- Arithmetical hierarchy
mathematical logic, the arithmetical hierarchy, arithmetic hierarchy or Kleene hierarchy classifies certain sets based on the complexity of formulas that define them. Any set that receives a classification is called arithmetical.
The arithmetical hierarchy is important in
recursion theory, effective descriptive set theory, and the study of formal theories such as Peano arithmetic.
Tarski-Kuratowski algorithmprovides an easy way to get an upper bound on the classifications assigned to a formula and the set it defines.
hyperarithmetical hierarchyand the analytical hierarchyextend the arithmetical hierarchy to classify additional formulas and sets.
The arithmetical hierarchy of formulas
The arithmetical hierarchy assigns classifications to the formulas in the language of first-order arithmetic. The classifications are denoted and for natural numbers "n" (including 0). The Greek letters here are
lightfacesymbols, which indicates that the formulas do not contain set parameters.
If a formula is logically equivalent to a formula with only
bounded quantifiers then is assigned the classifications and .
The classifications and are defined inductively for every natural number "n" using the following rules:
*If is logically equivalent to a formula of the form , where is , then is assigned the classification .
*If is logically equivalent to a formula of the form , where is , then is assigned the classification .
Because every formula is equivalent to a formula in
prenex normal form, every formula with no set quantifiers is assigned at least one classification. Because meaningless quantifiers can be added to any formula, once a formula is assigned the classification or it will be assigned the classifications and for every "m" greater than "n". The most important classification assigned to a formula is thus the one with the least "n", because this is enough to determine all the other classifications.
The arithmetical hierarchy of sets of natural numbers
Say a set "X" is defined by formula φ(n) in the language of Peano arithmetic if . That is to say that the elements of "X" are exactly the numbers that satisfy φ. A set is definable in first order arithmetic if it is defined by some formula in the language of Peano arithmetic.
Each set "X" of natural numbers that is definable in first order arithmetic is assigned classifications of the form , , and , where is a natural number, as follows. If "X" is definable by a formula then is assigned the classification . If "X" is definable by a formula then is assigned the classification . If is both and then is assigned the additional classification .
Note that it rarely makes sense to speak of formulas; the first quantifier of a formula is either existential or universal. So a set is not defined by a formula; rather, there are both and formulas that define the set.
A parallel definition is used to define the arithmetical hierarchy on finite Cartesian powers of the natural numbers. Instead of formulas with one free variable, formulas with "k" free number variables are used to define the arithmetical hierarchy on sets of "k"-tuples of natural numbers.
Relativized arithmetical hierarchies
Just as we can define what it means for a set "X" to be
recursiverelative to another set "Y" by allowing the computation defining "X" to consult "Y" as an oracle we can extend this notion to the whole arithmetic hierarchy and define what it means for "X" to be , or in "Y", denoted respectively and . To do so fix a set of integers "Y" and add a predicate for membership in "Y" to the language of Peano arithmetic. We then say that "X" is in if it is defined by a formula in this expanded language. In other words "X" is if it is defined by a formula allowed to ask questions about membership in "Y". Alternatively one can view the sets as those sets that can be built starting with sets recursive in "Y" and alternatively projecting and taking the complements of these sets up to "n" times.
For example let "Y" be a set of integers. Let "X" be the set of numbers divisible by an element of Y. Then "X" is defined by the formula so "X" is in (actually it is in as well since we could bound both quantifiers by n).
Arithmetic reducibility and degrees
Arithmetical reducibility is an intermediate notion between
Turing reducibilityand hyperarithmetic reducibility.
A set is arithmetical (also arithmetic and arithmetically definable) if it is defined by some formula in the language of Peano arithmetic. Equivalently "X" is arithmetical if "X" is or for some integer "n". A set "X" is arithmetical in a set "Y", denoted , if "X" is definable a some formula in the language of Peano arithmetic extended by a predicate for membership in "Y". Equivalently, "X" is arithmetical in "Y" if "X" is in or for some integer "n". A synonym for is: "X" is arithmetically reducible to "Y"
The relation is reflexive and transitive, and thus the relation defined by the rule
:is an equivalence relation. The equivalence classes of this relation are called the arithmetic degrees; they are partially ordered under .
The arithmetical hierarchy of subsets of Cantor and Baire space
Cantor space, denoted , is the set of all infinite sequences of 0s and 1s; the Baire space, denoted or , is the set of all infinite sequences of natural numbers. Note that elements of the Cantor space can be identified with sets of integers and elements of the Baire space with functions from integers to integers.
The ordinary axiomatization of
second-order arithmeticuses a set-based language in which the set quantifiers can naturally be viewed as quantifying over Cantor space. A subset of Cantor space is assigned the classification if it is definable by a formula. The set is assigned the classification if it is definable by a formula. If the set is both and then it is given the additional classification . For example let be the set of all infinite binary strings which aren't all 0 (or equivalently the set of all non-empty sets of integers). As we see that is defined by a formula and hence is a set.
Note that while both the elements of the
Cantor space(regarded as sets of integers) and subsets of the Cantor space are classified in arithmetic hierarchies but these are not the same hierarchy. In fact the relationship between the two hierarchies is interesting and non-trivial. For instance the elements of the Cantor space are not (in general) the same as the elements of the Cantor space so that is a subset of the Cantor space. However, many interesting results relate the two hierarchies.
There are two ways that a subset of Baire space can be classified in the arithmetical hierarchy.
*A subset of Baire space has a corresponding subset of Cantor space under the map that takes each function from to to the
characteristic functionof its graph. A subset of Baire space is given the classification , , or if and only if the corresponding subset of Cantor space has the same classification.
*An equivalent definition of the analytical hierarchy on Baire space is given by defining the analytical hierarchy of formulas using a functional version of second-order arithmetic; then the analytical hierarchy on subsets of Cantor space can be defined from the hierarchy on Baire space. This alternate definition gives exactly the same classifications as the first definition.
A parallel definition is used to define the arithmetical hierarchy on finite Cartesian powers of Baire space or Cantor space, using formulas with several free variables. The arithmetical hierarchy can be defined on any
effective Polish space; the definition is particularly simple for Cantor space and Baire space because they fit with the language of ordinary second-order arithmetic.
Note that we can also define the arithmetic hierarchy of subsets of the Cantor and Baire spaces relative to some set of integers. In fact boldface is just the union of for all sets of integers "Y". Note that the boldface hierarchy is just the standard hierarchy of Borel sets.
Extensions and variations
It is possible to define the arithmetical hierarchy of formulas using a language extended with a function symbol for each
primitive recursive function. This variation slightly changes the classification of some sets.
A more semantic variation of the hierarchy can be defined on all finitary relations on the natural numbers; the following definition is used. Every computable relation is defined to be and . The classifications and are defined inductively with the following rules.
* If the relation is then the relation is defined to be
* If the relation is then the relation is defined to be This variation slightly changes the classification of some sets. It can be extended to cover finitary relations on the natural numbers, Baire space, and Cantor space.
Meaning of the notation
The following meanings can be attached to the notation for the arithmetical hierarchy on formulas.
The subscript in the symbols and indicates the number of alternations of blocks of universal and existential number quantifiers that are used in a formula. Moreover, the outermost block is existential in formulas and universal in formulas.
The superscript in the symbols , , and indicates the type of the objects being quantified over. Type 0 objects are natural numbers, and objects of type are functions that map the set of objects of type to the natural numbers. Quantification over higher type objects, such as functions from natural numbers to natural numbers, is described by a superscript greater than 0, as in the
analytical hierarchy. The superscript 0 indicates quantifiers over numbers, the superscript 1 would indicate quantification over functions from numbers to numbers (type 1 objects), the superscript 2 would correspond to quantification over functions that take a type 1 object and return a number, and so on.
* The sets of numbers are those definable by a formula of the form where has only bounded quantifiers. These are exactly the
recursively enumerable sets.
* The set of natural numbers that are indices for Turing machines that compute total functions is . Intuitively, an index falls into this set if and only if for every "there is an such that the Turing machine with index halts on input after steps”. A complete proof would show that the property displayed in quotes in the previous sentence is definable in the language of Peano arithmetic by a formula.
* Every subset of Baire space or Cantor space is an open set in the usual topology on the space. Moreover, for any such set there is a computable enumeration of Gödel numbers of basic open sets whose union is the original set. For this reason, sets are sometimes called "effectively open". Similarly, every set is closed and the sets are sometimes called "effectively closed".
* Every arithmetical subset of Cantor space of Baire space is a
Borel set. The lightface Borel hierarchy extends the arithmetical hierarchy to include additional Borel sets. For example, every subset of Cantor or Baire space is a set (that is, a set which equals the intersection of countably many open sets). Moreover, each of these open sets is and the list of Gödel numbers of these open sets has a computable enumeration. If is a formula with a free set variable "X" and free number variables then the set is the intersection of the sets of the form as "n" ranges over the set of natural numbers.
The following properties hold for the arithmetical hierarchy of sets of natural numbers and the arithmetical hierarchy of subsets of Cantor or Baire space.
* The collections and are closed under finite unions and finite intersections of their respective elements.
* A set is if and only if its complement is . A set is if and only if the set is both and , in which case its complement will also be .
* The inclusions and hold for .
* The inclusions and hold for all and the inclusion holds for . Thus the hierarchy does not collapse.
Relation to Turing machines
The Turing computable sets of natural numbers are exactly the sets at level of the arithmetical hierarchy. The recursively enumerable sets are exactly the sets at level .
oracle machineis capable of solving its own halting problem(a variation of Turing's proof applies). The halting problem for a oracle in fact sits in . Post's theoremestablishes a close connection between the arithmetical hierarchy of sets of natural numbers and the Turing degrees. In particular, it establishes the following facts:
* The set (the "n"th
Turing jumpof the empty set) is many-one complete in .
* The set is many-one complete in .
* The set is Turing complete in .
polynomial hierarchyis a "feasible resource-bounded" version of the arithmetical hierarchy in which polynomial length bounds are placed on the numbers involved (or, equivalently, polynomial time bounds are placed on the Turing machines involved). It gives a finer classification of some sets of natural numbers that are at level of the arithmetical hierarchy.
Effective descriptive set theory
* [http://www.csc.villanova.edu/~japaridz/ G.Japaridze] , "The logic of the arithmetical hierarchy",
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic66 (1994), pp.89-112.
* cite book | author=Rogers, H. | title= Theory of recursive functions and effective computability
publisher=McGraw-Hill | year=1967
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