settlement_type = Town
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = TUR
map_caption =Location of Adana within Turkey.
official_name = Adana
image_caption = A view from the northern part of Adana
blank_emblem_type = Coat of Arms of Adana Municipality
subdivision_name1 = Mediterranean
subdivision_name2 = Adana
population_total = 1,530,257, of which 1,366,027 urban
population_as_of = 2007
population_footnotes = [http://www.tuik.gov.tr/jsp/duyuru/upload/adnks_Harita_TR/HaritaTR.html Türkiye istatistik kurumu] Address-based population survey 2007. Retrieved on 2008-03-21. ]
population_density_km2 = 786.76
area_total_km2 = 1945.00
elevation_m = 23
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Adana
latd = 37
latm = 0
longd = 35
longm = 19.28
postal_code = 01xxx
area_code = 0322
blank_info = 01|blank_name=Licence plate
website = [http://www.adana.bel.tr/?dil=en http://www.adana.bel.tr]
leader_name1 = İlhan ATIŞ
gwebsite = [http://www.adana.gov.tr/?dil=en http://www.adana.gov.tr]
Adana (the ancient "Antioch in Cilicia" or "Antioch on the Sarus") is the capital of
Adana Provincein Turkey. The city administrates two districts, Seyhan and Yüreğir, with a total population of 1,530,257 and an area of 1,945 km². [http://www.statoids.com/ytr.html Statoids, Districts of Turkey] Retrieved on 2008-03-21. ] It is the fifth most populous city of Turkey(after Istanbul, Ankara, İzmirand Bursa).
Turkish people, the word 'Adana' associates with Kebab, şalgam, cotton, oranges and very hot weather.
Adana is named among the 25 "European Regions of the Future" for 2006/2007 by
Foreign Direct InvestmentMagazine. Chosen alongside Kocaelifor Turkey, Adana scored the most points for cost effectiveness against Kocaeli's points for infrastructure development, while Adana and Kocaeli tied on points for the categories of human resources and quality of life. [cite web | url = http://www.fdimagazine.com/news/fullstory.php/aid/1544/EUROPEAN_CITIES___REGIONS_OF_THE_FUTURE_2006_07.html | title = European Regions of the Future|author=|publisher=Foreign Direct Investment Magazine | accessdate= ]
One of the largest and most dynamic cities in Turkey and situated thirty kilometers (nineteen miles) inland, Adana is the gateway to the
Cilician plain, now known as the Çukurovaplain, the large stretch of flat and fertile land which lies to the south-east of the Taurus Mountains. This is possibly the most productive area in this part of the world.
From Adana, crossing the Çukurova going west, the road from Tarsus enters the foothills of the Taurus Mountains. The temperature decreases with every foot of ascent; the road reaches an altitude of nearly convert|4000|ft|m. It goes through the famous Cilician or Çukurova Gates, the rocky pass through which armies have coursed since the dawn of history, and continues to the Anatolian plain.
The north of the city is surrounded by the Seyhan reservoir and HEP, which was completed in 1956. The dam has constructed for hydroelectric power (HEP) and to provide irrigation water to the lower part of Çukurova plain, agricultural cultivating area located in the south part of the city. Two irrigation channels in the city flow to the plain passing through the city center from east to west. Also there is another canal for irrigating the Yüreğir plain to the southeast of the city.
Adana has a typical Mediterranean climate. Winters are warm and summers are hot and humid. Winters are about 13° to 15°C, and very humid and summers are 34° to 46°C.
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Some claim that the name is derived from the Hittite URUAdaniya of
Kizzuwatna, while others contend that it is related with the legendary Danausand the Danaoi, a legendary Greek tribe. In the " Iliad" of Homer, the city is called "Adana". In Hellenistic times, it was known as Antiochia in Cilicia ( _el. Αντιόχεια της Κιλικίας) or Antiochia ad Sarum (Greek: Αντιόχεια η προς Σάρον; "Antiocia on the Sarus"). The editors of "The Helsinki Atlas" tentatively identify Adana as Quwê (as contained in cuneiform tablets), the Neo-Assyrian capital of Quwêprovince. The name also appears as Coa, and may be the place referred to in the Bible, where King Solomonobtained horses. (I Kings 10:28; II Chron. 1:16). [ [http://www.innvista.com/culture/religion/bible/compare/horses.htm Innvista - Horses from Egypt and Kue] ]
The name of the city is believed to have come from a legend that Adanus and Sarus, two sons of Uranus, came to a place near the Seyhan River where they built Adana.
Alternatively, it is believed that Adad (Tesup), the name of the Hittite Thunder God that lived in the forest was given to the region. The Hittites ideas, names and writings have been found in the area so this is a strong possibility. The theory goes that since the Thunder God brought so much rain and this rain in turn brought such great abundance in this particular region, this god was loved and respected by its inhabitants and, in his honor, the region was called the 'Uru Adaniyya'; in other words 'The Region of Ada'.
Adana's name has had many different versions over the centuries: Adanos, Ta Adana, Uru Adaniya, Erdene, Edene, Ezene, Batana, Atana, Azana, Addane.
The history of Adana is intrinsically linked to the history of Tarsus; they seem often to be the same city, moving as the neighbouring
Seyhan Riverchanged its position, and the name changed too over the course of centuries. Adana was of little importance in ancient history, while Tarsus was the metropolis of the area. Also, Ayas (today Yumurtalık), and Kozan (formerly Sis) have been population and administrative centers, especially during the time of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The history of Adana goes back more than 3000 years; finds in the region reveal human occupation of the area during the PaleolithicAge. Tepebag Tumulus, where archaeologists found a stone wall and a city center, was built in the NeolithicAge; it is considered to be the oldest city of the Ciliciaregion.
An "Adana" is mentioned by name in a
Sumerian epic, the Epic of Gilgamesh, but the geography of this work is too imprecise to identify its location.
According to the
Hittiteinscription of Kava, found in Hattusa( Boğazkale), Kizzuwatnawas the first kingdom that ruled Adana, under the protection of the Hittites by 1335 BC. In that time, the name of the city was "Uru Adaniyya", and the inhabitants were called Danuna.
Beginning with the collapse of the Hittite Empire, c. 1191-1189 BC, invasions from the west caused a number of small kingdoms to take control of the plain, as follows:
Kue Assyrians, 9th century BC; Cilician Kingdom, Persians, 6th century BC; Alexander the Greatin 333 BC; Seleucids; and the pirates of Cilicia and Roman statesman Pompey the Great.
During the era of Pompey, the city was used as a prison for the pirates of Cilicia. For several centuries thereafter, it was a
waystationon a Roman military road leading to the East. After the split of the Roman Empire, the area became part of the Byzantine Empire, and was probably developed during the time of Julian. With the building of large bridges, roads, government buildings, and irrigation and plantation, Adana and Cilicia became the most developed and important trade centers of the region.
In the mid 7th century, the city was captured by the Arab
Abbasids. According to an Arab historian of that era, the name of the city was derived from Ezene, the prophet Yazene's grandson.
The Byzantines recaptured Adana in 964. After the victory of
Alp Arslanat the Battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk Turksoverran much of the Byzantine Empire. They had reached and captured Adana sometime before 1071 and continued to hold the place until Tancred, a leader of the First Crusade, captured the city in 1097.
In 1132, it was captured by the forces of the
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, under its king, Leo I. It was taken by Byzantine forces in 1137, but the Armenians regained it around 1170. In 1268 there was a terrible earthquake which destroyed much of the city. Adana was rebuilt and remained a part of the Kingdom of Cilician Armenia until around 1360, when the city was ceded by Constantine III to the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt in return for obtaining a peace treaty. The Mamluks' capture of the city allowed many Turkish families to settle in it. The Ramazanoğlufamily, one of the Turkish families brought by the Mamluks, ruled Adana until the Ottomans captured the city.
From the end of the Renaissance to the modern era (1517–1918), the
Ottoman Empireruled the area.
In the 1830s, in order to secure Egypt's independence for the Ottoman Empire, the army of
Muhammad Ali Pasha, the viceroy of Egypt, invaded Syria on two occasions, and reached the Adana plain. The subsequent peace treaty secured Egypt's independence, but (at the insistence of Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) required the evacuation of all Egyptian forces from Syria, and its return to Ottoman sovereignty. In the aftermath, Adana was established as a province in its own right.
In 1909 Adana was the location of the "
Adana massacre". ["Encyclopædia Britannica", 11th edition (1911), "sv." Adana; for the Adana massacre, "sv." Turkey (vol. 27, p. 464c).] Turkish scholars and some others refer to the event as the "Adana rebellion", based on a thesis of its underlying causes. [Justin McCarthy, [http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/yayinlar/yayin1/4-McCarty(65-85).pdf "The Population of the Ottoman Armenians"] , page(65-85)]
After World War I, the Ottoman government surrendered control of the city to French troops, and an Armenian troop equipped by French was sent to occupy the city. During the
Turkish War of Independence, Adana was strategically important. Mustafa Kemal came to the city on October 31, 1918, and stayed there for eleven days. As a result, he decided to fight against the Allies, and the idea of " Kuvayi Milliye" was born.
Turkish nationalists fought against Allied forces, and on October 20, 1921, the Treaty of Ankara was signed between
Franceand the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Based on the terms of the agreement, France signified the end of the Cilicia War; afterwards French invasion troops together with the Armenian volunteers [ [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/asmin/cilicia191823.html Cilicia in the years 1918-1923] ] withdrew from the city on January 5, 1922.
On 30 January 1943, Adana played host to
Winston Churchill, determined to secure Turkey's entry into the Second World Waron the side of the Allies, for a conference with the President İsmet İnönü( Adana Conference). The Turkish neutrality and İnönü's policy based on rationing concessions to both sides meant that the conference remained without substantial results.
*Luvi Kingdom (1900 BC )
*Arzava Kingdom (1500-1333 BC)
*Hittite Empire (1900-1200 BC)
Assyrian Empire (713-663 BC)
Persian Empire(550-333 BC)
*Hellenistic (333-323 BC)
Seleucid Empire(312-133 BC)
*Pirates of Cilicia (178-112 BC)
*Romans (112 BC-395 AD)
*Byzantines (395-638; 964-1071)
*Great Seljuk Sultanate
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia(1078-1375)
*Beylik (principality) of
Adana has become an international metropolis, stretching and swallowing its neighbors. Adana is the marketing and distribution center for the Çukurova agricultural region, where cotton, wheat, corn, soy bean, barley, grapes and citrus fruits are produced in great quantities. The main industries of the city are textile manufacturing, leather tanning, and wool processing. The houses in Adana have flat tops, and the roofs serve as bedrooms for the inhabitants during the hot summers.
The city of Adana today is administered by three district council authorities:
Seyhan, Yüreğir, and Karaisalı. Seyhan is the more developed part of the city on the west bank of Seyhan river, Yüreğir is located on the east bank. Karaisalı is best-known for growing myrtleberries ("myrtus communis"). The city is also famous for its cuisine, including; the "Adana kebab"; " şalgam", a salty fermented juice made from turnips; "Şırdan" a kind of home-made sausage stuffed with rice, and eaten with cumin; "paça", boiled sheep's feet; "bicibici" (pronounced as bee-jee-bee-jee) made from diced semolina, rose water and sugar and served with crushed ice, consumed especially in summer time. Furthermore, the city has a number of famous desserts, such as "Halka Tatlı" a round shaped dessert and "Taş Kadayıf" a bow shaped dessert. Several types of fruit, including the apricot, are native to this area. NATO's Incirlik Air Baseis located in town of İncirlik, convert|12|km|mi|0|abbr=on east of Adana. Shopping in Adana is enhanced the 'American bazaar' a street market selling new and second-hand goods that have seeped out of the Incirlik Air-base.
Aytaç Durakhas been the mayor of Adana for two terms: 1984 - 1989, 1994 - present. He is a member of AK Parti.
*Stone Bridge, built in part during the 6th-century reign of the Byzantine emperor
Justinian I, the oldest extant bridge in the world which is still in use.
Yilanlı KaleThe ruins of a castle dating from 782.
*"Büyük Saat" (The Great Clock), a large clock tower, was built by the local governor of Adana in 1882. Unfortunately, it was damaged during the French occupation but it was rebuilt in 1935, and its image can be found in the city's coat of arms. There are many historical buildings and tombs of local governors next to the "Büyük Saat".
*The old bazaar, "Kazancılar Çarşısı" (Bazaar of Cauldron-Makers), founded around "Büyük Saat", where "Çarşı Hamamı" (Bath of the Bazaar), a Turkish bath built in 1519 can be found.
*"Bebekli Kilise" (Church of Babies) is an old Catholic church located in the city center. There are many historic houses in the street where the church is located.
* Ramazanoğlu Türbesi
Adana Ulu Camii
* Alemdar Mescidi
* Şeyh Zülfi mescidi
Adana Etnography Museum
Adana Archeological Museum
Adana Atatürk Museum
MisisMosaic Museum Hammams
* Irmak Hamamı
* Mestenzade Hamamı
* Yeni Hamam
Adana Golden Boll International Film Festival(Altın Koza Film Festivali)
*Adana Railway Station on the
Adana Şakirpaşa Airport
ports and Athletics
There is a race-track and also two well-known football teams:
Abidin Dino- Painter, Sculptor, Author
Ali Erdemir- Scientist in metallurgy
Ali Özgentürk- Director
Ali Sabancı- Businessman, member of the Sabancı family in 3rd generation
Arzu Özyiğit- Female basketball player
Ayşe Arman- Leading journalist
Aytaç Arman- Actor [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0035250/]
Bilge Kösebalaban- Rock music guitarist and vocalist
Cenk Koray- Talkshow Host
Can Kozanoğlu- Author, Editor
Demir Demirkan- Rock musician and songwriter
Demir Karahan- Actor [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0438769/] [http://web.archive.org/web/20010805155649/http://www.showtvnet.com/coknet/kimdir.shtml]
Erol Büyükburç- Pop Music Singer - Turkish pop music
* Eyüp Can - Journalist
Faruk Loğoğlu- Former Ambassador
Fatih Terim- Former football player, ex-manager of Galatasaray and Coach of the Turkish national football team
Feridun Düzağaç- Musician, Columnist
Ferdi Tayfur- Singer, composer and actor
Haluk Levent- Rock singer
Haroutioun Hovanes Chakmakjian- Armenian-American chemist and Armenian dictionary compiler. Father of Alan Hovhannes.
Hasan Şaş- Galatasaray footballer
İrfan Mavruk- Nuclear Scientist, Inventor, Missile Design Engineer
İsmail Safa Özler- Former Politician and Minister of Education
İsmet Atlı- Olympic medalist wrestler
Kasım Gülek- Statesman
Kıvanç Tatlıtuğ- Actor and male supermodel
Mehmet Sabancı- Businessman, member of the Sabancı family in 3rd generation
Murat Kekilli- Rock singer
Mustafa Cihan- Mount Everest summiter
Mustafa İnan- Physicist
Muzaffer İzgü- Writer
Nebil Özgentürk- Journalist, Editor
Orhan Kemal- Novelist
Ozan Çolakoğlu- Composer, songwriter, music producer
Ömer Sabancı- Businessman, member of the Sabancı family in 3rd generation
Özdemir Sabancı- Businessman, member of the Sabancı family in 2nd generation
Özgür Peştimalci- Rock music drummer
Roupen Altiparmakian- Armenian oud and violin player in Greece and New York.
* Serra Sabancı - Businesswoman, member of the Sabancı family in 3rd generation
Suna Kan- Classical music violinist
Suphi Baykam- Statesman
Şaziye İvegin- Female basketball player
Şener Şen- Actor
Tatul Altunyan- Armenian musician, composer, arranger. Leader of the Soviet Armenian State Folk Song and Dance Ensemble.
Tayyibe Gülek- Economist and politician
Turgut Aykaç- Olympic medalist boxer
Yaşar Kemal- Writer
Yılmaz Güney- Actor and film director
Yılmaz Köksal- Actor
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Franco-Turkish War( Cilicia War)
*cite book|title = The Helsinki Atlas of the Near East in the Neo-Assyrian Period ISBN 951-45-9050-3|author=
Simo Parpolaand Michael Porter|publisher= Gazetteer, Helsinki, Finland|year=2001
* [http://www.adanaliyiz.org Governorship of Adana]
* [http://www.adana-to.org.tr Adana Trade and Industry Chamber]
* [http://www.pbase.com/dosseman/adana Many pictures of this city with sub-gallery for the fine Ulu Camii]
* [http://www.adana.gov.tr/?sayfa=3&alt=tarih&dil=en#i%FEgalkurtulu%FE History of Adana]
* [http://www.rockadana.com Adana Rock]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Adana — Adana … Deutsch Wikipedia
Adana — La ville d Adana et le lac Seyhan Administration Pays … Wikipédia en Français
Adana — • A diocese of Armenian rite in Asia Minor Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Adana Adana † … Catholic encyclopedia
ADANA — Ville principale de la plaine de Cilicie (Turquie), Adana, chef lieu du département homonyme, commande le passage du Seyhan, grand fleuve descendant du Taurus, au contact de la basse plaine alluviale et des collines de piémont. Cette situation… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Adana — Adana, Stadt in Cilicien, heutzutage im gleichnamig. türk. Ejalet, Hauptst., am Seihan, mit vielleicht 25000 E. Der District Adana beherrscht die Pässe des Taurus zwischen Syrien u. Vorderasien, ist also in militärischer Hinsicht sehr wichtig;… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Adana — Adana, türk. Stadt im südöstlichen Kleinasien, am schiffbaren Seihun (Saros) in der fruchtbaren Kilikischen Ebene, hat als Schlüssel zu den Tauruspässen eine hohe strategische Bedeutung und war deshalb noch in neuerer Zeit (1839) lange der… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Adăna — (Adanah, Adene), 1) türk. Ejalet in Kleinasien, am Meerbusen von Iskenderun; Gebirge (Theile des Taurus), die sich bis 10,000 Fuß erheben: Gukluk Dagh, Bulghar Dagh, Allah Dagh, zwischen beiden die Kilikischen Pässe (s.d.), Giaur D., Güsel D.,… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Adâna — Adâna, Hauptstadt des türk. Wilajets A. (39.900 qkm, 422.400 E.) im südöstl. Kleinasien, 45.000 E … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
ADANA — urbs Ciliciae Ptolemaeo. Vulgo Adena, vide Steph. longitud. 66. 40. latitud. 39. 10. Urbs item ad Euphratem Steph. Item, Arabiae Felieis mediterranea, Eidem … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Adana — [ä′də nä΄] city in S Turkey: pop. 972,000 … English World dictionary