- Republic of Hawaii
Infobox Former Country
conventional_long_name = Republic of Hawaii
common_name = Hawaii
continent = Oceania
country = United States
government_type = Republic|
year_start = 1894
year_end = 1898
date_start = July 4
event_end = Annexed by the US
date_end = July 4|
p1 = Provisional Government of Hawaii
flag_p1 = Flag of Hawaii.svg
s1 = Territory of Hawaii
flag_s1 = Flag of Hawaii.svg
s2 = United States
flag_s2 = Flag of the United States.svg
flag_type = Flag
image_map_caption = Republic of Hawaii|
capital = Honolulu
common_languages = Hawaiian, English
currency = U.S. dollar,
leader1 = Sanford B. Dole
The Republic of Hawaiokinai was the formal name of the government that controlled Hawaiokinai from
1894to 1898when it was run as a republic. The republic period occurred between the administration of the Provisional Government of Hawaiokinai which ended on July 4, 1894 and the adoption of the Newlands Resolutionin the United States Congressin which the Republic was annexedto the United States and became the Territory of Hawaiokinai on July 7, 1898.
The administration of the Republic of Hawaiokinai was multiracial. It included men of European ancestry, like
Sanford B. Doleand Lorrin A. Thurston, who were both native-born subjects of the Hawaiian kingdom and fluent speakers of the Hawaiian language. Dole had previously been an elected member of the Kingdom legislature from Koloa, Kauaokinai and a Justice of the Kingdom's Supreme Court. Thurston had served as Minister of Interior under King Kalākaua. The Speaker of the House of the Republic of Hawaiokinai was native Hawaiian John Kaulukou who had previously been a Royalist opposing annexation.
The first order of business for the Provisional Government after the successful overthrow of Liliokinauokalani was to form an interim government while Lorrin A. Thurston was in Washington, DC to negotiate annexation with Congress. One group proposed the assumption of power of Princess Victoria Kaokinaiulani while a body formed by the Committee of Safety could act as a regency government. With the physical absence of the princess from the islands, the proposal was immediately struck down.
The Provisional Government was dealt a huge blow when United States President
Benjamin Harrison, who was supportive of the annexation of Hawaii, was voted out of the White House. Grover Cleveland, an anti-imperialist, assumed the presidency and right away worked to stop the treaty of annexation. Just a month before Cleveland became president, Lorrin A. Thurston had struck a deal with Congress as it prepared to ratify a treaty of annexation. Cleveland, having heard the appeals of Princess Victoria Kaokinaiulani on behalf of her imprisoned aunt, withdrew the treaty and launched an investigation of the matter.
James Henderson Blountof Macon, Georgiaas Commissioner Paramount and Minister to Hawaiokinai. His chief mission was to investigate the overthrow of Liliokinauokalani's government. Blount concluded in his report that the overthrow had utilized the aid of the John L. Stevens, United States Minister to Hawaiokinai who ordered the landing of troops from the USS "Boston". On the basis of Blount's report, Cleveland sent Albert Sydney Willisof Kentuckyto Honoluluas Minister to Hawaiokinai with secret instructions. Willis, initially rebuffed by the queen, obtained Liliokinauokalani's promise to grant an amnesty after a considerable delay. After securing that promise, Willis made a formal demand for the dissolution of the Provisional Government and complete restoration of the monarchy, although unbeknownst to him by that time it was too late since Cleveland had already referred the matter to Congress. Taking the demand at face value, on December 23, 1893, Sanford B. Dole sent a reply to Willis flatly refusing to surrender the authority of the Provisional Government to the deposed queen. [cite book
authorlink = Gavan Daws
title = Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands
University of Hawaii Press
pages = 278
isbn = 9780824803247 ]
In response to Cleveland's referral of the matter, the Senate passed a resolution empowering its Foreign Relations Committee to hold public hearings under oath, and cross-examine witnesses, to investigate U.S. involvement in the revolution and also to investigate whether it had been proper for President Cleveland to appoint Blount and give him extraordinary powers to represent the U.S. and intervene in Hawaiokinai without Senate confirmation. Senator
John Tyler Morganchaired the investigation.
The findings of the
Morgan Reportcontradicted the assertions earlier made by Blount and President Cleveland, and on February 26, 1894 was submitted. It concluded that the U.S. troops had remained completely neutral during the overthrow, exonerated Minister Stevens in landing troops, and concluded Blount's appointment and investigation without congressional approval were constitutional. However, the nine member Senate Foreign Relations Committee that submitted the report could not agree on a final conclusion, and the oft-executive summary was signed only by Morgan himself. [cite book
first =William Adam
authorlink =William Adam Russ
title =The Hawaiian Revolution (1893-94)
publisher =Associated University Presses
isbn =0945636431 ] [cite book
authorlink =Merze Tate
title =The United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom: A Political History
publisher =Yale University Press
pages =253 ] .
Following the Morgan Report, and the
Turpie Resolutionon May 31, 1894in which Congress prohibited any further intervention by the president and other government officials against the Provisional Government of Hawaiokinai,Dubious|date=March 2008 Cleveland officially recognized the Provisional Government.
Establishment of the Republic
The Provisional Government feared that Grover Cleveland might continue interfering in the internal affairs of Hawaiokinai by trying to restore the monarchy. The Provisional Government also realized there would be no annexation until Grover Cleveland's term of office ended; and they wanted to establish a more permanent government for the continuing independent nation of Hawaiokinai. Therefore the Provisional Government called to order a Constitutional Convention on
May 30, 1894. The Constitutional Convention drafted a constitutionfor a Republic of Hawaiokinai. The Republic of Hawaiokinai was proclaimed on 4 July 1894at Aliokinaiōlani Hale. Sanford B. Dolebecame president.
Wilcox Rebellion of 1895
Robert William Wilcoxled several rebellions in pursuit of the restoration of the Hawaiian monarchy. He led an army of 150 Hawaiians, Europeans and Chinese in an attempt in 1889. Wilcox was brought to trial but released as juries refused to find him guilty of wrongdoing. In 1895, Wilcox participated in another attempt, this time to overthrow the Republic of Hawaiokinai and to restore Liliokinauokalani to power. Royalist supporters landed a cargo of arms and ammunition from San Francisco, Californiain a secret Honolulu location. At the location on January 6, 1895, a company of royalists met to draft plans to capture the government buildings by surprise. A premature encounter with a squad of police alarmed Honolulu and the plans were abandoned as the royalists were quickly routed. Wilcox spent several days in hiding in the mountains before being captured. The son of one pro-annexationist was killed. Several other skirmishes occurred during the following week resulting in the capture of the leading conspirators and their followers. The government allegedly found arms and ammunition and some potentially evidential documents on the premises of Washington Place, Liliokinauokalani's private residence implicating her in the plot.
The Republic of Hawaii put their former queen on trial. The prosecution asserted that Liliokinauokalani had committed "misprision of treason," because she allegedly knew that guns and bombs for the Wilcox attempted counter-revolution had been hidden in the flower bed of her personal residence at Washington Place. She was sentenced to 5 years imprisonment at hard labor and a fine of $10,000. But the imprisonment was served in a small bedroom at okinaIolani Palace where she had a full-time maid-servant, and her "hard labor" consisted of composing songs and sewing a protest quilt containing symbols of the monarchy. After eight months she was paroled to her Washington Place home by President Sanford B. Dole. A year later she was granted a full pardon, including the right to travel; and President Dole gave her a passport to travel to Washington D.C. "to visit friends." However, she used that opportunity to lobby the U.S. Senate in 1897 against annexation.
Dissolution of the Republic
Upon the inauguration of
William McKinleyas president of the United States on March 4, 1897, the Republic of Hawaiokinai resumed negotiations for annexation, which continued into the summer of 1898. By this time, the President saw the islands as having gained a new strategic relevance in the wake of the Spanish-American War. On June 16of that year, a new treaty of annexation was signed. As the Senate appeared uncertain to ratify the treaty, its supporters took extreme measures by passing the Newlands Resolution through which the cession was accepted, ratified and confirmed by a vote of 42 to 21. The House of Representatives accepted the Newlands Resolutionby a vote of 209 to 91. McKinley signed the bill on July 7, 1898. The formal transfer of sovereignty took place on August 12, 1898with the hoisting of the flag of the United States over okinaIolani Palace.
* [http://morganreport.org morganreport.org] Online images and transcriptions of the entire Morgan Report
* [http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/hawaii-petition/ Background of the petitions against Annexation]
* Allen, Helena G. "Sanford Ballard Dole: Hawaiokinai's Only President, 1844-1926" (1998).
* Kuykendall, Ralph Simpson. "Hawaiokinai: A History, from Polynesian Kingdom to American State" (2003)
* Schweizer, Niklaus R. "His Hawaiian Excellency: The Overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy and the Annexation of Hawaiokinai" (1994).
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