Sanitation is the hygienic means of preventing human contact from the hazards of wastes to promote health. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g.latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple handwashing with soap).
The term "sanitation" can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location, or strategy, such as:
*Basic sanitation - refers to the management of human feces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium Development Goal on sanitation.
*On-site sanitation - the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited. Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and imhoff tanks.
*Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety.
*Environmental sanitation - the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control.
*Ecological sanitation - a concept and an approach of recycling to nature the nutrients from human and animal wastes.
anitation and wastewater
The standard sanitation technology in urban areas is the collection of
wastewaterin sewers, its treatment in wastewater treatment plants for reuseor disposal in rivers, lakes or the sea. Sewers are either combined with storm drains or separated from them as sanitary sewers. Combined sewers are usually found in the central, older parts or urban areas. Heavy rainfall and inadequate maintenance can lead to combined sewer overflows or sanitary sewer overflows, i.e. more or less diluted raw sewage being discharged into the environment. Industries often discharge wastewater into municipal sewers, which can complicate wastewater treatment unless industries pre-treat their discharges. [."Environmental Biotechnology: Advancement in Water And Wastewater Application", edited by Z. Ujang, IWA Proceedings, Malaysia(2003)]
The high investment cost of conventional wastewater collection systems are difficult to afford for many
developing countries. Some countries have therefore promoted alternative wastewater collection systems such as condominial sewerage, which uses smaller diameter pipes at lower depth with different network layouts from conventional sewerage.
In developed countries treatment of municipal wastewater is now widespread, [ [http://adminrecords.ucsd.edu/ppm/docs/516-10-6.html Typical U.S. water treatment standards] ] but not yet universal (for an overview of technologies see
wastewater treatment). In developing countriesmost wastewater is still discharge untreated into the environment. For example, in Latin America only about 15% of collected sewerage is being treated (see water and sanitation in Latin America)
Reuse of wastewater
The reuse of untreated wastewater in irrigated agriculture is common in developing countries. The reuse of treated wastewater in landscaping (esp. on golf courses), irrigated agriculture and for industrial use is becoming increasingly widespread.
In many peri-urban and rural areas households are not connected to sewers. They discharge their wastewater into septic tanks or other types of on-site sanitation.
Ecological sanitationis sometimes presented as a radical alternative to conventional sanitation systems. Ecological sanitation is based on composting/vermicomposting toilets where an extra separation of urine and feces at the source for sanitization and recycling has been done. It thus eliminates the creation of blackwaterand eliminates fecal pathogens from any still present wastewater (urine). If ecological sanitation is practiced municipal wastewater consists only of greywater, which can be recycled for gardening. However, in most cases greywater continues to be discharged to sewers.
Sanitation and public health
The importance of waste isolation lies in an effort to prevent
water and sanitation related diseases, which afflicts both developed countriesas well as developing countriesto differing degrees. It is estimated that up to 5 million people die each year from preventable water-borne disease [ [http://www.pacinst.org/reports/water_related_deaths/water_related_deaths_report.pdf Pacific Institute] ] , as a result of inadequate sanitation and hygiene practices.
Global access to improved sanitation
The Joint Monitoring Program for water and sanitation of
WHOand UNICEFhas defined improved sanitation as
* connection to a public
* connection to a
* simple pit latrine
* ventilated improved pit latrine
According to that definition, 62% of the world's population has access to improved sanitation in 2008, up 8% since 1990. [http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp2008.pdf] Only slightly more than half of them or 31% of the world population lived in houses connected to a sewer. Overall, 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation and thus must resort to open defecation or other unsanitary forms of defecation, such as public latrines or open pit latrines [ [http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/world/sanitation-and-drinking-water/ "Sanitation and drinking water: is the world on track?" Circle of Blue, July 31, 2008] ] . Additionally, 1.2 billion people have access to no facilities at all. [ [http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp2008.pdf World Health Organization and UNICEF. Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: Special Focus on Sanitation.] ] This outcome presents substantial public health risks as the waste could contaminate
drinking waterand cause life threatening forms of diarrheato infants. Improved sanitation, including hand washingand water purification, could save the lives of 1.5 million children who suffer from diarrheal diseases each year. [ [http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp2008.pdf World Health Organization and UNICEF. Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: Special Focus on Sanitation.] ]
In developed countries, where less than 20% of the world population lives, 99% of the population has access to improved sanitation and 81% were connected to sewers.
olid waste disposal
solid wasteis most commonly conducted in landfills, but incineration, recycling, composting and conversion to biofuels are also avenues. In the case of landfills, advanced countriestypically have rigid protocols for daily coverwith topsoil, where underdeveloped countriescustomarily rely upon less stringent proocols [George Tchobanoglous and Frank Kreith "Handbook of Solid Waste Management", McGraw Hill (2002)] . The importance of daily cover lies in the reduction of vector contact and spreading of pathogens. Daily cover also minimises odour emissions and reduces windblown litter. Likewise, developed countries typically have requirements for perimeter sealing of the landfill with clay-type soils to minimize migration of leachatethat could contaminate groundwater(and hence jeopardize some drinking watersupplies).
For incineration options, the release of
air pollutants, including certain toxiccomponents is an attendant adverse outcome. Recycling and biofuel conversion are the sustainableoptions that generally have superior life cycle costs, particularly when total ecologicalconsequences are considered [William D. Robinson, "The Solid Waste Handbook: A Practical Guide", John Wiley and sons (1986)] . Composting value will ultimately be limited by the market demand for compost product.
Sanitation in developed countries
US, sanitation is a legislative requirement of OSH, which is governed by 29 CFR Part 1910.141 cite web
Code of Federal Regulations
title = 1910.141 Sanitation
url = http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/06sept20031800/edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2003/julqtr/pdf/29cfr1910.141.pdf
accessdate = 1 March
accessyear = 2008 ] .
Sanitation in the developing world
United Nations Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) include a target to reduce by half the proportion of people without access to basic sanitation by 2015. In December 2006, the United Nations General Assemblydeclared 2008 'The International Year of Sanitation', in recognition of the slow progress being made towards the MDGs sanitation target. The year aims to develop awareness and action to meet the target. Particular concerns are:
* Removing the stigma around sanitation, so that the importance of sanitation can be more easily and publicly discussed.
* Highlighting the
poverty reduction, healthand other benefits that flow from better hygiene, household sanitation arrangements and wastewater treatment.
Research from the
Overseas Development Institutesuggests that sanitation and hygiene promotion needs to be better 'mainstreamed' in development, if the MDG on sanitation is to be met. At present, promotion of sanitation and hygiene is mainly carried out through water institutions. The research argues that there are, in fact, many institutions that should carry out activities to develop better sanitation and hygiene in developing countries. For example, educational institutions can teach on hygiene, and health institutions can dedicate resources to preventative works (to avoid, for example, outbreaks of cholera).cite web |url=http://www.odi.org.uk/publications/briefing/bp_dec06_sanitation_hygiene.pdf |title=Sanitation and Hygiene: knocking on new doors |accessyear=2007 |year=2006 |publisher=Overseas Development Institute]
anitation in the food industry
Sanitation within the food industry means to the adequate treatment of food-contact surfaces by a process that is effective in destroying vegetative cells of
microorganisms of public healthsignificance, and in substantially reducing numbers of other undesirable microorganisms, but without adversely affecting the product or its safety for the consumer ( FDA, Code of Federal Regulations, 21CFR110, USA). Sanitation Standard Operating Proceduresare indispensable for food industries in US, which are regulated by 9 CFR part 416 in conjunction with 21 CFR part 178.1010. Similaly in Japan, food hygiene has to be reached through the compliance of Food Sanitation Lawcite web
Japan External Trade Organization
title = Food Sanitation Law in Japan
url = http://www.jetro.go.jp/en/market/regulations/pdf/food-e.pdf
accessdate = 1 March
accessyear = 2008 ] .
Additionally, in the food and
Biopharmaceuticalindustries, the term sanitary equipment means equipment that is fully cleanable using Clean-in-place(CIP), and Sterilization in place(SIP) procedures: that is fully drainable from cleaning solutions and other liquids. The design should have a minimum amount of deadleg [ [http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=JFEGA4000127000001000124000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes Treatment of deadleg plumbing areas] ] or areas where the turbulenceduring cleaning is not enough to remove product deposits. In general, to improve cleanability, this equipment is made from Stainless Steel316L, (an alloycontaining small amounts of molybdenum). The surface is usually electropolished to an effective surface roughness of less than 0.5 micrometre, to reduce the possibility of bacterial adhesion to the surface.
The earliest evidence of urban sanitation was seen in
Harappa, Mohenjo-daroand the recently discovered Rakhigarhiof Indus Valley civilization. This urban plan included the world's first urban sanitation systems. Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes.
Roman cities and
Roman villas had elements of sanitation systems, delivering water in the streets of towns such as Pompeii, and building stone and wooden drains to collect and remove wastewaterfrom populated areas - see for instance the Cloaca Maximainto the River Tiberin Rome. But there is little record of other sanitation in most of Europe until the High Middle Ages. Unsanitary conditions and overcrowding were widespread throughout Europeand Asiaduring the Middle Ages, resulting periodically in cataclysmic pandemics such as the Plagueof Justinian (541-42) and the Black Death(1347-1351), which killed tens of millions of people and radically altered societies. [Carlo M. Cipolla, "Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy 1000-1700", W.W. Norton and Company, London (1980) ISBN 0-393-95115-4]
Very high infant and child mortality prevailed in Europe throughout
medievaltimes, due not only to deficiencies in sanitation but to insufficient food for a population which had expanded faster than agriculture[Burnett White, "Natural History of Infectious Diseases"] . This was further complicated by frequent warfareand exploitation of civilians by brutal rulers. Life for the average person at this time was indeed 'nasty, brutish and short.'
Carl Rogers Darnall
National Sanitation Foundation
Public water supply and sanitation in Germany
Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures
Sanitary sewer overflow
Sewage collection and disposal
Water supply and sanitation in France
Water supply and sanitation in Latin America
Water supply and sanitation in the United Kingdom
Water supply and sanitation in the United States
World Plumbing Council
World Toilet Organization
* [http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTWSS/EXTTOPSANHYG/0,,contentMDK:21147365~menuPK:3748896~pagePK:64168427~piPK:64168435~theSitePK:1923181,00.html Sanitation, Hygiene and Wastewater Resource Guide (World Bank)]
Central Asia Health Review(CAHR). [http://www.cahr.info/index_files/page0015.htm Poor Sanitation Causes Death among Children under Five in Afghanistan]
* [http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/pdfs/report/HDR_2006_Chapter_3.pdf The 2006 UNDP Human Development Report: Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis - Chapter 3: The vast deficit in sanitation] accessed on August 22, 2007
* [http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTWSS/0,,menuPK:337308~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:337302,00.html Water Supply and Sanitation, World Bank] accessed on August 22, 2007
* [http://www.mohenjodaro.net/tcdraintiles87.html Early urban sanitation in ancient India]
* [http://poopthebook.com/blog/?p=21 Sanitation coverage vs. population growth: an encouraging trend]
* [http://www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/wrri/reports/srs16.html Daily cover in landfills]
* [http://www.hy2u.org Hy2U innovative handwashing device and campaign]
* [http://www.pooproductions.org Poo Productions, music and film organization raising awareness about sanitation issues]
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См. также в других словарях:
Sanitation — San i*ta tion, n. The act of rendering sanitary; the science of sanitary conditions; the preservation of health; the use of sanitary measures; hygiene. [1913 Webster] How much sanitation has advanced during the last half century. H. Hartshorne.… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
sanitation — 1848, irregularly formed from SANITARY (Cf. sanitary). As a euphemism for garbage (e.g. sanitation engineer) first recorded 1939 … Etymology dictionary
sanitation — ► NOUN ▪ arrangements to protect public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and the disposal of sewage … English terms dictionary
sanitation — [san΄ə tā′shən] n. [ SANIT(ARY) + ATION] 1. the science and practice of effecting healthful and hygienic conditions; study and use of hygienic measures such as drainage, ventilation, pure water supply, etc. 2. drainage and disposal of sewage … English World dictionary
sanitation — noun ADJECTIVE ▪ inadequate, poor ▪ adequate, basic, good, improved, proper ▪ public … Collocations dictionary
sanitation — noun Date: 1848 1. the act or process of making sanitary 2. the promotion of hygiene and prevention of disease by maintenance of sanitary conditions (as by removal of sewage and trash) often used attributively < a sanitation truck > < sanitation… … New Collegiate Dictionary
sanitation — n. environmental sanitation * * * [ˌsænɪ teɪʃ(ə)n] environmental sanitation … Combinatory dictionary
sanitation — [[t]sæ̱nɪte͟ɪʃ(ə)n[/t]] N UNCOUNT Sanitation is the process of keeping places clean and healthy, especially by providing a sewage system and a clean water supply. ...the hazards of contaminated water and poor sanitation … English dictionary
sanitation — Use of measures designed to promote health and prevent disease; development and establishment of conditions in the environment favorable to health. [L. sanitas, health] * * * san·i·ta·tion .san ə tā shən n 1) the act or process of making sanitary … Medical dictionary
Sanitation — An ordinance of 1341 forbade use of streets for defecation and urination under penalty of fine, but this was largely flaunted. The mesthoop (dung heap) created about 1620 near the present site of rue d Ophem served as a collection point for… … Historical Dictionary of Brussels