- Agricultural experiment station
An agricultural experiment station is a research center that conducts scientific investigations to solve problems and suggest improvements in the food and
agricultureindustry. Experiment station scientists work with farmers, ranchers, suppliers, processors, and others involved in food productionand agriculture.
They have made outstanding contributions to the development of food and agriculture.Fact|date=October 2007
Location of Stations
Canada, about 50 per cent (1988) of the experiment stations are controlled by the Canadian government. The Central Experimental Farmin Ottawais the headquarters of the federal system. Private industries, universities, and agricultural colleges control the remainder of the stations. Each province has a number of provincial stations.Fact|date=October 2007 The University of Saskatchewanhas extensive agricultural experimental land.
Agricultural University of Iceland[http://www.lbhi.is/landbunadur/wglbhi.nsf/key2/hhjn6kxfkf.html] maintains several experiment stations throughout the country.
Japanhas five agricultural experiment stations of Independent Administrative Institutionof National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, former national stations, and many other prefectural stations all over the country.
U. S. stations
The United States of Americahas more than 50 stations (1988), run by about 13,000 scientists (1988). Each state has at least one main station, usually located at and associated with a land-grant university. Many states have branch stations to meet the special needs of different climate and geographical zones in those states.Fact|date=October 2007
United States Department of Agriculturealso directly maintains several experiment stations, including the Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Centerin Maryland and the U.S. Sheep Experiment Stationnear Dubois, Idaho. The Beltsville station contains the main building of the National Agricultural Library. The United States National Arboretumin Washington, DC is a division of the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center.Fact|date=October 2007
The U.S. experiment stations are state institutions. However, the federal and state governments cooperate in funding the research done at the stations. The states provide about 60 per cent (1988) of the government money. Additional income comes from grants,
contracts, and the sale of products. The stations receive a total income of more than $1 billion a year.Fact|date=October 2007
U. S. Virgin Islands stations
University of the Virgin Islandsmaintains an experiment station [http://rps.uvi.edu/AES/aes_home.html] on the island of St. Croix, working on agroforestry, aquaponics, biotechnology, forage agronomy, and tilapiafarming, among other areas of research.
Station scientists study a biological, economic, and social problems of food and agriculture and related industries in each state. They investigate such areas as
crop variations, soil testing, livestock, processingand animal technology, and other advanced technology to food and agriculture. They also work with specialists called extension agents. These specialists help inform famers about developments in agriculture (see county agricultural extension agent). Most agricultural experiment station scientists are faculty members of the land-grant universities.
Hokkaido Development Commissionfounded the very first agricultural experiment station of the country in Sapporoin 1871, under the advices of O-yatoi gaikokujin(hired foreign experts).
The first national agricultural experiment station was founded in 1893 in
Tokyo, Sendai, Kanazawa, Osaka, Hiroshima, Tokushima, and Kumamotounder the EdictNo.18.
And, 1899 act for prefectural agricultural experiment stations supported prefectural movement to establish agricultural experiment stations all over Japan.
In the United Kingdom
One of the oldest agricultural experiment stations is the
Rothamsted Experimental Station, located at Harpendenin Hertfordshire, England, where the great statistical geneticist Ronald Fisherwas inspired to important advances in the theory of statistical inferences and genetics.
In the U.S.
The first state agricultural experiment station in the United States was organised in 1875 at
Wesleyan Universityin Middletown, Connecticut. It was supported by private donations and state funds. Organization and method were modeled upon European stations and the work of state chemists. By 1887 fourteen states had definite organizations and in thirteen others the colleges conducted equivalent work. The Bussey Institutionat Harvard University(since 1871) and the Houghton Farmat Cornwall, New York(1876-88), were privately endowed stations. Federal aid for state experiment stations began with the Hatch Act of 1887. The Hatch Act authorized direct payment of federal grant funds to each state to establish an agricultural experiment station "under direction of" its land-grant college. Land-grant colleges had been established under the Morrill Act of 1862. The aid was increased by the Adams Act(1906) and the Purnell Act(1925). The provisions of the original Hatch Act and of later legislation providing increasing funds were combined in the Hatch Actof 1955. Fact|date=October 2007
McIntire-Stennis Actof 1962 authorized forestry research studies at experiment stations. The federal government takes part in the experiment station program through the Cooperative Extension Serviceof the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The department coordinates research activities among the state stations.Fact|date=October 2007
Hatch Act of 1887
New York State Agricultural Experiment Station
ources of information
World Bookencyclopedia 1988
*Dictionary of American History by
James Truslow Adams, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940
* [http://www.naro.affrc.go.jp/index_en.html Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)]
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