Karl von Frisch


Karl von Frisch

Infobox Scientist
name = Karl von Frisch
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image_size =150px
caption = Karl von Frisch 1961
birth_date = November 20 1886
birth_place =
death_date = June 12 1982
death_place =
residence = |citizenship =
nationality = Austria
ethnicity =
field = ethologist
work_institutions =
alma_mater =
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = bees
author_abbrev_bot =|author_abbrev_zoo =
influences =
influenced =
prizes =Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973
religion = |footnotes = |

Karl Ritter von Frisch (November 20 1886 – June 12 1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz.

He studied zoology with Richard von Hertwig whom he later succeeded as a professor of zoology at Munich, Germany. He studied the senses of bees, identified their mechanisms of communication and showed their sensitivity to ultraviolet and polarized light. In the center of his work were the study of the sensory perceptions of the honey bee and was one of the first who translated the meaning of the waggle dance. The theory was disputed by other scientists and greeted with skepticism at the time. Only recently was it definitively proved to be an accurate theoretical analysis (see Nature magazine reference).

In 1973 he was awarded Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine for his achievements in comparative behavioral physiology and pioneering work in communication between insects.

Frisch's honey bee work included the study of the pheromones that are emitted by the Queen bee and her daughters, which maintain the hive's very complex social order. Pheromones are chemical odors one organism emits to communicate with another organism, most likely for reproductive reasons. Outside the hive, the pheromones cause the male bees, or drones, to become attracted to a queen and mate with it. Inside the hive, the drones are not affected by the odor.

References

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Zetterström
first=R
authorlink=
year=2007|month=Jul.
title=The Nobel Prize for the introduction of ethology, or animal behaviour, as a new research field: possible implications for child development and behaviour
journal=Acta Paediatr.
volume=96
issue=7
pages=1105-8
publisher= |location = Norway| issn = 0803-5253| pmid = 17524019
doi = 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00340.x
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Dewsbury
first=Donald A
authorlink=
year=2003|month=Sep.
title=The 1973 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine: recognition for behavioral science?
journal=The American psychologist
volume=58
issue=9
pages=747-52
publisher= |location = United States| issn = 0003-066X| pmid = 14584992
doi = 10.1037/0003-066X.58.9.747
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Raju
first=T N
authorlink=
year=1999|month=Sep.
title=The Nobel chronicles. 1973: Karl von Frisch (1886-1982); Konrad Lorenz (1903-89); and Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907-88)
journal=Lancet
volume=354
issue=9184
pages=1130
publisher= |location = ENGLAND| issn = 0140-6736| pmid = 10509540
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=von Frisch
first=K
authorlink=
year=1994|month=Apr.
title= [The "language" of bees and its utilization in agriculture. 1946]
journal=Experientia
volume=50
issue=4
pages=406-13
publisher= |location = SWITZERLAND| issn = 0014-4754| pmid = 8174688
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Sundberg
first=H
authorlink=
coauthors=Ursin H, Wester K
year=1973|month=Nov.
title= [Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine for 1973]
journal=Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
volume=93
issue=33
pages=2428-9
publisher= |location = NORWAY| issn = 0029-2001| pmid = 4590883
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Cronholm
first=B
authorlink=
coauthors=Levi L
year=1973|month=Oct.
title= [Genetically programmed and learned behaviors. A presentation of this year's Nobel Prize winners in physiology and medicine]
journal=Lakartidningen
volume=70
issue=43
pages=3807-11
publisher= |location = SWEDEN| issn = 0023-7205| pmid = 4595436
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
year=1973|month=Oct.
title=Editorial: The Nobel laureates
journal=Lancet
volume=2
issue=7834
pages=893
publisher= |location = ENGLAND| issn = 0140-6736| pmid = 4126929
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

*cite journal
quotes = yes
last=Rosengren
first=R
authorlink=
coauthors=Runeberg L
year=1973|month=
title= [The Nobel prize in physiology and medicine 1973]
journal=Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
volume=89
issue=23
pages=1531-4
publisher= |location = FINLAND| issn = 0012-7183| pmid = 4589023
bibcode = | oclc =| id = | url = | language = | format = | accessdate = | laysummary = | laysource = | laydate = | quote =

External links

* Karl Von Frisch, [http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/FRIDAN.html "The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees"] , (1967) Harvard University Press
* [http://www.polarization.com/bees/bees.html Dance and communication of honey bees]
* The flight paths of honeybees recruited by the waggle dance, Nature 435, May 2005, pp.205-207.
* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1973/frisch-lecture.html Karl von Frisch, "Decoding the Language of the Bee", Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1973]
* [http://vlp.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/people/data?id=per308 Biography and bibliography] in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science

ee also

*List of Austrian scientists
*List of Austrians
*Apiology

Notes


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