infobox UK place
country = Scotland
gaelic_name= Cille MhaolChaluim
population= c. 4500 (village) c.7000 (parish) [ [http://homepages.nildram.co.uk/~mckirdy/pages/population.htm New Page 0 ] ]
postcode_district = PA13
David Cairns(Lab), Inverclyde
Trish Godman(Lab), West Renfrewshire West of Scotland
Kilmacolm is a
villagein the council area of Inverclydeand the historic county of Renfrewshire in the west Central Lowlandsof Scotland. It lies on the northern slope of the Gryffe Valleyseven miles south-east of Greenockand around fourteen miles west of the city of Glasgow. The village stands distinct from a belt of other nearby villages which together form a number of commuter settlements serving the nearby urban centres. Kilmacolm retains its own community with a small commercial centre and is also reputed to have more millionairesper capita than any other town in Scotland. [ [http://property.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/property/article1160220.ece Scotland's Best Towns: Join the Kilmacolm set - Times Online ] ]
The village lends its name to a
civil parish, which also includes the neighbouring settlement of Quarrier's Villageand a large rural hinterland of some 15,000 hectares. The population of the village stands at around 4,000, rising to 6,500 for the entire parish.
Kilmacolm takes its name (which translates from
Scots Gaelicas 'Cell (or Church) of Columba) from the dedicationof its ancient church of St. Columbaof Iona. The aisleof this 13th centurychurch adjoins the newer parish church of 1833, now known as the Old Kirk, the site of which has seen religious use since the sixth century. Traditionally it is believed this was the location of a cordial meeting between Columba and St Mungo, patron saint of Glasgow. [http://www.kilmacolmoldkirk.org.uk/about.html Old Kirk website 'about us' section; http://www.theadvertizer.co.uk/gallery/viewImage.asp?imageID=151&catID=19 - the meeting commemorated in the stained glass windows of the Old Kirk]
Kilmacolm has been settled since the
Stone Agewith traces of pottery and tools found in the area dating back to 1600 BC [ [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~strat3926/Ptrfld/kilmacolm-porterfields.htm Kilmacolm And The Porterfields ] ] . During the Roman occupation of Britain, a fort was built at nearby Whitemoss, with a more significant one on Barochan Hill outside of neighbouring Houston. The Romans' continued presence as far north as Kilmacolm was, however, short lived.
Around the church, houses were built for the agricultural workers and
tradersof the district, but it was after 1836that the village's character changed somewhat and larger, grander houses started to be built.
Duchal Castle"Duchal Castle, on the outskirts of Kilmacolm, was constructed by Ralph de l’Isle (later Anglicised to Lyle) and remained in the family until purchased by the Porterfields in 1544 who remained there until 1710 when much of it was deconstructed and the stone used to build a new home further down the River Gryffe. The name 'duchal' means 'between two rivers' and this indeed is reflected in the Castle's position, set between Green Water and its tributary, the Blacketty Water.
Most significant in the Castle's history was its siege by King
James IV of Scotland, following the Lyle's support of an insurrection against him. According to accounts, the inhabitants of the Castle surrendered immediately on the sight of the famous Mons Megcannon being rolled into position against them.
The Porterfields were staunch
Covenanters and Duchal was widely seen as a refuge when the profession of such sympathies was criminalised and conventicleswere held on the natural amphitheatrewhich is positioned within the present-day 14th hole of the Kilmacolm Golf Club. The estated was sequestered in 1684and the men of the Porterfield family arrested; it was however returned following the Glorious Revolution.
The new Duchal is now known as Duchal House and occupied by the Rt Hon The Lord Maclay, who serves as the Deputy
Lord Lieutenantfor the village. [ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199293/cmhansrd/1993-01-22/Writtens-6.html House of Commons Hansard Debates for 22 Jan 1993 ] ]
The castle is currently abandoned and ruined, and is accessible by a small farm road.
Rail connection & early expansion
With the arrival of the Greenock and Ayrshire railway in 1869, which ran from Greenock to the terminus of the
Glasgow and South Western Railwayat Bridge of Weir, Kilmacolm became a desirable dormitory settlement for Glasgow. As a result many attractive Victorian villas were constructed, and a significant spa hotel (the Hydropathic) was erected. Stopping passenger services from Glasgow St Enoch station ceased beyond Kilmacolm in 1959 and Kilmacolm became the western terminus of the Paisley Canal Railwayline in 1966. The line from Glasgow was closed completely in 1983, although it has been reopened from Glasgow Central station to Paisley Canal Station. The track has been converted into a cycle path, and is now part of the Clyde to Forth cycle route (National Cycle Route 75).
Religion has had a significant impact in Kilmacolm's history. It was the site where
John Knoxperformed what was possibly the first Protestant communion in Scotland, a centre for Covenantersand a home for numerous historic religious festivals - often accompanied by drinking and 'riotous behaviour'. [ [http://birlinn.birlinn.co.uk/book/details/Kilmacolm-9781841586212/ Books: Kilmacolm ] ]
The Parish Church, known as the "Old
Kirk", is ancient in origin. It's chancel dates back to the 13th century and is incorporated into the modern structure, built in 1830 as a replacement for a structurally unsound 16th century main building, as the Murray Chapel. [ [http://guide.visitscotland.com/vs/guide/5,en,SCH1/objectId,INF52204Svs,curr,GBP,season,at1,selectedEntry,home/home.html Visitscotland Kilmacolm Old Kirk Kilmalcolm Place of Worship Welcome ] ] . As the village evolved, a number of more recent additions to the religious life of Kilmacolm have come and often gone.
In 1858, a number of the Parish's inhabitants broke away to form a United Presbyterian church in what had until recently been the abandoned Reformed Presbyterian Church. In 1868 the Church of St James was constructed on the site which now houses the
Royal Bank of Scotlandbranch and lends its name to the town's main shopping terrace.
Again in 1900 that a new church was planned, being completed in 1903 - formerly St James Church, now the presently standing St Columba's Church, which dominates the village's skyline. The church, by various unions, has now become part of the
Church of Scotland, alongside the Old Kirk.
Another St Columba's Church existed in the village due to another schism in the parish in the 1870s. The church stood on Bridge of Weir Road, and is recorded as standing in 1907 although the date of its construction is unknown. The magnificent spire and much of the church was demolished in the 1960s, but the main hall still remains and serves as the Kilmacolm
Masonic Templefacing onto Glebe Road. The slates from the roof of the old church were used on the roof of "The Glen" being built at that time in Glencairn Road. When the church was demolished, the name St Columba's church passed to the former St James Church.
In the modern day, there are a number of other smaller but notable churches in the village. Kilmacolm forms part of the Episcopalian (
Anglican) Diocese of Glasgow and Gallowayand is served by St Fillan's Church. It also falls within the Roman Catholic Diocese of Paisleyand was formerly associated with the Parish of Bishopton. Since the construction of its first church, St Colm's, in 1945 it has become an independent parish.
The village today
Kilmacolm remains a dormitory settlement, although it has expanded less in recent years than many similar small towns and villages. As of the 2001 Census, it has a population of 4,000.
Notable in the area is the moot-hill (ancient crowning place) near River Gryffe and the
ruinsof the Norman church of St. Fillan. To the north of the Village, towards Port Glasgow, are the remains of a Roman Fortlet, an outpost on the Antonine Wall. Charles Rennie Mackintoshdesigned a house in the village (Windyhill).
The village centre is fairly extensive for a town of Kilmacolm's size and consists mainly of the streets around St James' Terrace and the cross where Lochwinnoch Road (B786) meets Market Place and the Port Glasgow and Bridge of Weir roads (A761) join.
There are a number of small shops, cafes and restaurants and two community centres: the old schoolhouse and the present library. Outside the front of the schoolhouse is a rather odd-looking
For many years the village lacked a public house; this was unusual for a village of its size and was due mainly to local regulations preventing the issuing of full alcohol licenses following a poll of villagers taken under the Temperance Act in 1920. This prohibition also contributed to the economic problems of the former Hydropathic Hotel. The site of the former station has now been converted into a
public housenamed the Pullman Tavern while the railway line has now become a cycle path.
There is presently a proposal [ [http://homepages.nildram.co.uk/~mckirdy/ New Page 1 ] ] to create a new community centre out of the old Victorian schoolhouse and surrounding buildings given that the present 19th centre and library building (the former Buchanan Arms Hotel) has become structurally unsound.
There are at present two schools in Kilmacolm: one state primary and a private school offering both primary and secondary education.
The first village schoolhouse was opened in the village in
1858, and the majority of its exists derelict to this day. However with the increase in population and the compulsory education introduced by the parish school board in 1889 under the Education (Scotland) Act 1872, the small building could no longer cope with demand. As such, in 1888 a larger building was constructed adjacent to the old with accommodation for 600 pupils which is now used as a Village Hall. The state schoolnow remaining in the village is Kilmacolm Primary School which has been moved to a 1960s building.
Historically, a number of small schools have existed within the parish boundaries. Many children were educated within the Orphan Homes which have become
Quarrier's Village. A long-lasting dispute arose in the last years of the 19th century over the education of these children; while rates were paid, the children were schooled within the Homes privately. In protest, in 1898 over eight hundred children were marched by William Quarrierto the gates of the parish schoolhouse where he demanded they were enrolled - a quite impossible task. The dispute also was carried out in the courts, with a case going all the way to the House of Lords. Resolution eventually came when state funding was given to the Homes covering most of the educational costs of the children there.
The area falls within the state school catchment area for
Port GlasgowHigh School. However popular schools locally include Greenock Academy, Greenock High School, GourockHigh School or Gryffe High School at Houston, or a number of private schools in Glasgow.
1897saw the creation of St Columba's, an independent girls' school, in the village. There was also a separate boys' preparatory school, Dardenne, which no longer exists following St Columba's becoming co-educationalin 1982. St Columba's consists of both a junior and senior school.
St Columba's is housed over two sites - Shallott, on Birkmyre Park, is the former residence of the Birkmyre family and houses the junior school; land beside it is used to house St Columba's various sporting facilities. The senior school, for which extensive renovation plans are being drafted, sits on Duchal Road to the south of the village centre, near its astroturf sporting ground.
Parks and recreation
The village has two main parks, despite being in an open country setting.
Birkmyre Park is located to the north of the village centre and was donated by Adam Birkmyre (1848-1906), a family owner of the Gourock Ropework Company, on the 7th of June 1890 and has been held in trust by the village (and subsequently the local authority) since 1897 "for the use, benefit, enjoyment and recreation of the public in all time coming." [http://www.portglasgow4u.co.uk/birkmyre/birkmyrepark.html Quoted section of the Birkmyre Trust document] The Park has a number of tennis courts, rugby pitches and a putting green and is home to the Birkmyre Rugby Club. The main area is used for athletics,
association footballor cricketdepending on the season. The present pavilion is being modified to house a gym and cafe and shall be reopened in summer 2008.
A fair is held in Birkmyre Park over one weekend in May at the same time as the agricultural show mentioned below.
The other park is considerably smaller and located on West Glen Road. It formerly had a large pond, but this has recently been filled in as it was unmaintained and considered a hazard.
Craigmarloch Wood lies opposite Leperstone Loch overlooking the Firth of Clyde. A semi-ancient woodland, it has the remains of a Vitrified Iron Age Fort, last surveyed in the early 1960s. Sessile Oak and Scots Pine probably planted in the 1700-1800s with raised bog areas. Serious arson attacks have destroyed some areas and natural regrowth is now encouraged. The Craigmarloch Wood Project, a not for profit organisation, has now been set up to manage the area.
Aside from these, the local Duchal and Milton Woods, and the Knapps Loch are popular locations for similar pursuits. The Knapps is the location of the local agricultural show as well as the
Bonfire Nightcelebrations held by the Kilmacolm & Quarriers Village Conservative & Unionist Party. There is also a Wildlife Reserve to the south east, administered by the Scottish Wildlife Trust [http://www.swt.org.uk/wildlife/popup_reserves/west/glenmoss.htm Glen Moss Wildlife Reserve] and Clyde Muirshiel Regional Parkhas a Visitors' Centre and camp site located in the country a short distance from the village.
There is also a Kilmacolm Golf Club [http://www.kilmacolmgolfclub.com/ Kilmacolm Golf Club website] .
Kilmacolm and Quarrier's Village are governed as part of the local authority area of
Inverclyde. In local council elections, Kilmacolm was a safe Conservative wardand typically elected the only Conservative member to the council. [ [http://www.alba.org.uk/localby/kilmacolm.html Kilmacolm (Inverclyde) 8 th February 2001 ] ] Following the death of Councillor Alex Calvert, a by-election was held in the village on 8 February 2001. Turnout fell to 43.9%, down from 65.3% in the 1999 election, and turned Kilmacolm into a Tory-Liberal Democrat marginal ward, with the Conservatives' - represented by the former councillor's wife, Helen Calvert - lead being slashed 29% to 6%.
In 2003, Liberal Democrat Tom Fyfe was elected by a narrow margin in Kilmacolm, also marking the return of control of Inverclyde Council from Labour to the Lib Dems.
Following the introduction of
proportional representationin local council elections, Kilmacolm was joined with Port Glasgowto create a four-member ward known as Inverclyde East in time for the 2007 local elections. The four councillors currently representing the ward are Tom Fyfe (Liberal Democrat), Jim Macleod ( Scottish National Party), Stephen McCabe (Labour), and David Wilson (Conservative) [ [http://election.theherald.co.uk/results2007/wardbyward/display.var.1375688.0.inverclyde.php Inverclyde (from The Herald Election Site) ] ] .
The village also has a
community councilto represent it. It is now part of the West Renfrewshire Scottish Parliament constituency and the West of Scotland region. For elections to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, it now falls within the Inverclyde constituency having previously been associated with the constituency of Renfrewshire West.
Kilmacolm is also a wider
civil parish, covering an area of forty eight square miles, bordering the parishes of Erskine, Greenock, Houston & Killellan, Inverkip, Kilbarchan, Largs, Lochwinnochand Port Glasgow. [ [http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/parishes/parfirst752.html Overview of Kilmacolm ] ] Such parishes are little used by modern government, but remain for statistical and some other purposes. The population of the Parish of Kilmacolm is circa 7000.
Located around a mile and quarter south of the village is the settlement of
Quarrier's Village, built by the Glasgow philanthropist William Quarrieras a children's home in several cottage-style settings. The cottages no longer serve this function and are almost entirely private homes. Quarrier's Village falls within the civil parish and community council area of Kilmacolm, and both have in the past shared numerous functions such as school boards. A great deal of residential development has taken place in Quarrier's in the past decade and is ongoing, expanding its size considerably.
* [http://www.kilmacolm.org.uk Kilmacolm Community website]
* [http://www.kilmacolmcivictrust.org/ Kilmacolm Civic Trust website]
* [http://www.theadvertizer.co.uk/gallery/viewCategory.asp?catID=19 A gallery of photographs of Kilmacolm]
* [http://www.rcahms.gov.uk/pls/portal/newcanmore.details_gis?inumlink=42298 RCHAMS Entry on Duchal Castle]
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