- Prehistory of Australia
The prehistory of
Australiais the period between the first human habitation of the Australian continent and the first definitive sighting of Australia by Europeans in 1606, which may be taken as the beginning of the recent history of Australia. This period is estimated to have lasted between 40,000 and 70,000 years. [cite web | url= http://www.stonepages.com/news/archives/000236.html | title=Australia colonized earlier than previously thought? | date= 24 July 2003| accessdate=2007-11-02 | publisher= stonepages.com, Paola Arosio & Diego Meozzi - reporting on news in "The West Australian (19 July 2003)"]
This era is referred to as
prehistoryrather than historybecause there are no written records of human events in Australia which pre-date this contact.
:"See also Settlement of Australia"
The minimum widely-accepted timeframe for the arrival of humans in Australia is placed at least 40,000 years ago. Many sites dating from this time period have been excavated. Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation at the upper Swan River, Western Australia by about 40,000 years ago;
Tasmania(at that time connected via a land bridge) was reached at least 30,000 years ago. [Lourandos, pp84-87] [cite news | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/08/science/08abor.html?ex=1187236800&en=3051874ea83b3233&ei=5070 | title=From DNA Analysis, Clues to a Single Australian Migration | work = The New York Times | date= May 8, 2007| last=Wade | first=Nicholas ] Others have claimed that some sites date back up to 60,000 years, but these claims are not universally accepted. [Lourandos, pp87-88] Palynological evidence from South Eastern Australia suggests an increase in fire activity dating from around 120,000 years ago. This has been interpreted as representing human activity, but the dating of the evidence has been strongly challenged. [Lourandos, p88]
Migration was achieved during the closing stages of the
Pleistocene, when sea levels were much lower than they are today. Repeated episodes of extended glaciation during the Pleistocene epoch, resulted in decreases of sea levels by more than 100 metres in Australasia. [Lourandos, p80] The continental coastline extended much further out into the Timor Sea, and Australia and New Guineaformed a single landmass (known as Sahul), connected by an extensive land bridgeacross the Arafura Sea, Gulf of Carpentariaand Torres Strait. Nevertheless, the sea still presented a major obstacle so it is theorised that these ancestral people reached Australia by island hopping. [Lourandos, p80] Two routes have been proposed. One follows an island chain between Sulawesiand New Guinea and the other reaches North Western Australia via Timor. [Lourandos, p81]
The sharing of animal and plant species between
Australia-New Guineaand nearby Indonesian islands is another consequence of the early land bridges, which closed when sea levels rose with the end of the last glacial period. The sea levelstabilised to near its present levels about 6000 years ago, flooding the land bridge between Australia and New Guinea.
In the tradition of
Indigenous Australians, the history of the continent begins with what is translated as the Dreamtime, the creation myththat tells of the origins of its people, animals and geography. Dreamtime traditions were — and continue to be — recorded in songlinesand stories throughout Australia.
Archaeological evidence (in the form of charcoal) indicate that
fire, already a growing part of the Australian landscape, became much more frequent as hunter-gatherers used it as a tool to drive game, to produce a green flush of new growth to attract animals, and to open up impenetrable forest. Densely grown areas became more open sclerophyllforest, open forest became grassland. Fire-tolerant species became predominant: in particular, Sheoaks, eucalypts, acacia, and grasses.
The changes to the fauna were even more dramatic: the
megafauna, species significantly larger than humans, disappeared, and many of the smaller species were wiped out too. All told, about 60 different vertebrates were exterminated, including the Diprotodonfamily (very large marsupial herbivores that looked rather like hippos), several large flightless birds, carnivorous kangaroos, a five metre lizard and a tortoise the size of a small car. The direct cause of the mass extinctions is uncertain: it may have been fire, hunting, climate change or a combination of all, but most are of the view that it was human intervention of one kind or another increased the risks of extinction. (The once popular climate changeexplanation is no longer favoured. See Genyornis.) With no large herbivores to keep the understorey vegetation down and rapidly recycle soil nutrients with their dung, fuel build-up became more rapid and fires burned hotter, further changing the landscape.
It is unknown how many populations settled in Australia prior to European colonization. Both "trihybrid" and single-origin hypotheses have received extensive discussion; [cite web | url=http://www.sydneyline.com/Pygmies%20Extinction.htm | last = Windschuttle | first = Keith | coauthors = Gillin, Tim | title= The extinction of the Australian pygmies | month = June | year = 2002 | accessdate=2007-11-02 | publisher= Keith Windschuttle (The Sydney Line)] however, the issue has become politicized, with the assumption of a single origin tied in to ethnic solidarity, and multiple entry used to justify white seizure of Aboriginal lands. There is little objective data to settle the issue one way or the other. Human genomic differences are being studied to find possible answers, but there is still insufficient evidence to distinguish a "wave invasion model" from a "single settlement" one. Some Y chromosomal studies indicate a recent influx of Y chromosomes from the Indian subcontinent. [cite journal
url=http://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/zdownload/papers/CurrentBiology.pdf | title=Gene Flow from the Indian Subcontinent to Australia: Evidence from the Y Chromosome | author = Alan J. Redd | coauthors = June Roberts-Thomson, Tatiana Karafet, Michael Bamshad, Lynn B. Jorde,J.M. Naidu, Bruce Walsh, Michael F. Hammer | date =
April 16, 2002| journal = Current Biology | volume = 12 | pages = 673–677 | publisher = Elsevier Science | location = Orlando, Florida, USA | format = pdf | accessdate=2007-11-02 | doi=10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00789-3]
The period from 18,000 to 15,000 years ago saw increased aridity of the continent with lower temperatures and less rainfall than currently prevails. At the end of the Pleistocene, roughly 13,000 years ago, the
Torres Straitconnection, the Bassian Plain between modern-day Victoria and Tasmania, and the link from Kangaroo Islandbegan disappearing under the rising sea. The end of the ice age was quite abrupt according to Aboriginal legends which talk of fish falling from the sky and tsunamis. Elsewhere, however, a gradual rising of the seas was recorded.
From that time on, the
Tasmanian Aborigineswere geographically isolated. By 9,000 years ago populations on small islands in Bass Strait, as well as Kangaroo Island, had failed to survive.
Linguistic and genetic evidence shows that there has been long-term contact between Australians in the far north and the Austronesian people of modern-day New Guinea and the islands, but that this appears to have been mostly trade with a little intermarriage, as opposed to direct colonisation. Macassan praus are also recorded in the Aboriginal stories from Broome to the
Gulf of Carpentaria, and there were some semi-permanent settlements established, and cases of Aboriginal settlers finding a home in Indonesia.
Culture and technology
The last 5000 years were characterised by a general amelioration of the climate and an increase in temperature and rainfall and the development of a sophisticated tribal social structure. The main items of trade were songs and dances, along with
flint, precious stones, shells, seeds, spears, food items, etc. The Pama-Nyungan language phylum which extends from Cape Yorkto the south west covered all of Australia except for the south east and Arnhem Land. There was also a marked continuity of religious ideas and stories throughout the country, with some songlinescrossing from one side of the continent to the other. The initiation of young boys and girls into adult knowledge was marked by ceremony and feasting. Behaviour was governed by strict rules regarding responsibilities to and from uncles, aunts, brothers and sisters as well as in-laws. The kinship systems observed by many communities included a division into moieties, with restrictions on intermarrying dictated by the moiety an individual belonged to.
Describing prehistoric Aboriginal culture and society during her
1999Boyer Lecture, Australian historian and anthropologist Inga Clendinnenexplained::"They [...] developed steepling thought-structures - intellectual edifices so comprehensive that every creature and plant had its place within it. They travelled light, but they were walking atlases, and walking encyclopedias of natural history. [...] Detailed observations of naturewere elevated into dramaby the development of multiple and multi-level narratives: narratives which made the intricate relationships between these observed phenomena memorable.":"These dramatic narratives identified the recurrent and therefore the timeless and the significant within the fleeting and the idiosyncratic. They were also very human, charged with moral significance but with pathos, and with humour, too - after all, the Dreamtimecreatures were not austere divinities, but fallible beings who happened to make the world and everything in it while going about their creaturely business. Traditional Aboriginal culture effortlessly fuses areas of understanding which Europeans 'naturally' keep separate: ecology, cosmology, theology, social morality, art, comedy, tragedy- the observed and the richly imagined fused into a seamless whole." [Inga Clendinnen, Boyer Lectures, [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/boyers/stories/s71107.htm "Inside the Contact Zone: Part 1"] , December 5, 1999]
Political power rested with community elders rather than hereditary chiefs and disputes were settled communally in accordance with an elaborate system of tribal
law. Vendettas and feuds were not uncommon but organised violence and warfare was limited or non-existent. This has generally been attributed to the multiple alliances that bound people together through marriage or blood, and shared belief systems about descent from common culture heroes.
There was considerable innovation occurring within Aborginal technology in the last 3000 years prior to colonisation.
Quartzwas used as a substitute for chertand was being worked by indigenous craftsmen. The dingowas brought from southern Asia. Small scale agricultural developments occurred with eel farming in western Victoria and yam planting e.g. in GeraldtonFact|date=August 2007.
Cremation of the dead was practiced by 25,000 years ago, possibly before anywhere else on Earth, and early artwork in
Koonalda Cave, Nullarbor Plain, has been dated back to 20,000 years ago, making Indigenous Australian art more ancient than that of prehistoric Europeans. [BLAINEY, Geoffrey, "Triumph of the Nomads: A History of Aboriginal Australia", 1976, ISBN 0-87951-084-6, p.84]
It has been estimated that in
1788there were approximately half a million Australian Aboriginal people (although other estimates have put the figure as high as 1 million or more). These populations formed hundreds of distinct cultural and language groups. Most were hunter-gatherers with rich oral histories and advanced land-management practices (a possible period of ecological destruction of the initial colonisation phase was thousands of years past). In the most fertile and populous areas, they lived in semi-permanent settlements. In the fertile Murray Basin, the gathering and hunting economies to be found elsewhere on the continent had in large part given way to fish farming. Sturt's expedition along the Murray led to a belief that the Aboriginal groups there were practicing agriculture as a result of the presence of large hay-stacks, used as permanent grain stores. [Flood, Josephine (1984), "Archaeology of the Dreamtime" (Uni of Hawaii Press)]
Little interest was shown by white settlers in the bulk of the Aboriginal people, and so little is known of their cultures and languages. Diseases decimated indigenous populations just prior to the period where most Aborigines came into direct contact with Europeans. When Lt. James Cook claimed Australia for the
Kingdom of Great Britainin 1770, the native population may have consisted as many as 500 'tribes' speaking several hundred distinct Australian Aboriginal languages, with many different dialects.
Contact outside Australia
The people living along the northern coastline -the Kimberley,
Arnhem Land, Gulf of Carpentariaand Cape York - have had encounters with various visitors for many thousands of years. People and traded goods moved freely between Australia and New Guinea up to and even after the eventual flooding of the land bridgeby rising sea levels, which was completed about 6000 years ago. However, trade and intercourse between the now-separated lands continued across the newly-formed Torres Strait, whose 150 km-wide channel remained readily navigable with the chain of Torres Strait Islandsand reefs affording intermediary stopping points. The islands were settled by different seafaring Melanesiancultures such as the Torres Strait Islandersover 2500 years ago, and cultural interactions continued via this route with the Aboriginal people of northeast Australia. The traditional movement of people between Australia, New Guinea and Indonesia in sailing craft for trade and fishing indicates the possibility of Araband Chinese traders to the northern islands learning of and then visiting the shores of the southern continent from as early as the 9th century. Early Indian visitors from around the beginning of the Common Era are also sometimes claimed to be the source of the so-called Bradshaw figurines in Kimberly artFact|date=August 2007, although this is also disputed.
Indonesian "Bajini" fishermen from the
Spice Islands(e.g. Banda) have fished off the coast of Australia for hundreds of years. Macassantraders from Sulawesi(formerly Celebes) regularly visited the coast of northern Australia to fish for trepang (an edible sea cucumber) to trade with the Chinese since at least the early 1700s(see the main article Macassan contact with Australia).
There was a high degree of cultural exchange, evidenced in Aboriginal rock and bark paintings, the introduction of technologies such as dug-out canoes and items such as
tobaccoand tobacco pipes, Macassan words in Aboriginal languages (eg. "Balanda" for white person), and descendants of Malay people in Australian Aboriginal communities and vice versa, as a result of intermarriage and migration.
* Lourandos, H., "Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory" (Cambridge University Press, 1997)
* Isaacs, Jennifer (ed.), "Australian Dreaming: 40,000 Years of Aboriginal History" (New Holland Publishers, 2005, pp.304, ISBN 1741102588)
* Blainey, Geoffrey, "Triumph of the Nomads: A History of Aboriginal Australia" (The Overlook Press, 1976, pp.285, ISBN 0-87951-084-6)
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