
* Khadria, Binod. "The Migration of Knowledge Workers: Second-Generation Effects of India's Brain Drain," (2000)
* Kuznetsov, Yevgeny. "Diaspora Networks and the International Migration of Skills: How Countries Can Draw on Their Talent Abroad" (2006)
* D. W. Livingstone; "The Education-Jobs G online edition]
* Douglas S. Massey and J. Edward Taylor; "International Migration: Prospects and Policies in a Global Market," (2003) [ online edition]
* Mullan, Fitzhugh. "The Metrics of the Physician Brain Drain." "New England Journal of Medicine," Volume 353:1810-1818 October 27, 2005 Number 17 [ online version]
* Caglar Ozden and Maurice Schiff. "International Migration, Remittances, and Brain Drain." (2005)
* Ransford W. Palmer; "In Search of a Better Life: Perspectives on Migration from the Caribbean" Praeger Publishers, 1990 [ online edition]
* Ronald Skeldon and Wang Gungwu; "Reluctant Exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the New Overseas Chinese" 1994 [ online edition]
* Michael Peter Smith and Adrian Favell. "The Human Face of Global Mobility: International Highly Skilled Migration in Europe, North America and the Asia-Pacific," (2006)
* David Zweig, Chen Changgui, and Stanley Rosen; "China's Brain Drain to the United States: Views of Overseas Chinese Students and Scholars in the 1990s" Institute of East Asian Studies, 1995 [ online edition]

Online references

* [ Moving Here, Staying Here: The Canadian Immigrant Experience] - "Immigration," "Annual Report of the Minister of the Province of Canada for the Year 1865" at Library and Archives Canada
* [ Mark Regets, Research Issues in the International Migration of Highly Skilled Workers] - National Science Foundation, SRS 07-203, June 2007

External links

* [,_new_realities.html Mario Cervantes and Dominique Guellec, "The brain drain: Old myths, new realities"]
* [ "Brain Drain: Brain Gain"]
* [ How Extensive Is the Brain Drain?] An article on the extent of brain drain today
* [ Sami Mahroum, "Europe and the Challenge of the Brain Drain"]
* [ - Brain Drain]
* [,13155,901040119-574849,00.html " How To Plug Europe's Brain Drain". Time Europe, accessed October 9, 2006]

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  • brain drain — ˈbrain drain noun [uncountable] the movement of highly skilled or professional people from their own country to another country where they can earn more money : • Many of the country s top scientists have joined the brain drain to the US. * * *… …   Financial and business terms

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  • brain´-drain´er — brain drain, Informal. a shortage of professional or skilled labor caused by the emigration of scientists, technicians, and craftsmen to more favorable labor markets: »Part of the problem…is that there is a “brain drain” from the farms into the… …   Useful english dictionary

  • brain drain — n the brain drain a movement of highly skilled or professional people from their own country to a country where they can earn more money …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • brain drain — When organisations or countries can pay higher salaries to attract talented people from poorer countries, there s a brain drain, a loss of talent …   The small dictionary of idiomes

  • brain\ drain — [ brɛndrɛn ] n. m. • v. 1960; mot angl. amér. « drainage de cerveaux » ♦ Anglic. Recrutement à l étranger de cadres de valeur (ingénieurs, chercheurs...) au profit des États Unis (cf. Exode, fuite des cerveaux). Des brain drains …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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  • brain drain — brain ,drain noun singular INFORMAL a situation in which a country s most intelligent people, especially scientists, go to another country in order to make more money or to improve their living or working conditions …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English