Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are drugs that expel parasitic
worms ( helminths) from the body, by either stunning or killing them. They may also be called vermifuges (stunning) or vermicides (killing).
Examples of pharmaceuticals used as anthelmintics include:
Albendazole– effective against threadworms, roundworms, whipworms, tapeworms, hookworms
Diethylcarbamazine– effective against " Wuchereria bancrofti", " Brugia malayi", " Brugia timori", tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, loiasis
Mebendazole– effective against pinworms, roundworms and hookworms
Niclosamide– effective against tapeworms
Ivermectin– effective against most common intestinal worms (except tapeworms)
Thiabendazole– effective against roundworms, hookworms
Pyrantel pamoate– effective against most nematode infections
Praziquantel– effective against nematodes, some trematodes
Triclabendazole– effective against liver flukes
* Octadepsipeptides (eg:
Emodepside) – effective against a variety of gastrointestinal helminths
* Amino Acetonitrile derivatives (eg:
Monepantel): effective against a variety of gastrointestinal helminths including those resistant to the other drug classes.
Please note that many of these pharameuticals are extremely toxic. Taken in improper dosages they can be dangerous to humans as well as lethal to parasites.
Examples of naturally occuring anthelmintics include:
Tobacco" (" Nicotiana tabacum" & " Nicotiana rustica") ["The Merck Index", 12th Ed., page 1119: entry 6611 "Nicotine", Merck & Co. 1996]
Moringa Oleifera" (" Moringaceae") (" Micronutrient Powder")
Black walnut" (" Juglans nigra")
*"wormwood" ("Artemisia absynthium")
clove" ("Syzygium aromaticum")
tansytea" ("Tanacetum vulgare")
Hagenia" "(Hagenia abyssinica)"
kalonji" ("Nigella sativa") seeds
male fern" ("Dryopteris filix-mas")
Plumeria" ("P. acutifolia" or "P. rubra") in Brazilian folk medicine.cite book
last = Arnold, M.D.
first = Harry L.
title = Poisonous Plants of Hawaii
publisher = Charles E. Tuttle Co.
year = 1968
location = Tokyo, Japan
pages = 51
ISBN = 0804804745]
Peganum harmala" is used as an anthelmintic.cite web|url=http://www.sdpi.org/alpine%20medicianl%20herbs/39.htm |title=Peganum harmala |accessdate=2008-02-02 |year=2004 ]
Please note that many natural vermifuges or anthelmintics are poisonous and, in improper dosages, dangerous to humans as well as parasites.
The ability of worms to survive treatments that are generally effective at the recommended dose rate is considered a major threat to the current future control of worm parasites of small ruminants and horses.
The clinical definition of resistance is a 95% or less reduction in a "Fecal Egg Count" test.Clarifyme|date=January 2008
Development of resistance
Treatment eliminates worms whose genotype renders them susceptible.Worms that are resistant survive and pass on their "resistance" genes.Resistant worms accumulate and finally treatment failure occurs.
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