- Umkhonto we Sizwe
: "For other uses of Umkhonto, see
Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated "Spear of the Nation," was the active military wing of the
African National Congressin cooperation with the South African Communist Partyin their fight against the South African apartheidgovernment.cite web|url=http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/manifesto-mk.html |title=Manifesto of Umkhonto we Sizwe|publisher= African National Congress|date=16 December 1961|accessdate=2006-12-30] MK launched its first guerrilla attacks against government installations on 16 December 1961. It was subsequently classified as a terrorist organisation by the South African government and media, and banned.
For a time it was headquartered in
Rivonia, a suburb of Johannesburg. On 11 July 1963, 19 ANC and MK leaders, including Arthur Goldreich and Walter Sisulu, were arrested at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia (coord|26|2|36|S|28|3|15|E|type:landmark_region:ZA|name=Liliesleaf Farm). The farm was privately owned by Arthur Goldreichand bought with SACP ( South African Communist Party) funds. This was followed by the Rivonia Trial, in which ten leaders of the ANC were tried for 221 acts of sabotagedesigned to "foment violent revolution". Wilton Mkwayi, chief of MK at the time, escaped during trial.
The MK carried out numerous
bombings of military, industrial, civilian and infrastructural sites. The tactics were initially geared solely towards sabotage, but eventually expanded to include urban guerrilla warfare. Notable among these were the 8 January 1982attack on the Koebergnuclear power plant near Cape Town, coinciding with the 70th anniversary of the formation of the ANC, the Church Street bombingon 20 May 1983, killing 19, and the 14 June 1986car-bombing of Magoo's Bar in Durban, in which 3 people were killed and 73 injured. The total number of people killed or injured in the 30 years of MK's campaigns is not known exactly. MK alone was not a military threat to the apartheid state, but the ANC leadership saw MK as the armed component of a strategy of "people's war" that was primarily geared towards mobilizing mass political support.
MK suspended operations on
1 August 1990in preparation for the dismantling of apartheid, and was finally integrated into the South African National Defence Forceby 1994.
Motivation for formation of the MK
Nelson Mandela, all of the founding members of the MK, including himself, were also members of the ANC. In his famous "I am prepared to die" speech, Mandela outlined the motivations which led to the formation of the MK:
Firstly, we believed that as a result of Government policy, violence by the African people had become inevitable, and that unless responsible leadership was given to canalize and control the feelings of our people, there would be outbreaks of terrorism which would produce an intensity of bitterness and hostility between the various races of this country which is not produced even by war. Secondly, we felt that without violence there would be no way open to the African people to succeed in their struggle against the principle of white supremacy. All lawful modes of expressing opposition to this principle had been closed by legislation, and we were placed in a position in which we had either to accept a permanent state of inferiority, or to defy the Government. We chose to defy the law. We first broke the law in a way which avoided any recourse to violence; when this form was legislated against, and then the Government resorted to a show of force to crush opposition to its policies, only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.
MK's military campaign
Units of ANC exiles had MK camps in the "frontline" states neighbouring South Africa, most prominently Angola where MK was allied to the
MPLAgovernment, and fought alongside Angolan and Cuban troops at the critical engagement in Cuito Cuanavale. MK fighters were also allied with ZAPU(rival to Robert Mugabe's ZANU) in then-Rhodesia, with FRELIMOin Mozambique, and with SWAPOin Namibia.
Following the suppression of MK inside South Africa in the late 1960s the organsiations cadres undertook military actions against the Rhodesian army (in, it was hoped, a prelude to crossing into South Africa itself). In
1965MK formally allied itself with ZIPRAand in July 1967a joint MK/ZIPRA commando crossed into Rhodesia. The mission was a failure at both tactical and strategic levels, though the joint MK/ZIPRA detachment engaged the Rhodesian army in heavy firefights over the next year and academic sources have suggested that the cadres of the revolutionary armies acquitted themselves well enough for the Rhodesians to ask for South African assistance [http://rapidttp.com/milhist/vol115rw.html] .
The early 1970s were a low point for the ANC in many ways, and that included in the military fields. Attempts to rebuild MK inside South Africa resulted in many losses though some, including
Chris Hani, were able to remain undetected for a long period.
The Soweto Uprising of 1976 led to a large exodus of young black men and women, anxious to strike back at the apartheid regime, across the border seeking military training. And whilst Umkhonto we Sizwe were able to build a new Army - one capable of attacking prestige targets such as the refineries at
Sasolburg- the force also suffered from appalling breakdowns of discipline and there were many accusations that some new recruits were being tortured or killed by a physical training regime that was out of control, like forcing recruits to run 45 kilometres without resting, lifting weights as heavy as 150 kiolgrams , etc.
By the mid 1980s MK was concentrating on both "propaganda by deed" - namely high profile attacks on prestige targets to demonstrate to the world the depth of resistance to apartheid as well as display to the majority population that resistance was possible (see below for a discussion of the controversies that followed) - and on building liberated zones inside the townships.
Landmark events in MK's military activity inside South Africa consisted of actions designed to intimidate the ruling power. In 1983, the Church Street bomb was detonated in Pretoria near the SA Air Force Headquarters, resulting in 19 fatalities and 217 persons injured, some of whom were military, and many were civilians. During the next 10 years, a series of bombings occurred in South Africa, conducted mainly by the military wing of the African National Congress.
In the Amanzimtoti bomb on the Natal South Coast in 1985, five civilians were killed and 40 were injured when MK cadre Andrew Sibusiso Zondo detonated an explosive in a rubbish bin at a shopping centre. In a submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), the ANC stated that Zondo acted in anger at a recent
SADFraid in Lesotho. [cite journal | quotes = | date = | year = | month = | title = The Liberation Movements from 1960 to 1990 | journal = Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report | volume = 2 | issue = | pages = 330 | publisher = Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)| url = http://www.doj.gov.za/trc/report/finalreport/TRC%20VOLUME%202.pdf | quote = ]
A bomb was detonated in a bar on the Durban beach-front in 1986, killing three persons and injuring 69.
Robert McBridereceived amnesty for this bombing which became known as the "Magoo's Bar bombing".
In 1987, an explosion outside a Johannesburg court killed three people and injured 10; a court in Newcastle had been attacked in a similar way the previous year, injuring 24. In 1987, a bomb exploded at a military command centre in Johannesburg, killing one person and injuring 68 military or civilian personnel.
The bombing campaign continued with attacks on a series of soft targets, including a bank in Roodepoort in 1988, which four were killed and 18 injured. Also in 1988, in a bomb detonation outside a magistrate’s court killed three. At the Ellis Park rugby stadium in Johannesburg, a car bomb, killed two and injured 37. A multitude of bombs in “Wimpy Bar” fast food outlets and supermarkets occurred during the late 1980s, killing and wounding many people. In most of these events the victims were civilians, and of all races. Several other bombings occurred, with smaller numbers of casualties.
The TRC later found that in the case of the Durban beach front and Magoo's Bar bombings, these acts constituted "gross violations of human rights". [cite journal | quotes = | date = | year = | month = | title = The Liberation Movements from 1960 to 1990 | journal = Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report | volume = 2 | issue = | pages = 333 | publisher =
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)| url = http://www.doj.gov.za/trc/report/finalreport/TRC%20VOLUME%202.pdf | quote = THE CONSEQUENCE IN THESE CASES, SUCH AS THE MAGOO’S BAR AND THE DURBAN ESPLANADE BOMBINGS, WERE GROSS VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THAT THEY RESULTED IN INJURIES TO AND THE DEATHS OF CIVILIANS. ]
From 1985 to 1987, there also was a campaign to mine rural roads used by security forces in what was then the Northern Transvaal. In submissions to the TRC, the ANC described the strategy and how they abandoned it due to the high rate of civilian casualties—especially amongst black labourers. The ANC estimated 30 landmine explosions resulting in 23 deaths, while the National Party submitted a figure of 57 explosions resulting in 25 deaths. [cite journal | quotes = | date = | year = | month = | title = The Liberation Movements from 1960 to 1990 | journal = Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report | volume = 2 | issue = | pages = 333 | publisher =
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)| url = http://www.doj.gov.za/trc/report/finalreport/TRC%20VOLUME%202.pdf]
The TRC found that it could not condone the use of landmine because of the indiscriminate nature of the weapon which inevitably resulted in gross violations of human rights, but gives the ANC credit for abandoning the strategy. [cite journal | quotes = | date = | year = | month = | title = The Liberation Movements from 1960 to 1990 | journal = Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report | volume = 2 | issue = | pages = 334 | publisher =
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)| url = http://www.doj.gov.za/trc/report/finalreport/TRC%20VOLUME%202.pdf]
Torture and executions
The TRC found several instances of torture—even though it wasn't official policy— and executions "without due process" at ANC detention camps particularly in the period of 1979—1989. [cite journal | quotes = | date = | year = | month = | title = The Liberation Movements from 1960 to 1990 | journal = Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report | volume = 2 | issue = | pages = 366 | publisher =
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa)| url = http://www.doj.gov.za/trc/report/finalreport/TRC%20VOLUME%202.pdf | quote = THE COMMISSION FINDS THAT ‘SUSPECTED AGENTS’ WERE ROUTINELY SUBJECTED TO TORTURE AND OTHER FORMS OF SEVERE ILL-TREATMENT AND THAT THERE WERE CASES WHERE SUCH INDIVIDUALS WERE CHARGED AND CONVICTED BY TRIBUNALS WITHOUT PROPER ATTENTION TO DUE PROCESS BEING AFFORDED THEM, SENTENCED TO DEATH AND EXECUTED.]
MK's popular influence
In 1988, musician
Prince Far-I's album 'Spear of a Nation: Umkhonto we Sizwe' was released (posthumously) in an act of solidarity with the MK.
Zimbabwean-born African-American author and filmmaker
M.K. Asante, Jr.embraced the initials MK after Umkhonto we Sizwe.
UC Irvine professor Frank Wilderson III writes about his experience working with MK in his 2008 memoirs Incognegro [http://www.southendpress.org/2007/items/87835] .
Well known MK members
Nelson Mandela, who helped found the organization [http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/rivonia.html Statement of Nelson Mandela at Rivonia trial] ]
History of South Africa
Military history of South Africa
* [http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/mk/ Collection of Umkhonto we Sizwe documents] - from anc.org, timeline and manifesto.
* [http://rapidttp.com/milhist/vol115rw.html The other armies: A brief historical overview of Umkhonto We Sizwe (MK), 1961-1994] - The South African Military History Society (Military History Journal - Vol 11 No 5)
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Umkhonto we sizwe — Apartheid Évènements Massacre de Sharpeville Émeutes de Soweto · Procès de la trahison · Procès de Rivonia · Attentat de Church Street (Pretoria) · CODESA · St James Church massacre · Attentat d Amanzimtoti Organisations … Wikipédia en Français
Umkhonto we Sizwe — (Abkürzung MK; Zulu: „Der Speer der Nation“) war der militärische Arm der Organisation African National Congress (ANC), der sich gegen die Apartheid in Südafrika einsetzte. Das Symbol des Speers wurde gewählt, weil schwarze Afrikaner mit dieser… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Umkhonto we Sizwe — Apartheid Évènements Massacre de Sharpeville Émeutes de Soweto · Procès de la trahison · Procès de Rivonia · Attentat de Church Street (Pretoria) · Négociations sur le démantèlement de l apartheid en Afrique du Sud · Massacre de Boipatong ·… … Wikipédia en Français
Umkhonto we Sizwe — … Useful english dictionary
Umkhonto We Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) — Infobox Album Name = Umkhonto We Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) Type = studio Artist = Prince Far I Released = 1984 Recorded = Genre = Reggae Length = Label = Producer = Reviews = Last album = This album = Next album = : For the South African… … Wikipedia
Umkhonto — may refer to:* Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa. * Umkhonto missile, a South African surface to air missile. * Umkhonto We Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) , a reggae album by Prince Far I … Wikipedia
Umkonto we Sizwe — Umkhonto We Sizwe (Abkürzung MK; Zulu: „Der Speer der Nation“) war der militärische Arm der Organisation African National Congress (ANC), der sich gegen die Apartheid in Südafrika einsetzte. Das Symbol des Speers wurde gewählt, weil schwarze… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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