John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

John Frederick (German: Johann Friedrich; 25 April 1625, Herzberg am Harz – 18 December 1679, Augsburg) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg subdivision of the duchy from 1665 until his death.

The third son of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, John converted to the Roman Catholic Church as the only member of his family in 1651. He received Calenberg when his elder brother George William inherited the Principality of Lüneburg. In 1666, he had a palace built in Herrenhausen near Hanover that was inspired by the Palace of Versailles and is famous for its gardens, the Herrenhausen Gardens.

In 1676, John Frederick employed Leibniz as Privy Councillor and librarian of the important ducal library. Thus began Leibniz's 40 year association with the House of Hanover, which resulted in three generations of Hanovers being patrons to the most brilliant man in Europe.


John Frederick married Benedicta-Henrietta (14 March 1652-12 August 1730), daughter of Edward, Count Palatine of Simmern, on 30 November 1668. They had four children:
* Anne Sophie (10 February 1670-24 March 1672)
* Charlotte Felicity (8 March 1671-29 September 1710), married Rinaldo III, Duke of Modena
* Henriette Marie (9 March 1672-4 September 1757)
* Wilhelmina Amalia (1673-10 April 1742), married Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor


* [,adb0140179) Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, vol. 14, p. 177-181]
* [ At the House of Welf site]

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