- Meaning of life
The meaning of life constitutes a philosophical question concerning the purpose and significance of life or existence in general. This concept can be expressed through a variety of related questions, such as "Why are we here?", "What is life all about?", and "What is the meaning of it all?" It has been the subject of much philosophical, scientific, and theological speculation throughout history. There have been a large number of theories to these questions from many different cultural and ideological backgrounds.
The meaning of life is deeply mixed with the philosophical and religious conceptions of existence, social ties, consciousness, and happiness, and touches many other issues, such as symbolic meaning, ontology, value, purpose, ethics, good and evil, free will, conceptions of God, the existence of God, the soul, and the afterlife. Scientific contributions focus more on describing related empirical facts about the universe; they largely shift the question from "why?" to "how?" and provide context and parameters for meaningful conversations on such topics. Science also provides its own recommendations for the pursuit of well-being and a related conception of morality. An alternative, humanistic (rather than religious) approach is the question "What is the meaning of my life?" The value of the question pertaining to the purpose of life may coincide with the achievement of ultimate reality, or a feeling of oneness, or a feeling of sacredness.
Questions about the meaning of life have been expressed in a broad variety of ways, including the following:
- What is the meaning of life? What's it all about? Who are we?
- Why are we here? What are we here for?
- What is the origin of life?
- What is the nature of life? What is the nature of reality?
- What is the purpose of life? What is the purpose of one's life?
- What is the significance of life?
- What is meaningful and valuable in life?
- What is the value of life?
- What is the reason to live? What are we living for?
These questions have resulted in a wide range of competing answers and arguments, from scientific theories, to philosophical, theological, and spiritual explanations.
Western philosophical perspectives
The philosophical perspectives on the meaning of life are those ideologies which explain life in terms of ideals or abstractions defined by humans.
Ancient Greek philosophy
Plato was one of the earliest, most influential philosophers to date—mostly for realism about the existence of universals. In the Theory of Forms, universals do not physically exist, like objects, but as ghostly, heavenly forms. In The Republic, the Socrates character's dialogue describes the Form of the Good. The Idea of the Good is ekgonos (offspring) of the Good, the ideal, perfect nature of goodness, hence an absolute measure of justice.
In Platonism, the meaning of life is in attaining the highest form of knowledge, which is the Idea (Form) of the Good, from which all good and just things derive utility and value. Human beings are duty-bound to pursue the good, but no one can succeed in that pursuit without philosophical reasoning, which allows for true knowledge.
Aristotle, an apprentice of Plato, was another early and influential philosopher, who argued that ethical knowledge is not certain knowledge (like metaphysics and epistemology), but is general knowledge. Because it is not a theoretical discipline, a person had to study and practice in order to become "good", thus if the person were to become virtuous, he could not simply study what virtue is, he had to be virtuous, via virtuous activities. To do this, Aristotle established what is virtuous:Every skill and every inquiry, and similarly, every action and choice of action, is thought to have some good as its object. This is why the good has rightly been defined as the object of all endeavor [...]
Everything is done with a goal, and that goal is "good".—Nicomachean Ethics 1.1
Yet, if action A is done towards achieving goal B, then goal B also would have a goal, goal C, and goal C also would have a goal, and so would continue this pattern, until something stopped its infinite regression. Aristotle's solution is the Highest Good, which is desirable for its own sake, it is its own goal. The Highest Good is not desirable for the sake of achieving some other good, and all other "goods" desirable for its sake. This involves achieving eudaemonia, usually translated as "happiness", "well-being", "flourishing", and "excellence".What is the highest good in all matters of action? To the name, there is almost complete agreement; for uneducated and educated alike call it happiness, and make happiness identical with the good life and successful living. They disagree, however, about the meaning of happiness.—Nicomachean Ethics 1.4
In the Hellenistic period, the Cynic philosophers said that the purpose of life is living a life of Virtue that agrees with Nature. Happiness depends upon being self-sufficient and master of one's mental attitude; suffering is consequence of false judgments of value, which cause negative emotions and a concomitant vicious character.
The Cynical life rejects conventional desires for wealth, power, health, and fame, by being free of the possessions acquired in pursuing the conventional. As reasoning creatures, people could achieve happiness via rigorous training, by living in a way natural to human beings. The world equally belongs to everyone, so suffering is caused by false judgments of what is valuable and what is worthless per the customs and conventions of society.
Cyrenaicism, founded by Aristippus of Cyrene, was an early Socratic school that emphasized only one side of Socrates's teachings—that happiness is one of the ends of moral action and that pleasure is the supreme good; thus a hedonistic world view, wherein bodily gratification is more intense than mental pleasure. Cyrenaics prefer immediate gratification to the long-term gain of delayed gratification; denial is unpleasant unhappiness.
To Epicurus, the greatest good is in seeking modest pleasures, to attain tranquility and freedom from fear (ataraxia) via knowledge, friendship, and virtuous, temperate living; bodily pain (aponia) is absent through one's knowledge of the workings of the world and of the limits of one's desires. Combined, freedom from pain and freedom from fear are happiness in its highest form. Epicurus' lauded enjoyment of simple pleasures is quasi-ascetic "abstention" from sex and the appetites:
"When we say ... that pleasure is the end and aim, we do not mean the pleasures of the prodigal or the pleasures of sensuality, as we are understood to do, by some, through ignorance, prejudice or wilful misrepresentation. By pleasure we mean the absence of pain in the body and of trouble in the soul. It is not by an unbroken succession of drinking bouts and of revelry, not by sexual lust, nor the enjoyment of fish, and other delicacies of a luxurious table, which produce a pleasant life; it is sober reasoning, searching out the grounds of every choice and avoidance, and banishing those beliefs through which the greatest tumults take possession of the soul."
The Epicurean meaning of life rejects immortality and mysticism; there is a soul, but it is as mortal as the body. There is no afterlife, yet, one need not fear death, because "Death is nothing to us; for that which is dissolved, is without sensation, and that which lacks sensation is nothing to us."
Stoicism teaches that living according to reason and virtue is to be in harmony with the universe's divine order, entailed by one's recognition of the universal logos (reason), an essential value of all people. The meaning of life is "freedom from suffering" through apatheia (Gr: απαθεια), that is, being objective, having "clear judgement", not indifference.
Stoicism's prime directives are virtue, reason, and natural law, abided to develop personal self-control and mental fortitude as means of overcoming destructive emotions. The Stoic does not seek to extinguish emotions, only to avoid emotional troubles, by developing clear judgement and inner calm through diligently practiced logic, reflection, and concentration.
The Stoic ethical foundation is that "good lies in the state of the soul", itself, exemplified in wisdom and self-control, thus improving one's spiritual well-being: "Virtue consists in a will which is in agreement with Nature." The principle applies to one's personal relations thus: "to be free from anger, envy, and jealousy".
The Enlightenment and the colonial era both changed the nature of European philosophy and exported it worldwide. Devotion and subservience to God were largely replaced by notions of inalienable natural rights and the potentialities of reason, and universal ideals of love and compassion gave way to civic notions of freedom, equality, and citizenship. The meaning of life changed as well, focusing less on humankind's relationship to God and more on the relationship between individuals and their society. This era is filled with theories that equate meaningful existence with the social order.
Classical liberalism is a set of ideas that arose in the 17th and 18th centuries, out of conflicts between a growing, wealthy, propertied class and the established aristocratic and religious orders that dominated Europe. Liberalism cast humans as beings with inalienable natural rights (including the right to retain the wealth generated by one's own work), and sought out means to balance rights across society. Broadly speaking, it considers individual liberty to be the most important goal, because only through ensured liberty are the other inherent rights protected.
There are many forms and derivations of liberalism, but their central conceptions of the meaning of life trace back to three main ideas. Early thinkers such as John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith saw humankind beginning in the state of nature, then finding meaning for existence through labor and property, and using social contracts to create an environment that supports those efforts.
Kantianism is a philosophy based on the ethical, epistemological, and metaphysical works of Immanuel Kant. Kant is known for his deontological theory where there is a single moral obligation, the "Categorical Imperative", derived from the concept of duty. Kantians believe all actions are performed in accordance with some underlying maxim or principle, and for actions to be ethical, they must adhere to the categorical imperative.
Simply put, the test is that one must universalize the maxim (imagine that all people acted in this way) and then see if it would still be possible to perform the maxim in the world without contradiction. In Groundwork, Kant gives the example of a person who seeks to borrow money without intending to pay it back. This is a contradiction because if it were a universal action, no person would lend money anymore as he knows that he will never be paid back. The maxim of this action, says Kant, results in a contradiction in conceivability (and thus contradicts perfect duty).
Kant also denied that the consequences of an act in any way contribute to the moral worth of that act, his reasoning being that the physical world is outside one's full control and thus one cannot be held accountable for the events that occur in it.
19th century philosophy
The origins of utilitarianism can be traced back as far as Epicurus, but, as a school of thought, it is credited to Jeremy Bentham, who found that "nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure", then, from that moral insight, deriving the Rule of Utility: "that the good is whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people". He defined the meaning of life as the "greatest happiness principle".
Jeremy Bentham's foremost proponent was James Mill, a significant philosopher in his day, and father of John Stuart Mill. The younger Mill was educated per Bentham's principles, including transcribing and summarizing much of his father's work.
Nihilism suggests that life is without objective meaning.
Friedrich Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world, and especially human existence, of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, and essential value; succinctly, nihilism is the process of "the devaluing of the highest values". Seeing the nihilist as a natural result of the idea that God is dead, and insisting it was something to overcome, his questioning of the nihilist's life-negating values returned meaning to the Earth.
To Martin Heidegger, nihilism is the movement whereby "being" is forgotten, and is transformed into value, in other words, the reduction of being to exchange value. Heidegger, in accordance with Nietzsche, saw in the so-called "death of God" a potential source for nihilism:
If God, as the supra-sensory ground and goal, of all reality, is dead; if the supra-sensory world of the Ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory, and above it, its vitalizing and up-building power, then nothing more remains to which Man can cling, and by which he can orient himself.
The French philosopher Albert Camus asserts that the absurdity of the human condition is that people search for external values and meaning in a world which has none, and is indifferent to them. Camus writes of value-nihilists such as Meursault, but also of values in a nihilistic world, that people can instead strive to be "heroic nihilists", living with dignity in the face of absurdity, living with "secular saintliness", fraternal solidarity, and rebelling against and transcending the world's indifference.
20th century philosophy
The current era has seen radical changes in conceptions of human nature. Modern science has effectively rewritten the relationship of humankind to the natural world, advances in medicine and technology have freed us from the limitations and ailments of previous eras, and philosophy—particularly following the linguistic turn—altered how the relationships people have with themselves and each other is conceived. Questions about the meaning of life have seen equally radical changes, from attempts to reevaluate human existence in biological and scientific terms (as in pragmatism and logical positivism), to efforts to meta-theorize about meaning-making as an activity (existentialism, secular humanism).
Pragmatism, originated in the late-19th-century U.S., to concern itself (mostly) with truth, positing that "only in struggling with the environment" do data, and derived theories, have meaning, and that consequences, like utility and practicality, are also components of truth. Moreover, pragmatism posits that anything useful and practical is not always true, arguing that what most contributes to the most human good in the long course is true. In practice, theoretical claims must be practically verifiable, i.e. one should be able to predict and test claims, and, that, ultimately, the needs of mankind should guide human intellectual inquiry.
Pragmatic philosophers suggest that the practical, useful understanding of life is more important than searching for an impractical abstract truth about life. William James argued that truth could be made, but not sought. To a pragmatist, the meaning of life is discoverable only via experience.
Each man and each woman creates the essence (meaning) of his and her life; life is not determined by a supernatural god or an earthly authority, one is free. As such, one's ethical prime directives are action, freedom, and decision, thus, existentialism opposes rationalism and positivism. In seeking meaning to life, the existentialist looks to where people find meaning in life, in course of which using only reason as a source of meaning is insufficient; the insufficiency gives rise to the emotions of anxiety and dread, felt in facing one's radical freedom, and the concomitant awareness of death. To the existentialist, existence precedes essence; the (essence) of one's life arises only after one comes to existence.
Søren Kierkegaard coined the term "leap of faith", arguing that life is full of absurdity, and one must make his and her own values in an indifferent world. One can live meaningfully (free of despair and anxiety) in an unconditional commitment to something finite, and devotes that meaningful life to the commitment, despite the vulnerability inherent to doing so.
Arthur Schopenhauer answered: "What is the meaning of life?" by determining that one's life reflects one's will, and that the will (life) is an aimless, irrational, and painful drive. Salvation, deliverance, and escape from suffering are in aesthetic contemplation, sympathy for others, and asceticism.
For Friedrich Nietzsche, life is worth living only if there are goals inspiring one to live. Accordingly, he saw nihilism ("all that happens is meaningless") as without goals. He discredited asceticism, because it denies one's living in the world; denied that values are objective facts, that are rationally necessary, universally binding commitments: Our evaluations are interpretations, and not reflections of the world, as it is, in itself, and, therefore, all ideations take place from a particular perspective.
In absurdist philosophy, the Absurd arises out of the fundamental disharmony between the individual's search for meaning and the apparent meaninglessness of the universe. As beings looking for meaning in a meaningless world, humans have three ways of resolving the dilemma. Kierkegaard and Camus describe the solutions in their works, The Sickness Unto Death (1849) and The Myth of Sisyphus (1942):
- Suicide (or, "escaping existence"): a solution in which a person simply ends one's own life. Both Kierkegaard and Camus dismiss the viability of this option.
- Religious belief in a transcendent realm or being: a solution in which one believes in the existence of a reality that is beyond the Absurd, and, as such, has meaning. Kierkegaard stated that a belief in anything beyond the Absurd requires a non-rational but perhaps necessary religious acceptance in such an intangible and empirically unprovable thing (now commonly referred to as a "leap of faith"). However, Camus regarded this solution as "philosophical suicide".
- Acceptance of the Absurd: a solution in which one accepts and even embraces the Absurd and continues to live in spite of it. Camus endorsed this solution, while Kierkegaard regarded this solution as "demoniac madness": "He rages most of all at the thought that eternity might get it into its head to take his misery from him!"
Per secular humanism, the human race came to be by reproducing in a progression of unguided evolution as an integral part of nature, which is self-existing. Knowledge does not come from supernatural sources, but from human observation, experimentation, and rational analysis (the scientific method): the nature of the universe is what people discern it to be. Likewise, "values and realities" are determined "by means of intelligent inquiry" and "are derived from human need and interest as tested by experience", that is, by critical intelligence. "As far as we know, the total personality is [a function] of the biological organism transacting in a social and cultural context."
People determine human purpose, without supernatural influence; it is the human personality (general sense) that is the purpose of a human being's life; humanism seeks to develop and fulfill: "Humanism affirms our ability, and responsibility, to lead ethical lives of personal fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity". Humanism aims to promote enlightened self-interest and the common good for all people. It is based on the premises that the happiness of the individual person is inextricably linked to the well-being of humanity, as a whole, in part, because humans are social animals, who find meaning in personal relations, and because cultural progress benefits everybody living in the culture.
The philosophical sub-genres posthumanism and transhumanism (sometimes used synonymously) are extensions of humanistic values. One should seek the advancement of humanity and of all life to the greatest degree feasible, to reconcile Renaissance humanism with the 21st century's technoscientific culture, thus, every living creature has the right to determine its personal and social "meaning of life".
From a humanistic-psychotherapeutic point of view, the question of the meaning of life could also be reinterpreted as "What is the meaning of my life?" Instead of becoming focused on cosmic or religious questions about overarching purpose, this approach suggests that the question is intensely personal. There are many therapeutic responses to this question, for example Viktor Frankl argues for "Dereflection", which largely translates as ceasing to endlessly reflect on the self, instead of engaging in life. On the whole, the therapeutic response is that the question of meaning of life evaporates if one is fully engaged in life. The question then morphs into more specific worries such as "What delusions am I under?", "What is blocking my ability to enjoy things?", "Why do I neglect loved-ones?". See also: Existential Therapy and Irvin Yalom
Logical positivists ask: "What is the meaning of life?", "What is the meaning in asking?" and "If there are no objective values, then, is life meaningless?" Ludwig Wittgenstein and the logical positivists said: "Expressed in language, the question is meaningless"; because, in life the statement the "meaning of x", usually denotes the consequences of x, or the significance of x, or what is notable about x, etc., thus, when the meaning of life concept equals "x", in the statement the "meaning of x", the statement becomes recursive, and, therefore, nonsensical, or it might refer to the fact that biological life is essential to having a meaning in life.
The things (people, events) in the life of a person can have meaning (importance) as parts of a whole, but a discrete meaning of (the) life, itself, aside from those things, cannot be discerned. A person's life has meaning (for himself, others) as the life events resulting from his achievements, legacy, family, etc., but, to say that life, itself, has meaning, is a misuse of language, since any note of significance, or of consequence, is relevant only in life (to the living), so rendering the statement erroneous. Bertrand Russell wrote that although he found that his distaste for torture was not like his distaste for broccoli, he found no satisfactory, empirical method of proving this:
When we try to be definite, as to what we mean when we say that this or that is "the Good," we find ourselves involved in very great difficulties. Bentham's creed, that pleasure is the Good, roused furious opposition, and was said to be a pig's philosophy. Neither he nor his opponents could advance any argument. In a scientific question, evidence can be adduced on both sides, and, in the end, one side is seen to have the better case — or, if this does not happen, the question is left undecided. But in a question, as to whether this, or that, is the ultimate Good, there is no evidence, either way; each disputant can only appeal to his own emotions, and employ such rhetorical devices as shall rouse similar emotions in others ... Questions as to "values" — that is to say, as to what is good or bad on its own account, independently of its effects — lie outside the domain of science, as the defenders of religion emphatically assert. I think that, in this, they are right, but, I draw the further conclusion, which they do not draw, that questions as to "values" lie wholly outside the domain of knowledge. That is to say, when we assert that this, or that, has "value", we are giving expression to our own emotions, not to a fact, which would still be true if our personal feelings were different.
Postmodernist thought—broadly speaking—sees human nature as constructed by language, or by structures and institutions of human society. Unlike other forms of philosophy, postmodernism rarely seeks out a priori or innate meanings in human existence, but instead focuses on analyzing or critiquing given meanings in order to rationalize or reconstruct them. Anything resembling a "meaning of life", in postmodernist terms, can only be understood within a social and linguistic framework, and must be pursued as an escape from the power structures that are already embedded in all forms of speech and interaction. As a rule, postmodernists see awareness of the constraints of language as necessary to escaping those constraints, but different theorists take different views on the nature of this process: from radical reconstruction of meaning by individuals (as in deconstructionism) to theories in which individuals are primarily extensions of language and society, without real autonomy (as in poststructuralism). In general, postmodernism seeks meaning by looking at the underlying structures that create or impose meaning, rather than the epiphenomenal appearances of the world.
Evolutionary psychology holds that the ultimate meaning of life is to seek the fulfillment of the human instincts, and that all actions in life are results of instincts and in particular reproductive needs.
According to naturalistic pantheism, the meaning of life is to care for and look after nature and the environment.
The physicist David Egli proposes an Observation that there are only two possibilities for the meaning of life:
- Everything is the product of coincidence.
- There is a higher power or, if you want to call it like this, a God who is behind some of the coincidences, and not everything is coincidence.
The first case leads to Absurdism, meaning that nothing makes sense at all, because coincidences never make sense. This would mean that every life of every human being is senseless. Also things like love or preserving human life or a good conscience.
In the second case, the question remains of what nature this God is in order to speculate what the meaning of life could be. If this God is a person, it implies, that the meaning of life is, what this God intends it to be. In this case it is also natural to suppose that all life came into existence by intention of that God. It then is quite obvious, that the meaning of life must have something to do with this God, or that even He himself is the meaning of life. But still the question of the character of that God remains. The first conclusion could be that God is a devil because of all the terrible things in this world. But there are also things in this world only a loving and holy God would create like love, forgiveness, mercy, grace, joy, beauty, nature. Suppose God is evil, then the meaning of live would be to be evil. It is quite natural to conclude that this can't be the meaning of life, and if it would be, life would not be worth living, and therefore the conclusion is that God is perfectly good and there is absolutely no evil in the character of God, because otherwise God would still be evil. But if God is absolutely good, why does He expose man to evil, or what is the meaning of this life where both the good and the evil coexist? Obviously if God is perfectly good, then the evil cannot be the final thing, but still the evil is here, why? If we think further, even we ourselves are evil, because we all do evil things everyday. So if we are evil and God is perfectly good, it is obvious that God wants to deliver us from evil, but there must be a purpose in creating us evil first. If God is perfectly good, He wants us to love him. But love is based on free will. A robot cannot have true love. Therefore love cannot exist, if there is not the possibility for hatred. Even our love will be proven the most, if we love in spite of evil. Like the love of Jesus for God and mankind in spite of his crucifixion. It seems natural, that the meaning of life is to choose. Either choose evil or either choose love and good. In this case the meaning of life is to choose the good in spite of evil. If God is perfectly good, then the good is actually God. This means the sense of life is to choose God in spite of evil. This also explains the purpose of evil. The purpose of evil is to prove and mature our love and our mercy.
East Asian philosophy
The Mohist philosophers believed that the purpose of life was universal, impartial love. Mohism promoted a philosophy of impartial caring - a person should care equally for all other individuals, regardless of their actual relationship to him or her. The expression of this indiscriminate caring is what makes man a righteous being in Mohist thought. This advocacy of impartiality was a target of attack by the other Chinese philosophical schools, most notably the Confucians who believed that while love should be unconditional, it should not be indiscriminate. For example, children should hold a greater love for their parents than for random strangers.
Confucianism recognizes human nature in accordance with the need for discipline and education. Because mankind is driven by both positive and negative influences, Confucianists see a goal in achieving virtue through strong relationships and reasoning as well as minimizing the negative. This emphasis on normal living is seen in the Confucianist scholar Tu Wei-Ming's quote, "we can realize the ultimate meaning of life in ordinary human existence."
The Legalists believed that finding the purpose of life was a meaningless effort. To the Legalists, only practical knowledge was valuable, especially as it related to the function and performance of the state.
The religious perspectives on the meaning of life are those ideologies which explain life in terms of an implicit purpose not defined by humans.
Western and Middle Eastern religions
Though Christianity has its roots in Judaism, and shares much of the latter faith's ontology, its central beliefs derive from the teachings of Jesus Christ, as presented in the New Testament. Life's purpose in Christianity is to seek divine salvation through the grace of God and intercession of Christ. (cf. John 11:26) The New Testament speaks of God wanting to have a relationship with humans both in this life and the life to come, which can happen only if one's sins are forgiven (John 3:16–21; 2 Peter 3:9).
In the Christian view, humankind was made in the Image of God and perfect, but the Fall of Man caused the progeny of the first Parents to inherit Original Sin. The sacrifice of Christ's passion, death and resurrection provide the means for transcending that impure state (Romans 6:23). The means for doing so varies between different groups of Christians, but all rely on belief in Jesus, his work on the cross and his resurrection as the fundamental starting point for a relationship with God. Faith in God is found in Ephesians 2:8–9 – "For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works, that no one should boast." (New American Standard Bible; 1973). People are justified by belief in the propitiatory sacrifice of Jesus' death on the cross. The Gospel maintains that through this belief, the barrier that sin has created between man and God is destroyed, and allows God to change people and instill in them a new heart after His own will, and the ability to do it. This is what the term reborn or saved almost always refers to. This places Christianity in stark contrast to other religions which claim that believers are justified with God through adherence to guidelines or law given to us by God.
In the Westminster Shorter Catechism, the first question is: "What is the chief end of Man?", that is, "What is Man's main purpose?". The answer is: "Man's chief end is to glorify God, and enjoy him forever". God requires one to obey the revealed moral law saying: "love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbour as yourself". The Baltimore Catechism answers the question "Why did God make you?" by saying "God made me to know Him, to love Him, and to serve Him in this world, and to be happy with Him forever in heaven."
The Apostle Paul also answers this question in his speech on the Areopagus in Athens: "And He has made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the face of the earth, and has determined their preappointed times and the boundaries of their dwellings, so that they should seek the Lord, in the hope that they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us."
In Islam, man's ultimate life objective is to worship the creator Allah by abiding by the Divine guidelines revealed in the Qur'an and the Tradition of the Prophet. Earthly life is merely a test, determining one's afterlife, either in Jannat (paradise) or in Jahannam (Hell).
For Allah's satisfaction, via the Qur'an, all Muslims must believe in God, His revelations, His angels, His messengers, and in the "Day of Judgment". The Qur'an describes the purpose of creation as follows: "Blessed be he in whose hand is the kingdom, he is powerful over all things, who created death and life that he might examine which of you is best in deeds, and he is the almighty, the forgiving" (Qur'an 67:1–2) and "And I (Allâh) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should be obedient (to Allah)." (Qur'an 51:56). Obedience testifies to the oneness of God in His lordship, His names, and His attributes. Terrenal life is a test; how one acts (behaves) determines whether one's soul goes to Jannat (Heaven) or to Jahannam (Hell).
The Five Pillars of Islam are duties incumbent to every Muslim; they are: Shahadah (profession of faith); Salah (ritual prayer); Zakah (charity); Sawm (fasting during Ramadan), and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). They derive from the Hadith works, notably of Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.
Beliefs differ among the Kalam. The Sunni concept of pre-destination is divine decree; likewise, the Shi'a concept of pre-destination is divine justice; in the esoteric view of the Sufis, the universe exists only for God's pleasure; Creation is a grand game, wherein Allah is the greatest prize.
The Bahá'í Faith emphasizes the unity of humanity. To Bahá'ís, the purpose of life is focused on spiritual growth and service to humanity. Human beings are viewed as intrinsically spiritual beings. People's lives in this material world provide extended opportunities to grow, to develop divine qualities and virtues, and the prophets were sent by God to facilitate this.
In the Judaic world view, the meaning of life is to elevate life, both in this world ('Olam HaZeh) and in the world to come ('Olam HaBa). The most important way to elevate life is through the observance of "mitzvot" (divine commandments in the Torah), of which the most significant are to serve the One God of Israel and to prepare for the world to come. In Judaism God is not effected or benefited through worship, but a person benefits when drawing close to God through prayer and service of the heart, by bringing out their own intrinsic holiness and divine nature. Among other crucial values in the Torah is pursuit of justice, compassion, peace, kindness, hard work, prosperity, humility, and education. The "Olam Haba" thought is about elevating oneself spiritually, connecting to God in preparing for "Olam Haba"; Jewish thought is to use "Olam Hazeh" (this world) to elevate oneself. "Al shlosha devarim," a well-known Mishnah from Pirkei Avot, relates to one of the first scholars of the Oral Law, Simeon the Righteous, the saying that "the world stands on three things: on torah, on worship, and on acts of loving kindness." This concept further explains the Jewish mentality towards the meaning of it all.
Judaism's most important feature is the worship of a single, incomprehensible, transcendent, one, indivisible, Being of absolute existence, who created the universe and governs it. Closeness with the one God of Israel, and adherence to the laws revealed in the Torah for the benefit of the world, is the central concept of Judaism. Per traditional Judaism, God established a covenant with the Jewish people, at Mount Sinai, revealing his laws and commandments in the Torah. In Rabbinic Judaism, the Torah comprises the written Pentateuch (Torah) and the oral law tradition (later transcribed as sacred writing).
Kabbalistically, the meaning of life is to connect with the One God. Kaballah posits that there only God exists, though "Klipot" (shells) separate the holiness of God, therefore, the meaning of life is to remove those shells and connect to God.
Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy named after its prophet Zoroaster, which is believed to have influenced the beliefs of Judaism and its descendant religions. Zoroastrians believe in a universe created by a transcendental God, Ahura Mazda, to whom all worship is ultimately directed. Azhura Mazda's creation is asha, truth and order, and it is in conflict with its antithesis, druj, falsehood and disorder. (See also Zoroastrian eschatology).
Since humanity possesses free will, people must be responsible for their moral choices. By using free will, people must take an active role in the universal conflict, with good thoughts, good words and good deeds to ensure happiness and to keep chaos at bay.
South Asian religions
Hinduism is a religious category including many beliefs and traditions. Since Hinduism was the way of expressed meaningful living for quite a long time immemorial, when there was no need for naming this as a separate religion, Hindu doctrines are supplementary and complementary in nature, generally non-exclusive, suggestive and tolerant in content. Most believe that the ātman (spirit, soul)—the person's true self—is eternal. In part, this stems from Hindu beliefs that spiritual development occurs across many lifetimes, and goals should match the state of development of the individual. There are four possible aims to human life, known as the purusharthas (ordered from least to greatest): Kāma (wish, desire, love and sensual pleasure), Artha (wealth, prosperity, glory), Dharma (righteousness, duty, morality, virtue, ethics, encompassing notions such as ahimsa (non-violence) and satya (truth)) and Moksha (liberation, i.e. liberation from Saṃsāra, the cycle of reincarnation).
In all schools of Hinduism, the meaning of life is tied up in the concepts of karma (causal action), sansara (the cycle of birth and rebirth), and moksha (liberation). Existence is conceived as the progression of the ātman (similar to the western concept of a soul) across numerous lifetimes, and its ultimate progression towards liberation from karma. Particular goals for life are generally subsumed under broader yogas (practices) or dharma (correct living) which are intended to create more favorable reincarnations, though they are generally positive acts in this life as well. Traditional schools of Hinduism often worship Devas which are manifestations of Ishvara (a personal or chosen God); these Devas are taken as ideal forms to be identified with, as a form of spiritual improvement.
Advaita and Dvaita Hinduism
In monist Advaita Vedanta, ātman is ultimately indistinguishable from Brahman, and the goal of life is to know or realize that one's ātman (soul) is identical to Brahman. To the Upanishads, whoever becomes fully aware of the ātman, as one's core of self, realizes identity with Brahman, and, thereby, achieves Moksha (liberation, freedom).
Dualist Dvaita Vedanta and other bhakti schools have a dualist interpretation. Brahman is seen as a supreme being with a personality and manifest qualities. The ātman depends upon Brahman for its existence; the meaning of life is achieving Moksha through love of God and upon His grace.
Vaishnavism is a branch of Hinduism in which the principal belief is the identification of Vishnu or Narayana as the one supreme God. This belief contrasts with the Krishna-centered traditions, such as Vallabha, Nimbaraka and Gaudiya, in which Krishna is considered to be the One and only Supreme God and the source of all avataras.
Vaishnava theology includes the central beliefs of Hinduism such as monotheism, reincarnation, samsara, karma, and the various Yoga systems, but with a particular emphasis on devotion (bhakti) to Vishnu through the process of Bhakti yoga, often including singing Vishnu's name's (bhajan), meditating upon his form (dharana) and performing deity worship (puja). The practices of deity worship are primarily based on texts such as Pañcaratra and various Samhitas.
One popular school of thought, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, teaches the concept of Achintya Bheda Abheda. In this, Krishna is worshipped as the single true God, and all living entities are eternal parts and the Supreme Personality of the Godhead Krishna. Thus the constitutional position of a living entity is to serve the Lord with love and devotion. The purpose of human life especially is to think beyond the animalistic way of eating, sleeping, mating and defending and engage the higher intelligence to revive the lost relationship with Krishna.
Jainism is a religion originating in ancient India, its ethical system promotes self-discipline above all else. Through following the ascetic teachings of Jina, a human achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge). Jainism divides the universe into living and non-living beings. Only when the non-living become attached to the living does suffering result. Therefore, happiness is the result of self-conquest and freedom from external objects. The meaning of life may then be said to be to use the physical body to achieve self-realization and bliss.
Jains believe that every human is responsible for his or her actions and all living beings have an eternal soul, jiva. Jains believe all souls are equal because they all possess the potential of being liberated and attaining Moksha. The Jain view of karma is that every action, every word, every thought produces, besides its visible, an invisible, transcendental effect on the soul.
Jainism includes strict adherence to ahimsa (or ahinsā), a form of nonviolence that goes far beyond vegetarianism. Jains refuse food obtained with unnecessary cruelty. Many practice a lifestyle similar to veganism due to the violence of modern dairy farms, and others exclude root vegetables from their diets in order to preserve the lives of the plants from which they eat.
Buddhism is a nondual doctrine, in which subject, object, and action are all viewed as illusory. Buddhists believe that life is inherent with suffering or frustration. This does not imply that there is no pleasure in life, but rather that pleasure alone does not lend itself to lasting happiness. True suffering is caused by attachment to objects material or non-material, which in turn causes one to be born again and again in the cycle of existence. The Buddhist sūtras and tantras do not speak about "the meaning of life" or "the purpose of life", but about the potential of human life to end suffering through detaching oneself from cravings and conceptual attachments. Suffering can be overcome through human activity, simply by removing the cause of suffering. Attaining and perfecting dispassion is a process of many levels that ultimately results in the state of Nirvana. Nirvana means freedom from both suffering and rebirth.
Theravada Buddhism is generally considered to be close to the early Buddhist practice. It promotes the concept of Vibhajjavada (Pali), literally "Teaching of Analysis", which says that insight must come from the aspirant's experience, critical investigation, and reasoning instead of by blind faith. However, the Theravadin tradition also emphasizes heeding the advice of the wise, considering such advice and evaluation of one's own experiences to be the two tests by which practices should be judged. The Theravadin goal is liberation (or freedom) from suffering, according to the Four Noble Truths. This is attained in the achievement of Nirvana, or Unbinding which also ends the repeated cycle of birth, old age, sickness and death.
Mahayana Buddhist schools de-emphasize the traditional view (still practiced in Theravada) of the release from individual Suffering (Dukkha) and attainment of Awakening (Nirvana). In Mahayana, the Buddha is seen as an eternal, immutable, inconceivable, omnipresent being. The fundamental principles of Mahayana doctrine are based on the possibility of universal liberation from suffering for all beings, and the existence of the transcendent Buddha-nature, which is the eternal Buddha essence present, but hidden and unrecognised, in all living beings.
Philosophical schools of Mahayana Buddhism, such as Chan/Zen and the vajrayana Tibetan and Shingon schools, explicitly teach that bodhisattvas should refrain from full liberation, allowing themselves to be reincarnated into the world until all beings achieve enlightenment. Devotional schools such as Pure Land Buddhism seek the aid of celestial buddhas—individuals who have spent lifetimes accumulating positive karma, and use that accumulation to aid all.
The monotheistic Sikh religion was founded by Guru Nanak Dev, the term "sikh" means student, which denotes that followers will lead their lives forever learning. This system of religious philosophy and expression has been traditionally known as the Gurmat (literally "the counsel of the gurus") or the Sikh Dharma. The followers of Sikhism are ordained to follow the teachings of the ten Sikh Gurus, or enlightened leaders, as well as the holy scripture entitled the Gurū Granth Sāhib, which includes selected works of many philosophers from diverse socio-economic and religious backgrounds.
The Sikh Gurus say that salvation can be obtained by following various spiritual paths, so Sikhs do not have a monopoly on salvation: "The Lord dwells in every heart, and every heart has its own way to reach Him." Sikhs believe that all people are equally important before God. Sikhs balance their moral and spiritual values with the quest for knowledge, and they aim to promote a life of peace and equality but also of positive action.
A key distinctive feature of Sikhism is a non-anthropomorphic concept of God, to the extent that one can interpret God as the Universe itself (pantheism). Sikhism thus sees life as an opportunity to understand this God as well as to discover the divinity which lies in each individual. While a full understanding of God is beyond human beings, Nanak described God as not wholly unknowable, and stressed that God must be seen from "the inward eye", or the "heart", of a human being: devotees must meditate to progress towards enlightenment. Nanak emphasized the revelation through meditation, as its rigorous application permits the existence of communication between God and human beings.
East Asian religions
Taoist cosmogony emphasizes the need for all sentient beings and all man to return to the primordial or to rejoin with the Oneness of the Universe by way of self cultivation and self realization. All adherents should understand and be in tune with the ultimate truth.
Taoists believe all things were originally from Taiji and Tao, and the meaning in life for the adherents is to realize the temporal nature of the existence. "Only introspection can then help us to find our innermost reasons for living ... the simple answer is here within ourselves."
Shinto is the native religion of Japan. Shinto means "the path of the kami", but more specifically, it can be taken to mean "the divine crossroad where the kami chooses his way". The "divine" crossroad signifies that all the universe is divine spirit. This foundation of free will, choosing one's way, means that life is a creative process.
Shinto wants life to live, not to die. Shinto sees death as pollution and regards life as the realm where the divine spirit seeks to purify itself by rightful self-development. Shinto wants individual human life to be prolonged forever on earth as a victory of the divine spirit in preserving its objective personality in its highest forms. The presence of evil in the world, as conceived by Shinto, does not stultify the divine nature by imposing on divinity responsibility for being able to relieve human suffering while refusing to do so. The sufferings of life are the sufferings of the divine spirit in search of progress in the objective world.
There are many new religious movements in East Asia, and some with millions of followers: Chondogyo, Tenrikyo, Cao Đài, and Seicho-No-Ie. New religions typically have unique explanations for the meaning of life. For example, in Tenrikyo, one is expected to live a Joyous Life by participating in practices that create happiness for oneself and others.
Scientific inquiry and perspectives
Members of the scientific community and philosophy-of-science communities believe that science may be able to provide some context, and set some parameters for conversations on topics related to meaning in life. This includes offering insights from the science of happiness or studies of death anxiety. This also means providing context for, and understanding of life itself through explorations of the theories related to the big bang, abiogenesis and evolution.
Psychological significance and value in life
Science may or may not be able to tell us what is of essential value in life (and various materialist philosophies such as dialectical materialism challenge the very idea of an absolute value or meaning of life), but some studies definitely bear on aspects of the question: researchers in positive psychology (and, earlier and less rigorously, in humanistic psychology) study factors that lead to life satisfaction, full engagement in activities, making a fuller contribution by utilizing one's personal strengths, and meaning based on investing in something larger than the self.
One value system suggested by social psychologists, broadly called Terror Management Theory, states that all human meaning is derived out of a fundamental fear of death, whereby values are selected when they allow us to escape the mental reminder of death.
Neuroscience has produced theories of reward, pleasure, and motivation in terms of physical entities such as neurotransmitter activity, especially in the limbic system and the ventral tegmental area in particular. If one believes that the meaning of life is to maximize pleasure, then these theories give normative predictions about how to act to achieve this. Likewise, some ethical naturalists advocate a science of morality - the empirical pursuit of flourishing for all conscious creatures.
Origin and nature of biological life
The exact mechanisms of abiogenesis are unknown: notable theories include the RNA world hypothesis (RNA-based replicators) and the iron-sulfur world theory (metabolism without genetics). The theory of evolution does not attempt to explain the origin of life but the process by which different lifeforms have developed throughout history via genetic mutation and natural selection. At the end of the 20th century, based upon insight gleaned from the gene-centered view of evolution, biologists George C. Williams, Richard Dawkins, David Haig, among others, conclude that if there is a primary function to life, it is the replication of DNA and the survival of one's genes.
However, though scientists have intensively studied life on Earth, defining life in unequivocal terms is still a challenge. Physically, one may say that life "feeds on negative entropy" which refers to the process by which living entities decrease their internal entropy at the expense of some form of energy taken in from the environment. Biologists generally agree that lifeforms are self-organizing systems regulating the internal environment as to maintain this organized state, metabolism serves to provide energy, and reproduction causes life to continue over a span of multiple generations. Typically, organisms are responsive to stimuli and genetic information tends to change from generation to generation resulting in adaptation through evolution, these characteristics optimizing the chances of survival for the individual organism and its descendants respectively.
Non-cellular replicating agents, notably viruses, are generally not considered to be organisms because they are incapable of "independent" reproduction or metabolism. This controversy is problematic, though, since some parasites and endosymbionts are also incapable of independent life. Astrobiology studies the possibility of different forms of life on other worlds, such as replicating structures made from materials other than DNA.
Origins and ultimate fate of the universe
Though the Big Bang model was met with much skepticism when first introduced, partially because it appears to contradict some models of the religious concept of creation, it has become well-supported by several independent observations. However, current physics can only describe the early universe from 10−43 seconds after the Big Bang (where zero time corresponds to infinite temperature); a theory of quantum gravity would be required to go further back in time. Nevertheless, many physicists have speculated about what would have preceded this limit, and how the universe came into being. Some physicists think that the Big Bang occurred coincidentally, and when considering the anthropic principle, it is most often interpreted as implying the existence of a multiverse.
The ultimate fate of the universe, and implicitly humanity, is hypothesized as one in which biological life will eventually become unsustainable, be it through a Big Freeze, Big Rip, or Big Crunch. However, there are conceivable ways in which these fates can be avoided, as it may be possible given sufficiently advanced technology to survive indefinitely by directing the flow of energy on a cosmic scale and altering the fate of the universe.[page needed]
Scientific questions about the mind
The true nature and origin of consciousness and the mind itself are also widely debated in science. The explanatory gap is generally equated with the hard problem of consciousness, and the question of free will is also considered to be of fundamental importance. These subjects are mostly addressed in the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience (e.g. the neuroscience of free will) and philosophy of mind, though some evolutionary biologists and theoretical physicists have also made several allusions to the subject.
Reductionistic and eliminative materialistic approaches, for example the Multiple Drafts Model, hold that consciousness can be wholly explained by neuroscience through the workings of the brain and its neurons, thus adhering to biological naturalism.
On the other hand, some scientists, like Andrei Linde, have considered that consciousness, like spacetime, might have its own intrinsic degrees of freedom, and that one's perceptions may be as real as (or even more real than) material objects. Hypotheses of consciousness and spacetime explain consciousness in describing a "space of conscious elements", often encompassing a number of extra dimensions. Electromagnetic theories of consciousness solve the binding problem of consciousness in saying that the electromagnetic field generated by the brain is the actual carrier of conscious experience, there is however disagreement about the implementations of such a theory relating to other workings of the mind. Quantum mind theories use quantum theory in explaining certain properties of the mind. Explaining the process of free will through quantum phenomena is a popular alternative to determinism, such postulations may variously relate free will to quantum fluctuations, quantum amplification, quantum potential and quantum probability.
Based on the premises of non-materialistic explanations of the mind, some have suggested the existence of a cosmic consciousness, asserting that consciousness is actually the "ground of all being". Proponents of this view cite accounts of paranormal phenomena, primarily extrasensory perceptions and psychic powers, as evidence for an incorporeal higher consciousness. In hopes of proving the existence of these phenomena, parapsychologists have orchestrated various experiments. Meta-analyses of these experiments indicate that the effect size (though very small) has been relatively consistent, resulting in an overall statistical significance. Although some critical analysts feel that parapsychological study is scientific, they are not satisfied with its experimental results. Skeptical reviewers contend that apparently successful results are more likely due to sloppy procedures, poorly trained researchers, or methodological flaws than to actual effects.
In popular culture
In Douglas Adams' popular comedy book, movie, television, and radio series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything is given the numeric solution "42", after seven and a half million years of calculation by a giant supercomputer called Deep Thought. When this answer is met with confusion and anger from humanity, Deep Thought explains that "I think the problem, to be quite honest with you, is that you've never actually known what the question is." In the continuation of the book, the question is proposed to be the song of Bob Dylan "How many roads must a man walk down, before you can call him a man.". The book later states that the question is 6x9 which of course does not equal 42 and does in fact answer 54. Coincidentally, in the genealogy of Jesus from Matthew 1 in the Christian Bible states that there were 42 generations from Abraham to Jesus.
In Monty Python's The Meaning of Life, there are several allusions to the meaning of life. At the end of the film, a character played by Michael Palin is handed an envelope containing "the meaning of life", which he opens and reads out to the audience: "Well, it's nothing very special. Uh, try to be nice to people, avoid eating fat, read a good book every now and then, get some walking in, and try to live together in peace and harmony with people of all creeds and nations." Many other Python sketches and songs are also existential in nature, questioning the importance we place on life ("Always Look on the Bright Side of Life") and other meaning-of-life related questioning. John Cleese also had his sit-com character Basil Fawlty contemplating the futility of his own existence in Fawlty Towers.
"What is the meaning of life?" is a question many people ask themselves at some point during their lives, most in the context "What is the purpose of life?" Here are some of the life goals people choose, and some of their beliefs on what the purpose of life is:
To realize one's potential and ideals
- To chase dreams.
To live one's dreams.
- To spend it for something that will outlast it.
- To matter: to count, to stand for something, to have made some difference that you lived at all.
- To expand one's potential in life.
- To become the person you've always wanted to be.
- To become the best version of yourself.
- To seek happiness and flourish.
- To be a true authentic human being.
- To be able to put the whole of oneself into one's feelings, one's work, one's beliefs.
- To follow our destiny.
To submit to our destiny.
- To create your own destiny.
- To achieve eudaimonia , a flourishing of human spirit.
To achieve biological perfection
- To survive, that is, to live as long as possible, including pursuit of immortality (through scientific means).
To live forever or die trying.
- To evolve.
- To replicate, to reproduce. "The 'dream' of every cell is to become two cells."
- To be fruitful and multiply. (Genesis 1:28)
To seek wisdom and knowledge
- To expand one's perception of the world.
- To follow the clues and walk out the exit.
- To learn as many things as possible in life.
To know as much as possible about as many things as possible.
- To seek wisdom and knowledge and to tame the mind, as to avoid suffering caused by ignorance and find happiness.
- To face our fears and accept the lessons life offers us.
- To find the meaning of life.
To find the purpose of life.
To find a reason to live.
- To resolve the imbalance of the mind by understanding the nature of reality.
To do good, to do the right thing
- To leave the world a better place than you found it.
To do your best to leave every situation better than you found it.
- To benefit others.
- To give more than you take.
- To end suffering.
- To create equality.
- To challenge oppression.
- To distribute wealth.
- To be generous.
- To contribute to the well-being and spirit of others.
- To help others, to help one another.
To take every chance to help another while on your journey here.
- To be creative and innovative.
- To forgive.
To accept and forgive human flaws.
- To be emotionally sincere.
- To be responsible.
- To be honorable.
- To seek peace.
To attain spiritual enlightenment
- To reach the highest heaven and be at the heart of the Divine.
- To have a pure soul and experience God.
- To understand the mystery of God.
- To know God.
- To know oneself, know others, and know the will of heaven.
- To attain union with God.
To love, to feel, to enjoy the act of living
- To love more.
- To love those who mean the most. Every life you touch will touch you back.
- To treasure every enjoyable sensation one has.
- To seek beauty in all its forms.
- To have fun.
To enjoy life.
- To seek pleasure and avoid pain.
- To be compassionate.
- To be moved by the tears and pain of others, and try to help them out of love and compassion.
- To love others as best we possibly can.
- To love something bigger, greater, and beyond ourselves, something we did not create or have the power to create, something intangible and made holy by our very belief in it.
- To love God and all of his creations.
- To glorify God by enjoying him forever.
- To eat, drink, and be merry.
To have power, to be better
- To strive for power and superiority.
- To rule the world.
- To know and master the world.
To know and master nature.
- To fill the Earth and subdue it. (Genesis 1:28)
- ...To crush your enemies—See them driven before you, and to hear the lamentation of their women! 
Life has no meaning
- Life or human existence has no real meaning or purpose because human existence occurred out of a random chance in nature, and anything that exists by chance has no intended purpose.
- Life has no meaning, but as humans we try to associate a meaning or purpose so we can justify our existence.
- There is no point in life, and that is exactly what makes it so special.
One should not seek to know and understand the meaning of life
- The answer to the meaning of life is too profound to be known and understood.
- You will never live if you are looking for the meaning of life.
- The meaning of life is to forget about the search for the meaning of life.
Life is bad
- Life is a bitch, and then you die.
- Life sucks and in the end you die.
- See also Vale of tears
- Origin and nature of life and reality
- Value of life
- Purpose of life
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- ^ Robert Nozick (1981). Philosophical Explanations. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674664795.
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- ^ a b Glenn Yeffeth (2005). The Anthology at the End of the Universe: Leading Science Fiction Authors on Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. BenBella Books, Inc. ISBN 1932100563.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s David Seaman (2005). The Real Meaning of Life. New World Library. ISBN 1577315146.
- ^ a b c d e f Julian Baggini (September 2004). What's It All About? Philosophy and the Meaning of Life. USA: Granta Books. ISBN 1862076618.
- ^ Ronald F. Thiemann; William Carl Placher (1998). Why Are We Here?: Everyday Questions and the Christian Life. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 1563382369.
- ^ Dennis Marcellino (1996). Why Are We Here?: The Scientific Answer to this Age-old Question (that you don't need to be a scientist to understand). Lighthouse Pub. ISBN 0945272103.
- ^ F. Homer Curtiss (2003). Why Are We Here. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0766138992.
- ^ a b William B. Badke (2005). The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Meaning of Everything. Kregel Publications. ISBN 0825420695.
- ^ a b c Hsuan Hua (2003). Words of Wisdom: Beginning Buddhism. Dharma Realm Buddhist Association. ISBN 0881393029.
- ^ a b Paul Davies (March 2000). The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-86309-X. http://www.simonsays.com/content/book.cfm?tab=1&pid=410133. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ a b Charles Christiansen; Carolyn Manville Baum; Julie Bass-Haugen (2005). Occupational Therapy: Performance, Participation, and Well-Being. SLACK Incorporated. ISBN 1556425309.
- ^ a b Evan Harris Walker (2000). The Physics of Consciousness: The Quantum Mind and the Meaning of Life. Perseus Books. ISBN 0738204366.
- ^ Rick Warren (2002). The Purpose Driven Life: What on Earth Am I Here For?. Zondervan. ISBN 0310255252.
- ^ a b Jiddu Krishnamurti (2001). What Are You Doing With Your Life?. Krishnamurti Foundation of America. ISBN 188800424X.
- ^ Puolimatka, Tapio; Airaksinen, Timo (2002). "Education and the Meaning of Life" (PDF). Philosophy of Education. University of Helsinki. http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-Yearbook/2001/tapio%2001.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ Stan Van Hooft (2004). Life, Death, and Subjectivity: Moral Sources in Bioethics. Rodopi. ISBN 9042019123.
- ^ Russ Shafer-Landau; Terence Cuneo (2007). Foundations of Ethics: An Anthology. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1405129514.
- ^ Kidd, I., "Cynicism," in The Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy. (ed. J.O. Urmson and Jonathan Rée), Routledge. (2005)
- ^ Long, A.A., "The Socratic Tradition: Diogenes, Crates, and Hellenistic Ethics," in The Cynics: The Cynic Movement in Antiquity and Its Legacy. (ed. Branham and Goulet-Cazé), University of California Press, (1996).
- ^ "Cyrenaics." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The University of Tennessee At Martin. 4 Nov. 2007 <http://www.iep.utm.edu/>.
- ^ "The Cyrenaics and the Origin of Hedonism." Hedonism.org. BLTC. 4 Nov. 2007 <http://www.hedonism.org>.
- ^ Epicurus, "Letter to Menoeceus", contained in Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, Book X
- ^ a b c d Bertrand Russell (1946). A History of Western Philosophy, New York: Simon and Schuster; London: George Allen and Unwin
- ^ A: "'Liberalism' is defined as a social ethic that advocates liberty, and equality in general." – C. A. J. (Tony) Coady Distributive Justice, A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, editors Goodin, Robert E. and Pettit, Philip. Blackwell Publishing, 1995, p.440. B: "Liberty is not a means to a higher political end. It is itself the highest political end." – Lord Acton
- ^ Rosen, Frederick (2003). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge, p. 28. ISBN 0-415-22094-7 "It was Hume and Bentham who then reasserted most strongly the Epicurean doctrine concerning utility as the basis of justice."
- ^ Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty, ed. Himmelfarb. Penguin Classics, 1974, Ed.'s introduction, p. 11.
- ^ a b Jérôme Bindé (2004). The Future Of Values: 21st-Century Talks. Berghahn Books. ISBN 1571814426.
- ^ a b c Bernard Reginster (2006). The Affirmation of Life: Nietzsche on Overcoming Nihilism. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674021991.
- ^ Heidegger, "The Word of Nietzsche," 61.
- ^ Camus (1946) L'Etranger
- ^ Camus (1955) The Myth of Sisyphus
- ^ William James (1909). The Meaning of Truth. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-138-6.
- ^ Walter Robert Corti (1976). The Philosophy of William James. Meiner Verlag. ISBN 3787303529.
- ^ Amy Laura Hall (2002). Kierkegaard and the Treachery of Love. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521893119.
- ^ Dale Jacquette (1996). Schopenhauer, Philosophy, and the Arts. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521473888.
- ^ Durno Murray (1999). Nietzsche's Affirmative Morality. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3110166011.
- ^ Kierkegaard, Søren (1941). The Sickness Unto Death. Princeton University Press. ISBN 1448675022.
- ^ Kierkegaard, Søren (1941). The Sickness Unto Death. Princeton University Press. ISBN 1448675022. , Part I, Ch. 3.
- ^ a b c d "Humanist Manifesto I". American Humanist Association. 1933. http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto1.html. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ a b c "Humanist Manifesto II". American Humanist Association. 1973. http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto2.html. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- ^ a b c "Humanist Manifesto III". American Humanist Association. 2003. http://www.americanhumanist.org/3/HumandItsAspirations.php. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- ^ "A Secular Humanist Declaration". Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism (now the Council for Secular Humanism). 1980. http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=main&page=declaration. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- ^ Nick Bostrom (2005). "Transhumanist Values". Oxford University. http://www.nickbostrom.com/ethics/values.html. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
- ^ Irvin Yalom, Existential Psychotherapy, 1980
- ^ Richard Taylor (January 1970). "Chapter 5: The Meaning of Life". Good and Evil. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0026166909.
- ^ Wohlgennant, Rudolph. (1981). "Has the Question about the Meaning of Life any Meaning?" (Chapter 4). In E. Morscher, ed., Philosophie als Wissenschaft.
- ^ McNaughton, David (August 1988). "Section 1.5: Moral Freedom and the Meaning of Life". Moral Vision: An Introduction to Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631159452.
- ^ Bertrand Russell (1961). Science and Ethics
- ^ One hundred Philosophers. A guide to the world's greatest thinkers Peter J. King, Polish edition: Elipsa 2006
- ^ Tu, Wei-Ming. Confucian Thought: Selfhood as Creative Transformation. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985.
- ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/News-Feed/europe/The-new-Seven-Wonders-of-the-World/235431/Article1-235487.aspx
- ^ "The Westminster Shorter Catechism". http://www.creeds.net/reformed/Westminster/shorter_catechism.html. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ "The Baltimore Catechism". http://www.sacred-texts.com/chr/balt/balt1.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
- ^ Bible, Acts 17:26–27, NKJV
- ^ Quran 2:4, Quran 2:285, Quran 4:136
- ^ In most english translations of Qur'an 51:56 translates the last word to "worship", but any Arabic (and Urdu) speaking person can confirm that "ABADON" means to follow the Will of Allah (NOT worship). This is relevant because the Will of Allah is not just to worship HIM; to be just and good with humanity is equally important.
- ^ "Pillars of Islam". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/295625/Pillars-of-Islam. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- ^ Sahih Muslim, 1:1
- ^ "Bahaism." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2007. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bahaism.
- ^ Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 325–328. ISBN 1851681841.
- ^ For a more detailed Bahá'í perspective, see "'The Purpose of Life' Bahá'í Topics An Information Resource of the Bahá'í International Community". http://info.bahai.org/article-1-4-0-6.html.
- ^ Dan Cohn-Sherbok (2003). Judaism: History, Belief, and Practice. Routledge. ISBN 0415236614.
- ^ Abraham Joshua Heschel (2005). Heavenly Torah: As Refracted Through the Generations. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0826408028.
- ^ Wilfred Shuchat (2006). The Garden of Eden & the Struggle to Be Human: According to the Midrash Rabbah. Devora Publishing. ISBN 1932687319.
- ^ Randolph L. Braham (1983). Contemporary Views on the Holocaust. Springer. ISBN 089838141X.
- ^ Zoroastrianism – Relation to other religions and cultures
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- ^ a b Monier Monier-Williams (1974). Brahmanism and Hinduism: Or, Religious Thought and Life in India, as Based on the Veda and Other Sacred Books of the Hindus. Elibron Classics. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1421265311. http://books.google.com/?id=U5IBXA4UpT0C&dq=isbn=1421265311. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
- ^ For dharma, artha, and kama as "brahmanic householder values" see: Flood (1996), p. 17.
- ^ For the Dharma Śāstras as discussing the "four main goals of life" (dharma, artha, kāma, and moksha) see: Hopkins, p. 78.
- ^ For definition of the term पुरुष-अर्थ (puruṣa-artha) as "any of the four principal objects of human life, i.e. धर्म, अर्थ, काम, and मोक्ष" see: Apte, p. 626, middle column, compound #1.
- ^ Bhaskarananda, Swami (1994). The Essentials of Hinduism: a comprehensive overview of the world's oldest religion. Seattle, WA: Viveka Press. ISBN 1-884852-02-5.
- ^ Vivekananda, Swami (1987). Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama. ISBN 81-85301-75-1.
- ^ a b Werner, Karel (1994). "Hinduism". In Hinnells, John (Ed.). A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-0279-2.
- ^ See also the Vedic statement "ayam ātmā brahma" (This Ātman is Brahman)
- ^ Gupta, Ravi M.; Edited by Gavin Flood, University of Stirling (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami: When knowledge meets devotion. Routledge. ISBN 0415405483.
- ^ Tantric Literature And Gaudiya Vaishnavism
- ^ Shah, Natubhai. Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Sussex Academic Press, 1998.
- ^ "Viren, Jain" (PDF). RE Today. http://www.retoday.org.uk/pdfs/dre/viren.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- ^ "The Four Noble Truths". Thebigview.com. http://www.thebigview.com/buddhism/fourtruths.html. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
- ^ Daljeet Singh (1971). Guru Tegh Bahadur. Language Dept., Punjab.
- ^ Jon Mayled (2002). Modern World Religions: Sikhism. Harcourt Heinemann. ISBN 0435336266.
- ^ The Sikh Coalition
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- ^ Ming-Dao Deng (1990). Scholar Warrior: An Introduction to the Tao in Everyday Life. HarperCollins. ISBN 0062502328.
- ^ J. W. T. Mason (2002). The Meaning of Shinto. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1412245516.
- ^ E. Diener, J.J. Sapyta, E. Suh (1998). "Subjective Well-Being Is Essential to Well-Being." Psychological Inquiry, Lawrence Erlbaum
- ^ Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-092043-2.
- ^ Peterson, Christopher; Seligman, Martin (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516701-5.
- ^ Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-2297-0 (Paperback edition, 2004, Free Press, ISBN 0-7432-2298-9)
- ^ Charles Darwin (1859). On the Origin of Species.
- ^ Richard Dawkins (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019857519X.
- ^ Richard Dawkins (1995). River out of Eden. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-06990-8.
- ^ Astrobiology Magazine: Defining Life
- ^ Defining Life, Explaining Emergence
- ^ Schrödinger, Erwin (1944). What is Life?. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42708-8.
- ^ Margulis, Lynn; Sagan, Dorion (1995). What is Life?. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22021-8.
- ^ Lovelock, James (2000). Gaia – a New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286218-9.
- ^ Avery, John (2003). Information Theory and Evolution. World Scientific. ISBN 9812383999.
- ^ Davison, Paul G.. "How to Define Life". The University of North Alabama. http://www2.una.edu/pdavis/BI%20101/Overview%20Fall%202004.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- ^ Helge Kragh (1996). Cosmology and Controversy. Princeton University Press. ISBN 069100546X.
- ^ a b Nikos Prantzos; Stephen Lyle (2000). Our Cosmic Future: Humanity's Fate in the Universe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052177098X.
- ^ Rem B. Edwards (2001). What Caused the Big Bang?. Rodopi. ISBN 9042014075.
- ^ Harvey Whitehouse (2001). The Debated Mind: Evolutionary Psychology Versus Ethnography. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1859734278.
- ^ a b Jeffrey Alan Gray (2004). Consciousness: Creeping Up on the Hard Problem. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198520905.
- ^ Paul M. Churchland (1989). A Neurocomputational Perspective: The Nature of Mind and the Structure of Science. MIT Press. ISBN 0262531062.
- ^ Daniel Clement Dennett (1991). Consciousness Explained. Little, Brown and Co.. ISBN 0316180661.
- ^ a b John D. Barrow; Paul C.W. Davies; Charles L. Harper (2004). Science and Ultimate Reality: Quantum Theory, Cosmology and Complexity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052183113X.
- ^ Jean Millay; Ruth-Inge Heinze (1999). Multidimensional Mind: Remote Viewing in Hyperspace. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1556433069.
- ^ McFadden, J. (2002). "Synchronous Firing and Its Influence on the Brain's Electromagnetic Field: Evidence for an Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness". Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (4): 23–50. http://www.mindcontrolforums.com/news/electromagnetic-field-theory-of-consciousness.htm.
- ^ R. Buccheri; V. Di Gesù; Metod Saniga (2000). Studies on the Structure of Time: From Physics to Psycho(patho)logy. Springer. ISBN 030646439X.
- ^ a b David Bohm; Basil J. Hiley (1993). The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory. Routledge. ISBN 0415065887.
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- ^ Benjamin Libet; Anthony Freeman; Keith Sutherland (1999). The Volitional Brain: Towards a Neuroscience of Free Will. Imprint Academic. ISBN 0907845118.
- ^ Mae-Wan Ho (1998). The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms. World Scientific. pp. 218–231. ISBN 9810234279.
- ^ Radin, Dean (1997). The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena. HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0062515020.
- ^ Dunne, Brenda; Jahn, Robert G. (2003). "Does psi exist? Replicable evidence for an anomalous process of information transfer" (– Scholar search). Journal of Scientific Exploration 17 (2): 207–241. Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060927075401/http://www.scientificexploration.org/jse/abstracts/v17n2a1.php. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
- ^ Dunne, Brenda J.; Jahn, Robert G. (1985). "On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena". Foundations of Physics 16 (8): 721–772. Bibcode 1986FoPh...16..721J. doi:10.1007/BF00735378. http://www.springerlink.com/content/vtrr87tg356154r7/. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
- ^ Alcock, James E.; Jahn, Robert G. (2003). "Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance" (PDF). Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (6–7): 29–50. http://www.imprint.co.uk/pdf/Alcock-editorial.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- ^ Hyman, Ray (1995). "Evaluation of the program on anomalous mental phenomena". The Journal of Parapsychology 59 (1). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n4_v59/ai_18445600. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- ^ Akers, C. (1986). Methodological Criticisms of Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 4. PesquisaPSI. http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances4rape/7_Methodological_Criticisms.html. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- ^ Child, I.L. (1987). Criticism in Experimental Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 5. PesquisaPSI. http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances5/6_Criticism_in_Experimental.html. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- ^ Wiseman, Richard; Smith, Matthew, et al. (1996). "Exploring possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld experiments – Psychophysical Research Laboratories". The Journal of Parapsychology. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n2_v60/ai_18960809. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- ^ Lobach, E.; Bierman, D. (2004). "The Invisible Gaze: Three Attempts to Replicate Sheldrake's Staring Effects" (PDF). Proceedings of the 47th PA Convention. pp. 77–90. http://www.parapsych.org/papers/07.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
- ^ Douglas Adams (1979). The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-25864-8.
- ^ Monty Python's Completely Useless Web Site: Monty Python's The Meaning Of Life: Complete Script
- ^ Terry Burnham (2005). Mean Markets and Lizard Brains: How to Profit from the New Science of Irrationality. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471716952.
- ^ Yolanda Fernandez (2002). In Their Shoes: Examining the Issue of Empathy and Its Place in the Treatment of Offenders. Wood 'N' Barnes Publishing. ISBN 1885473486.
- ^ Mark I. Pinsky (2001). The Gospel According To The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life Of The World's Most Animated Family. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0664224199.
- ^ a b c Roger Ellerton PhD, CMC (2006). Live Your Dreams... Let Reality Catch Up: NLP and Common Sense for Coaches, Managers and You. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1412047099.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j John Cook (2007). The Book of Positive Quotations. Fairview Press. ISBN 1577491696.
- ^ a b Steve Chandler (2005). Reinventing Yourself: How to Become the Person You've Always Wanted to Be. Career Press. ISBN 1564148173.
- ^ Matthew Kelly (2005). The Rhythm of Life: Living Every Day with Passion and Purpose. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743265106.
- ^ Lee, Dong Yul; Park, Sung Hee; Uhlemann, Max R.; Patsult, Philip (June 2000). "What Makes You Happy?: A Comparison of Self-reported Criteria of Happiness Between Two Cultures". Social Indicators Research 50 (3): 351–362. doi:10.1023/A:1004647517069. http://www.springerlink.com/content/q5m68401859l2320/. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ Social perspectives, ACM Digital Library
- ^ John Kultgen (1995). Autonomy and Intervention: Parentalism in the Caring Life. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0195085310.
- ^ a b c d George Cappannelli; Sedena Cappannelli (2004). Authenticity: Simple Strategies for Greater Meaning and Purpose at Work and at Home. Emmis Books. ISBN 1578601487.
- ^ a b John G. West (2002). Celebrating Middle-Earth: The Lord of the Rings as a Defense of Western Civilization. Inkling Books. ISBN 1587420120.
- ^ Rachel Madorsky (2003). Create Your Own Destiny!: Spiritual Path to Success. Avanty House. ISBN 0970534949.
- ^ A.C. Grayling. What is Good? The Search for the best way to live. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003.
- ^ Lopez, Mike (September 22, 1999). "Episode III: Relativism? A Jedi craves not these things". The Michigan Daily. http://www.pub.umich.edu/daily/1999/sep/09-22-99/edit/edit2.html. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ Lovatt, Stephen C. (2007). New Skins for Old Wine. Universal Publishers. pp. The Meaning of Life. ISBN 1581129602. http://homepage.ntlworld.com/pharseas.world/Life.html.
- ^ a b Raymond Kurzweil; Terry Grossman (2004). Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever . Holtzbrinck Publishers. ISBN 1-57954-954-3.
- ^ Bryan Appleyard (2007). How to Live Forever Or Die Trying: On the New Immortality. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743268687.
- ^ Cameron, Donald (2001). The Purpose of Life. Woodhill Publishing. ISBN 0-9540291-0-0. http://www.woodhillpublishing.co.uk/.
- ^ Wayne, Larry; Johnson, Grace. "Expanding The Oneness". SelfGrowth.com. http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Johnston7.html. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
- ^ Nick Lane (2005). Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192804812.
- ^ Kenneth M. Weiss; Anne V. Buchanan (2004). Genetics and the Logic of Evolution. Wiley-IEEE. ISBN 0471238058.
- ^ Jennifer Ackerman (2001). Chance in the House of Fate: A Natural History of Heredity. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0618219099.
- ^ Boyce Rensberger (1996). Life Itself: Exploring the Realm of the Living Cell. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195125002.
- ^ a b Thomas Patrick Burke (2004). The Major Religions: An Introduction with Texts. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 140511049X.
- ^ Chris Grau (2005). Philosophers Explore the Matrix. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195181074.
- ^ John M. Cooper; D. S. Hutchinson (1997). Plato: Complete Works. Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-87220-349-2.
- ^ John E. Findling, Frank W. Thackeray (2001). Events That Changed the World Through the Sixteenth Century. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313290792.
- ^ Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama (1954). The Meaning of Life: Buddhist Perspectives on Cause and Effect. Doubleday.
- ^ Ernest Joseph Simmons (1973). Tolstoy. Routledge. ISBN 071007395X.
- ^ Richard A. Bowell (2004). The Seven Steps Of Spiritual Intelligence: The Practical Pursuit of Purpose, Success and Happiness. Nicholas Brealey Publishing. ISBN 1857883446.
- ^ John C. Gibbs; Karen S. Basinger; Dick Fuller (1992). Moral Maturity: Measuring the Development of Sociomoral Reflection. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0805804250.
- ^ a b c Timothy Tang (2007). Real Answers to The Meaning of Life and Finding Happiness. iUniverse. ISBN 9780595459414.
- ^ Tyler T. Roberts (1998). Contesting Spirit: Nietzsche, Affirmation, Religion. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691001278.
- ^ Lucy Costigan (2004). What Is the Meaning of Your Life: A Journey Towards Ultimate Meaning. iUniverse. ISBN 0595338801.
- ^ Steven L. Jeffers; Harold Ivan Smith (2007). Finding a Sacred Oasis in Grief: A Resource Manual for Pastoral Care. Radcliffe Publishing. ISBN 1846191815.
- ^ David L. Jeffrey (1992). A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0802836348.
- ^ Dana A. Williams (2005). "In the Light of Likeness-transformed": The Literary Art of Leon Forrest. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0814209947.
- ^ Jerry Z. Muller (1997). Conservatism: An Anthology of Social and Political Thought from David Hume to the Present. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691037116.
- ^ a b Mary Nash; Bruce Stewart (2002). Spirituality and Social Care: Contributing to Personal and Community Well-being. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 184310024X.
- ^ Xinzhong Yao (2000). An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521644305.
- ^ Bryan S. Turner; Chris Rojek (2001). Society and Culture: Principles of Scarcity and Solidarity. SAGE. ISBN 0761970495.
- ^ Anil Goonewardene (1994). Buddhist Scriptures. Harcourt Heinemann. ISBN 0435303554.
- ^ a b Luc Ferry (2002). Man Made God: The Meaning of Life. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226244849.
- ^ a b c Eric G. Stephan; R. Wayne Pace (2002). Powerful Leadership: How to Unleash the Potential in Others and Simplify Your Own Life. FT Press. ISBN 0130668362.
- ^ Dominique Moyse Steinberg. (2004). The Mutual-aid Approach to Working with Groups: Helping People Help One Another. Haworth Press. ISBN 0789014629.
- ^ John Caunt (2002). Boost Your Self-Esteem. Kogan Page. ISBN 0749438711.
- ^ Ho'oponopono
- ^ Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi (1993). The Work of the Kabbalist. Weiser. ISBN 087728637X.
- ^ a b Michael Joachim Girard (2006). Essential Believing for the Christian Soul. Xulon Press. ISBN 1597815969.
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- ^ Jaideva Singh (2003). Vijñanabhairava. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120808207.
- ^ a b T. W. Mitchell (1927). Problems in Psychopathology. Harcourt, Brace & company, inc..
- ^ John T. Scully (2007). The Five Commandments. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1425119107.
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- ^ scribe. Bible.
- ^ Peter Harrison (2001). The Bible, Protestantism, and the Rise of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521000963.
- ^ Steven Dillon (2006). The Solaris Effect: Art and Artifice in Contemporary American Film. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292713452.
- ^ Raymond Aron (2000). The Century of Total War. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0861711734.
- ^ Conan The Barbarian  , originally a quote of Genghis Khan from Harold Lamb's nonfiction book Genghis Khan: The Emperor Of All Men, pages 106-107   
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