Yaroslavl


Yaroslavl

Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS=Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl


State Party=
Type=Cultural
Criteria=ii, iv
ID=1170
Region=Europe and North America
Year=2005
Session=29th
Link=http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1170

Yaroslavl ( _ru. Яросла́вль) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located km to mi|250 north-east of Moscow. The historical part of the city, a World Heritage Site, is located at the confluence of the Volga and the Kotorosl Rivers. Population: ru-census|p2002=613088|p1989=632991

History

Yaroslavl lies at the intersection of several major highways, railways, and waterways. Preceded by Viking sites such as Timerevo from the 8th or 9th centuries, the city is said to have been founded in 1010 as an outpost of the Principality of Rostov Veliky, and was first mentioned in 1071. Capital of an independent principality from 1218, it was incorporated into Muscovy in 1463. In the 17th century it was Russia's second largest city, and for a time (during the Polish occupation of Moscow in 1612), the country's de facto capital. Today, Yaroslavl is an important industrial center (petrochemical plant, tire manufacturing plant, diesel engines plant and many others).

Main sights

Apart from the "Spaso-Preobrazhensky" ("Transfiguration of the Saviour") Monastery the oldest churches in the city date back to the 17th century and belong to the so called "Yaroslavl type" (built of red brick, with bright tiled exteriors). Those of St. Nicholas Nadein and Elijah the Prophet have some of the Golden ring's most impressive frescoes.

Yaroslavl is the site of the Volkov Theater (built 1750), the oldest theater in Russia.

The city has many Russian Orthodox churches, one Russian Old Believers church, one Baptist church, one Lutheran church, one mosque and one synagogue.

Education

Yaroslavl has many institutions for higher education including: Demidov University, Polytechnical University, Ushinskiy Pedagogical University, Medical Academy, International University for Business and New Technologies (MUBINT).

Military institutions include the High Military Financial School and the High Anti-aircraft Missile School.

Transportation

The city has a well-developed network of public transportation including buses, trolley-buses and tram lines. It is home to the Tunoshna airport, which was a former Cold War airbase, and the Yaroslavl Levtsovo air base.

There is one railway bridge across the Volga and two road bridges; the second road bridge across the Volga was ready for use in October 2006.

There are two major passenger railway stations: Yaroslavl-Glavny and Yaroslavl-Moskovsky. Electric shuttle trains go to Danilov, Rostov, Alexandrov, Nerekhta, and Kostroma. Diesel shuttle trains go to Rybinsk and Ivanovo. Also many long-distance passenger trains go through Yaroslavl.

port

FC Shinnik Yaroslavl is a soccer club based in Yaroslavl. It plays in the Russian Premier League. The city also hosts the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl ice hockey team which became the champion of Russia in 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003.

Districts

Yaroslavl is divided into six city districts. The center is located on the northern bank of the Kotorosl where it converges with the Volga, on the Volga's western bank. The Center is the economic and political center of the city. The center is also the oldest district in the city, where the city was first settled. The center contains the majority of landmarks and attraction in the city, including the Volkov theater, the Church of Elijah the prophet, the soccer stadium, the Volga embankment and the monastery, often mistakenly called the kremlin. Pyatyorka is located north of the center, but still under its administrative jurisdiction. Pyatyorka is largely a residential region with very little of note, aside from a few Houses of Culture.

Across the Kotorosl lie Frunzensky and Krasnoperekopsky city districts, which are divided by Moskovsky Prospect. Frunzensky is a relatively new district, constructed in the post-war era and offers little of particular interest. Perhaps Frunzensky district's greatest attraction is the "Yarpivo" brewery. Most of the buildings are of typical grey Soviet construction. Frunzensky district is divided into three microdistricts: Suzdalka, Dyadkovo, and Lipovaya Gora.

Krasnoperekopsky city district is one of the oldest parts in Yaroslavl. During pre-revolution days, it was home to the bulk of Yaroslavl's industry, and a good deal of industry remains today. Krasnoperekopsky district is divided into two microdistricts, one of which is Neftestroy, a relatively pleasant up-and-coming region, named for its proximity to Yaroslavl's oil refinery. Neftestroy is home to the newly-built hockey arena, and there are plans to build an indoor soccer stadium there by the millennial anniversary of Yaroslavl's founding. By contrast, on the other side of the railway tracks that run through Krasnopereposk district lies the Perekop proper. Today, the Perekop is known as one of the most dangerous areas of Yaroslavl. It consists largely of run-down, pre-Soviet izbas, and decaying factory buildings. There are plans to pump life into this depressed district, but at the time of writing it remains extremely impoverished and dangerous. Much of Yaroslavl's mafia grew out of the Perekop. Ironically enough, the Perekop offers some of Yaroslavl's most beautiful parks and churches, most notably the Church of Saint John the Baptist, which is located right next to a paint factory on the Kotorosl embankment; and Peter and Paul's Cathedral, a peculiar Protestant-looking Orthodox church.North of the center there is a small industrial region, which is home to the tire factory, the sponsor of Yaroslavl's soccer team, and the engine plant, as well as many other smaller factories. Further north on the Western bank lies Dzerzhinsky city district, named after "Iron" Felix Dzerzhinsky, founder of the Cheka, the Soviet secret police. Dzerzhinsky district's core microdistrict is Bragino, named after a small village that was eventually consumed by Yaroslavl's post-war expansion. Bragino is the largest area in Yaroslavl in terms of population, but like Frunzensky district, it is largely a residential region, mostly consisting of middle to lower-middle class families.

On the other bank of the Volga lies Zavolzhsky city district (lit. "one behind the Volga"). Zavolzhsky district is Yaroslavl's quietest and most rural area. In Zavolzhsky, blocks of pre-fabricated Soviet apartment blocks are broken up by beautiful birch and evergreen forests. The region is largely residential and has little to offer aside from its forests.

Notable residents

*Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, was born in a nearby village and went to school in Yaroslavl.
*Andrei Khomutov, member of the Soviet national hockey team that won countless World Championships and the 1981 Canada Cup.
*Fedor Volkov, founder of the 1st Russian theatre.
*Nikolai Nekrasov and Leonod Trefolev, poets.
*Leonid Sobinov, opera singer.
*Konstantin Ushinsky, founder of the Russian pedagogics.

ister cities

Yaroslavl has twin town ties with:
*flagicon|Turkey İzmir, Turkey
*flagicon|USA Burlington, United States
*flagicon|Portugal Coimbra, Portugal
*flagicon|UK Exeter, United Kingdom
*flagicon|Germany Hanau, Germany
*flagicon|Finland Jyväskylä, Finland
*flagicon|Germany Kassel, Germany
*flagicon|France Poitiers, France
*flagicon|Italy Palermo, Italy

References

External links

* [http://gorod.yarportal.ru Virtual Panoramas]
* [http://www.yaroslavlrussia.com Yaroslavl, Russia]
* [http://www.infoyar.ru/map/ Searchable map of Yaroslavl]
*ru icon [http://www.biz-city.ru Business Yaroslavl]
* [http://nmaxu.narod.ru/ya.html Panorama of Yaroslavl]
* [http://cih.ru/pk/co.html Contemporary architecture of Yaroslavl]
* [http://photostranger.com/gallery/gallery_russia/yaroslavl/ Photos]
* [http://www.yaroslavl.net/Yar_foto/Yar_foto.html Photos]
* [http://www.yaroslavl.net/ Information]
* [http://www.yaroslavl.su/Yaroslavl/postcar.html Photos]
* [http://www.yaroslavl.com/VolkovTheater/cover/ Volkov theater]
* [http://x-4.narod.ru/ml.html Yaroslavl Millennium project 2010]
*ru icon [http://www.infoyar.ru Information]
*ru icon [http://yarportal.ru Yaroslavl Forum]

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