Peace Corps


Peace Corps
Peace Corps
US-PeaceCorps-Logo.svg
Peace Corps logo (1961)
Agency overview
Formed March 21, 1961
Headquarters Washington, D.C
Annual budget $374.25 million (FY 2011)[1]
Agency executives Aaron S. Williams, Director
Carrie Hessler-Radelet, Deputy Director
Website
http://www.peacecorps.gov

The Peace Corps is an American volunteer program run by the United States Government, as well as a government agency of the same name. The mission of the Peace Corps includes three goals: providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand US culture, and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries. Generally, the work is related to social and economic development. Each program participant (aka Peace Corps Volunteer) is an American citizen, typically with a college degree, who works abroad for a period of 24 months after three months of training. Volunteers work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, and entrepreneurs in education, hunger, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service.[2]

The program was established by Executive Order 10924, issued by President John F. Kennedy on March 1, 1961, and authorized by Congress on September 22, 1961, with passage of the Peace Corps Act (Public Law 87-293). The act declares the program's purpose as follows:

To promote world peace and friendship through a Peace Corps, which shall make available to interested countries and areas men and women of the United States qualified for service abroad and willing to serve, under conditions of hardship if necessary, to help the peoples of such countries and areas in meeting their needs for trained manpower.

Since 1961, over 200,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps and have served in 139 countries.

Contents

History

John F. Kennedy greets volunteers on August 28, 1961

1950–1959

Following the end of World War II, various members of the United States Congress proposed bills to establish volunteer organizations in developing countries. In December 1951 Representative John F. Kennedy (D-Massachusetts) suggested to a group that "young college graduates would find a full life in bringing technical advice and assistance to the underprivileged and backward Middle East ... In that calling, these men would follow the constructive work done by the religious missionaries in these countries over the past 100 years."[3]:337–338 In 1952 Senator Brien McMahon (D-Connecticut) proposed an "army" of young Americans to act as "missionaries of democracy." Privately funded nonreligious organizations began sending volunteers overseas during the 1950s.[citation needed] While Kennedy is credited with the creation of the Peace Corps as president, the first initiative came from Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr. (D-Minnesota), who introduced the first bill to create the Peace Corps in 1957—three years prior to the University of Michigan speech. In his autobiography The Education of a Public Man, Humphrey wrote,

"There were three bills of particular emotional importance to me: the Peace Corps, a disarmament agency, and the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The President, knowing how I felt, asked me to introduce legislation for all three. I introduced the first Peace Corps bill in 1957. It did not meet with much enthusiasm. Some traditional diplomats quaked at the thought of thousands of young Americans scattered across their world. Many senators, including liberal ones, thought it silly and an unworkable idea. Now, with a young president urging its passage, it became possible and we pushed it rapidly through the Senate. It is fashionable now to suggest that Peace Corps Volunteers gained as much or more, from their experience as the countries they worked. That may be true, but it ought not demean their work. They touched many lives and made them better."[citation needed]
Peace Corps headquarters at 1111 20th Street, NW in downtown Washington, D.C.

Only in 1959, however, did the idea receive serious attention in Washington when Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin proposed a "Point Four Youth Corps". In 1960, he and Senator Richard L. Neuberger of Oregon introduced identical measures calling for a nongovernmental study of the idea's "advisability and practicability". Both the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee endorsed the study, the latter writing the Reuss proposal into the pending Mutual Security legislation. In this form it became law in June 1960. In August the Mutual Security Appropriations Act was enacted, making available US$10,000 for the study, and in November ICA contracted with the Maurice Albertson, Andrew E. Rice, and Pauline E. Birky of Colorado State University Research Foundation[4] for the study.[5]

1960–1969

John F. Kennedy first announced his idea for such an organization during the 1960 presidential campaign, at a late-night speech at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor on October 14, 1960. On November 1, he dubbed the proposed organization the "Peace Corps."

Critics opposed the program. Kennedy's opponent, Richard M. Nixon, predicted it would become a "cult of escapism" and "a haven for draft dodgers."[6][7][8]

Others doubted whether recent graduates had the necessary skills and maturity. The idea was popular among students, however, and Kennedy pursued it, asking respected academics such as Max Millikan and Chester Bowles to help him outline the organization and its goals. During his inaugural address, Kennedy again promised to create the program: "And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country".[9] President Kennedy in a speech at the White House on June 22, 1962, "Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa", acknowledged that Operation Crossroads for Africa was the basis for the development of the Peace Corps. "This group and this effort really were the progenitors of the Peace Corps and what this organization has been doing for a number of years led to the establishment of what I consider to be the most encouraging indication of the desire for service not only in this country but all around the world that we have seen in recent years".[10] The Peace Corps website answered the question "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps?", acknowledging that the Peace Corps were based on Operation Crossroads Africa founded by Rev. James H. Robinson.[11]

On March 1, 1961, Kennedy signed Executive Order 10924 that officially started the Peace Corps. Concerned with the growing tide of revolutionary sentiment in the Third World, Kennedy saw the Peace Corps as a means of countering the stereotype of the "Ugly American" and "Yankee imperialism," especially in the emerging nations of post-colonial Africa and Asia.[12][13] Kennedy appointed his brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, to be the program's first director. Shriver fleshed out the organization with the help of Warren Wiggins and others.[4] Shriver and his think tank outlined the organization's goals and set the initial number of volunteers. The program began recruiting in July 1962.

Until about 1967, applicants had to pass a placement test that tested "general aptitude" (knowledge of various skills needed for Peace Corps assignments) and language aptitude. After an address from Kennedy, who was introduced by Rev. Russell Fuller of Memorial Christian Church, Disciples of Christ, on August 28, 1961, the first group of volunteers left for Ghana and Tanzania. The program was formally authorized by Congress on September 22, 1961, and within two years over 7,300 volunteers were serving in 44 countries. This number increased to 15,000 in June 1966, the largest number in the organization's history.[14]

The organization experienced controversy in its first year of operation. On October 13, 1961, a postcard from a volunteer named Margery Jane Michelmore in Nigeria to a friend in the U.S. described her situation in Nigeria as "squalor and absolutely primitive living conditions."[15][16] However, this postcard never made it out of the country.[16] The University of Ibadan College Students Union demanded deportation and accused the volunteers of being "America's international spies" and the project as "a scheme designed to foster neocolonialism."[17] Soon the international press picked up the story, leading several people in the U.S. administration to question the program.[18] Nigerian students protested the program, while the American volunteers sequestered themselves and eventually began a hunger strike.[16] After several days, the Nigerian students agreed to open a dialogue with the Americans.

1965 in-country identification card

1970–1999

In July 1971, President Richard Nixon, an opponent of the program, brought the Peace Corps under the umbrella agency ACTION. President Jimmy Carter, an advocate of the program, said that his mother, who had served as a nurse in the program, had "one of the most glorious experiences of her life" in the Peace Corps.[19] In 1979, he made it fully autonomous in an executive order. This independent status was further secured by 1981 legislation making the organization an independent federal agency.

In 1976, Deborah Gardner was found murdered in her home in Tonga, where she was serving in the Peace Corps. Dennis Provan, a fellow Peace Corps worker, was later charged with the murder by the Tonga government.[20] He was found not guilty by reason of insanity, and was sentenced to serve time in a mental institution in Washington D.C. Provan was never admitted to any institution, and the handling of the case has been heavily criticized. The main criticism has been that the Peace Corp seems to have worked to keep one of its volunteers from being found guilty of murder, due to the reflection it would have on the organization.[21]

2000–present

Although the earliest volunteers were typically thought of as generalists, the Peace Corps had requests for technical personnel from the start. For example, geologists were among the first volunteers requested by Ghana, an early volunteer host. An article in Geotimes (a trade publication) in 1963 reviewed the program, with a follow-up history of Peace Corps geoscientists appearing in that publication in 2004.[22] During the Nixon Administration the Peace Corps included foresters, computer scientists, and small business advisors among its volunteers.

In 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed director Loret Miller Ruppe, who initiated business-related programs. For the first time, a significant number of conservative and Republican volunteers joined the Corps, as the organization continued to reflect the evolving political and social conditions in the United States. Funding cuts during the early 1980s reduced the number of volunteers to 5,380, its lowest level since the early years. Funding increased in 1985, when Congress began raising the number of volunteers, reaching 10,000 in 1992.

After the September 11, 2001, attacks alerted the US to growing anti-U.S. sentiment in the Middle East, President George W. Bush pledged to double the size of the organization within five years as a part of the War on Terrorism. For the 2004 fiscal year, Congress passed a budget increase at US$325 million, US$30 million above that of 2003 but US$30 million below the President's request.

As part of an economic stimulus package in 2008, President Barack Obama proposed to double the size of the Peace Corps.[23] However, as of 2010, the amount requested was insufficient to reach this goal by 2011. Congress raised the 2010 appropriation from the US$373 million requested by the President to US$400 million, and proposed bills would raise this further for 2011 and 2012.[24] According to former director Gaddi Vasquez, the Peace Corps is trying to recruit more diverse volunteers of different ages and make it look "more like America".[25] A Harvard International Review article from 2007 proposes to expand the Peace Corps, revisit its mission and equip it with new technology.[26] In 1961 only 1% of volunteers were over 50, compared with 5% today. Ethnic minorities currently comprise 19% of volunteers.[1] 35% of the U.S. population are Hispanic or non-White.[27]

In 2009, Casey Frazee, who was sexually assaulted while serving in South Africa, created First Response Action, an advocacy group for a stronger Peace Corps response for volunteers who are survivors or victims of physical and sexual violence.[28][29] In 2010, concerns about the safety of volunteers were ratified by a report by the Office of Inspector General listing hundreds of violent crimes against volunteers.[30] In 2011, a 20/20 investigation found that "more than 1,000 young American women have been raped or sexually assaulted in the last decade while serving as Peace Corps volunteers in foreign countries."[31]

Initiatives

Environment

The Corps offers a variety of environmental programs. Needs assessments determine which programs apply to each country. Programs include effective and efficient forms of farming, recycling, park management, environmental education, and developing alternative fuel sources.[32] Volunteers must have some combination of academic degrees and practical experience.

The three major programs are Protected-Areas Management, Environment Education or Awareness, and Forestry.

In Protected areas management, volunteers work with parks or other programs to teach resource conservation. Volunteer activities include technical training, working with park staff on wildlife preservation, organizing community-based conservation programs for sustainable use of forests or marine resources, and creating activities for raising revenue to protect the environment.

Environment Education or Awareness focuses on communities that have environmental issues regarding farming and income. Programs include teaching in elementary and secondary schools; environmental education to youth programs; creation of environmental groups; support forest and marine resource sustainability; ways of generating money; urban sanitation management; and educating farmers about soil conservation, forestry, and vegetable gardening.[33]

Forestry programs help communities conserve natural resources through projects such as soil conservation, flood control, creation of sustainable fuels, agroforestry (e.g., fruit and vegetable production), alley cropping, and protection of biodiversity.[34]

Peace Corps Response

Peace Corps Response, formerly named the Crisis Corps, was created by Peace Corps Director Mark Gearan in 1996.[35] Gearan modeled the Crisis Corps after the National Peace Corps Association's successful Emergency Response Network (ERN) of Returned Peace Corps Volunteers willing to respond to crises when needed. ERN emerged in response to the 1994 Rwandan genocide.[36] On November 19, 2007 Peace Corps Director Ronald Tschetter changed Crisis Corps's name to Peace Corps Response.[37]

The change to Peace Corps Response allowed Peace Corps to include projects that did not rise to the level of a crisis. The program deploys former volunteers on high-impact assignments that typically range from three to six months in duration.

Peace Corps Response volunteers generally receive the same allowances and benefits as their Peace Corps counterparts, including round-trip transportation, living and readjustment allowances, and medical care. Minimum qualifications include completion of at least one year of Peace Corps service, including training, in addition to medical and legal clearances. The Crisis Corps title was retained as a unique branch within Peace Corps Response, designed for volunteers who are deployed to true “crisis” situations, such as disaster relief following hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and other catastrophes.

Laws governing the Peace Corps

U.S. Code

Public law governing Peace Corps is contained in Title 22 of the United States Code – Foreign Relations and Intercourse, Chapter 34 – The Peace Corps (22USC2501-22USC2523)[38]

Code of Federal Regulations

The Peace Corps is subject to Federal Regulations as prescribed by public law and executive order and contained in Code of Federal Regulations under Title 22 – Foreign Relations, Chapter 3 – Peace Corps (22CFR301 – 22CFR312)[39]

Executive orders

Peace Corps was originally established by Executive Order, and has been modified by several subsequent executive orders including:

  • 1961 – 10924 – Establishment and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy)
  • 1962 – 11041 – Continuance and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy)
  • 1963 – 11103 – Providing for the appointment of former Peace Corps volunteers to the civilian career services (Kennedy)[40]
  • 1971 – 11603 – Assigning additional functions to the Director of ACTION (Nixon)
  • 1979 – 12137 – The Peace Corps (Carter)[41]

Public laws

Public laws are passed by Congress and the President and create or modify the U.S. Code. The first public law establishing Peace Corps in the US Code was The Peace Corps Act passed by the 87th Congress and signed into law on September 22, 1961. Several public laws have modified the Peace Corps Act, including:

  • Pub. L. 87–293 – The Peace Corps Act – Sept. 22, 1961
  • Pub. L. 88–200 – Dec. 13, 1963
  • Pub. L. 89–134 – Aug. 24, 1965
  • Pub. L. 89-554 – Sept. 6, 1966
  • Pub. L. 89-572 – Sept. 13, 1966
  • Pub. L. 91–99 – Oct. 29, 1969
  • Pub. L. 91–352 – July 24, 1970
  • Pub. L. 94–130 – Bill to carry into effect certain provisions of the Patent Cooperation Treaty, and for other purposes – Nov. 14, 1975[42]
  • Pub. L. 95–331 – Peace Corps Act Amendments – Aug. 2, 1978[43]
  • Pub. L. 96–465 – The Foreign Service Act of 1980 – Oct. 17, 1980[44]
  • Pub. L. 97–113 – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 – Dec. 29, 1981[45]
  • Pub. L. 99-83 – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 – Aug. 8, 1985[46]
  • Pub. L. 99-514 – Tax Reform Act of 1986 – Oct. 22, 1986[47]
  • Pub. L. 102-565 – A bill to amend the Peace Corps Act to authorize appropriations for the Peace Corps for FY1993 and to establish Peace Corps foreign exchange fluctuations account, and for other purposes – Oct. 28, 1992[48]
  • Pub. L. 105-12 – The Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction Act of 1997 – Apr. 30, 1997[49]
  • Pub. L. 106-30 – Peace Corps Act, FY2002, 2003 Authorization Bill- May 21, 1999[50]

Limitations on former volunteers

Former members of the Peace Corps may not be assigned to military intelligence duties for a period of 4 years following Peace Corps service. Furthermore, they are forever prohibited from serving in a military intelligence posting to any country in which they volunteered.[51]

Time limits on employment

Peace Corps employees receive time-limited appointments, and most employees are limited to a maximum of five years of employment. This time limit was established to ensure that Peace Corps' staff remain fresh and innovative. A related rule specifies that former employees cannot be re-employed until after the same amount of time that they were employed. Volunteer service is not counted for the purposes of either rule.[52]

Union representation

Non-supervisory domestic employees are represented by the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) Local 3548. The Federal Labor Relations Agency certified the Union on May 11, 1983. About 500 domestic employees are members. The current collective bargaining agreement became effective on April 21, 1995.

Leadership

Directors

Director Aaron S. Williams

In July 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Aaron S. Williams, a career international development specialist, to serve as the new Director. At the time he was serving as vice president for international development at RTI International, a nonprofit. A former senior official with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Williams volunteered in the Dominican Republic in 1967–70. He also coordinated Peace Corps minority recruitment in Chicago in 1970–71.[53] On August 25, 2009 Mr. Williams was sworn in as the eighteenth Director of the Peace Corps.

Director Service Dates Appointed by Notes
1 R. Sargent Shriver 1961–1966 Kennedy President Kennedy appointed Shriver three days after signing the executive order. Volunteers arrived in five countries during 1961. In just under six years, Shriver developed programs in 55 countries with more than 14,500 volunteers.
2 Jack Vaughn 1966–1969 Johnson Vaughn improved marketing, programming, and volunteer support as large numbers of former volunteers joined the staff. He also promoted volunteer assignments in conservation, natural resource management, and community development.
3 Joseph Blatchford 1969–1971 Nixon Blatchford served as head of the new ACTION agency, which included the Corps. He created the Office of Returned Volunteers to help volunteers serve in their communities at home, and initiated New Directions,[disambiguation needed ] a program emphasizing volunteer skills.
4 Kevin O'Donnell 1971–1972 Nixon O'Donnell's appointment was the first for a former Peace Corps country director (Korea, 1966–70). He fought budget cuts, and believed strongly in a non-career Peace Corps.
5 Donald Hess 1972–1973 Nixon Hess initiated training of volunteers in the host country where they would eventually serve, using host country nationals. The training provided more realistic preparation, and costs dropped for the agency. Hess also sought to end the down-sizing of the Peace Corps.
6 Nicholas Craw 1973–1974 Nixon Craw sought to increase the number of volunteers in the field and to stabilize the agency's future. He introduced a goal-setting measurement plan, the Country Management Plan, which gained increased Congressional support and improved resource allocation across the 69 participating countries.
7 John Dellenback 1975–1977 Ford Dellenback improved volunteer health care available. He emphasized recruiting generalists. He believed in committed applicants even those without specific skills and instead training them for service.
8 Carolyn R. Payton 1977–1978 Carter Payton was the first female director and the first African American. She focused on improving volunteer diversity.
9 Richard F. Celeste 1979–1981 Carter Celeste focused on the role of women in development and increased women and minority participation, particularly for staff positions. He invested heavily in training, including the development of a worldwide core curriculum.
10 Loret Miller Ruppe 1981–1989 Reagan Ruppe was the longest-serving director and championed women in development roles. She launched the Competitive Enterprise Development program, the Caribbean Basin Initiative, the Initiative for Central America and the African Food Systems Initiative.
11 Paul Coverdell 1989–1991 G.H.W. Bush Coverdell established two programs with a domestic focus. World Wise Schools enabled U.S. students to correspond with overseas volunteers. Fellows/USA assisted Returned Peace Corps volunteers in pursuing graduate studies while serving local communities.
12 Elaine Chao 1991–1992 G.H.W. Bush Chao was the first Asian American director. She expanded Peace Corps' presence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia by establishing the first Peace Corps programs in Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and other newly independent countries.
13 Carol Bellamy 1993–1995 Clinton Bellamy was the first RPCV (Returned Peace Corps volunteer) (Guatemala 1963–65) to be director. She reinvigorated relations with former volunteers and launched the Corps' web site.
14 Mark D. Gearan 1995–1999 Clinton Gearan established the Crisis Corps, a program that allows former volunteers to help overseas communities recover from natural disasters and humanitarian crises. He supported expanding the corps and opened new volunteer programs in South Africa, Jordan, Bangladesh and Mozambique.
15 Mark L. Schneider 1999–2001 Clinton Schneider was the second RPCV (El Salvador, 1966–68) to head the agency. He launched an initiative to increase volunteers' participation in helping prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa, and also sought volunteers to work on information technology projects.
16 Gaddi Vasquez 2002–2006 G.W. Bush Gaddi H. Vasquez was the first Hispanic American director. His focus was to increase volunteer and staff diversity.
17 Ron Tschetter September 2006–2008 G.W. Bush The third RPCV to head the agency, Tschetter served in India in the mid 1960s. He launched an initiative known as the "50 and Over," to increase the participation of older men and women.
18 Aaron S. Williams August 2009 – present Obama Aaron S. Williams became director on August 24, 2009. Mr. Williams is the fourth director to have served as a volunteer.

Inspector General

The Peace Corps Office of Inspector General is authorized by law to review all programs and operations of the Peace Corps. The OIG is an independent entity within the Peace Corps. The inspector general (IG) reports directly to the Peace Corps Director. In addition, the IG reports to Congress semiannually with data on OIG activities. The OIG serves as the law enforcement arm of the Peace Corps and works closely with the Department of State, the Department of Justice, and other federal agencies OIG has three sections to conduct its functions:

Audit – Auditors review functional activities of the Peace Corps, such as contract compliance and financial and program operations, to ensure accountability and to recommend improved levels of economy and efficiency; Evaluations – Evaluators analyze the management and program operations of the Peace Corps at both overseas posts and domestic offices. They identify best practices and recommend program improvements and ways to accomplish Peace Corps' mission and strategic goals. Investigations – Investigators respond to allegations of criminal or administrative wrongdoing by Peace Corps Volunteers, Peace Corps personnel, including experts and consultants, and by those who do business with the Peace Corps, including contractors[54]

In popular culture

Books

Hundreds of volunteers have written books about their countries of service,[55] notably including:

  • Alan Weiss's 1968 account of Peace Corps training, High Risk, High Gain: A Freewheeling Account of Peace Corps Training, has been called "perhaps the most obscure, least known, and most unread" of all the great books written about the Peace Corps experience.[56] Trainees in those days were classified by potential risk and by potential gain and Weiss discovered in his training days that he had been classified as High Risk/High Gain, a potential "Supervolunteer" or a potential "crash and burn." Weiss's book is funny, outrageous and sad but also valuable because it captures the “craziness” of those early years at the Peace Corps.[56]
  • Published in 1969, Moritz Thomsen's Living Poor: A Peace Corps Chronicle (ISBN 978-0295969282) recounts the author's service in Ecuador.[57] RPCV Paul Theroux said that Living Poor was the best book he ever read on the Peace Corps experience[58] and Tom Miller wrote that Thomsen was "one of the great American expatriate writers of the 20th century."[57] "And as an expat, he was free to judge us all, an undertaking he finessed with acute observations, self-deprecation, and a flavorful frame of reference that ranged from a Tchaikovsky symphony to a Sealy Posturpedic mattress."[57]
  • For a history of the Peace Corps' early days, Coates Redmond's Come as You Are (1986, ISBN 978-0151194353) recounts its birth and how it was thrown together in a matter of weeks. "The book works as a charming, first-person history of the people who made the corps what it was in its formative years," says Charles DeBenedetti at the University of Toledo.[59] "This book is highly readable and essential to understand the evolution of the unique Peace Corps spirit and style that continues to characterize the agency almost 45 years later," wrote Maureen Carroll, an early Peace Corps volunteer.[60]
  • George Packer's (Togo 1982–83) The Village of Waiting (1988, ISBN 978-0374527808) is "one of the most wrenchingly honest books ever written by a white person about Africa, a bracing antidote to romantic authenticity myths and exotic horror stories alike," wrote Matt Steinglass.[61] Isak Dinesen, Packer notes, wrote of waking in the Kenyan highlands and thinking, "Here I am, where I ought to be." Packer himself woke up sweating, hungry, "mildly at ease, or mildly anxious. But never where I ought to be."[61]
  • Tom Bissell served for a few months in Uzbekistan in 1996 before he "early terminated". However, Bissell felt he had really failed the people he joined to help, so he returned in 2001 to write Chasing the Sea (2004, ISBN 978-0-375-72754-2) about the Aral Sea. However, "the secret, personal point of the journey was revisiting this failure of mine, to try to make something up to the country and people I’d abandoned," says Bissell. "My ambitions were actually pretty modest. I wanted to write a book that everyone who traveled to Central Asia would want to read, and I wanted to write a book that everyone who joins the Peace Corps has pressed upon them," Bissell said.[62]
  • Kris Holloway's Monique and the Mango Rains: Two Years With a Midwife in Mali (2006, ISBN 978-1577664352) warmly recounts the author's experience as a Peace Corps volunteer in Mali from 1989 to 1990, working as an assistant to a midwife, Monique Dembele. Holloway's memoir provides unique focus on issues of women's health and women's social and economic vulnerability. Reviewing the book for African Studies Review, Yale's Kari A. Hartwig noted that the story, "is told with an honest self-awareness of the author's own naiveté, her hope for a better future for her friend Monique and Monique's family, and the uncertain path of how to bridge difference, culture, opportunities, and privilege"[63]
  • Lawrence F. Lihosit's Peace Corps Chronology; 1961–2010 (2010, 978-1450270694, ISBN 978-1450270694) nominated for the 2010 Peace Corps Writers' Publisher's Special Award,[64] offers a compact history of the Peace Corps as well as informative comparisons. John P. Coyne, editor of Peace Corps Worldwide, has called it "a very impressive book" while fellow Peace Corps historian P. David Searles called it "excellent."
  • Lawrence F. Lihosit's South of the Frontera; A Peace Corps Memoir (2010, ISBN 978-1450218580) is a fast-paced and humorous travel adventure book describing Mexico and Central America between 1975 and 1977 when he went native before even joining the Peace Corps. "One learns a great deal about our Latino neighbors and about ourselves when we respond to them." ,[65] wrote P. David Searles, former Peace Corps staffer and author of a Peace Corps history. Craig Carrozzi, author of The Road to El Dorado (2000, ISBN 9780962028618), called this book "a classic."
  • Lawrence F. Lihosit's Years On and Other Travel Essays (2011, ISBN 978-1-4620-0804-9) includes twelve essays which describe how he hitchhiked along bleak Arizona highways, hacked a path though Honduran mountains in search of water, avoided caiman while riding bulls across flooded Bolivian savannah and grizzlies as he hunted caribou in bush Alaska, ran for his life after getting embroiled in Mexico City politics and more. Tony D'Souza, author of Whiteman commented, "Lihosit chronicles a Moritz Thomsen-like 'path less traveled,' a Peter Hessler-esque possession of language and culture...(the) best and rarest of ex-pats: the Yankee gone native."[66]
  • Lawrence F. Lihosit's Whispering Campaign; Stories from Mesoamerica (2009, ISBN 978-1-4401-7331-8) is like a powerful magnifying glass, focusing on telling details and offering a different hue to American portraits. Allen W. Fletcher, author of Heat, Sand & Friends commented, "As in Chinatown or Ballad of a Thin Man, they go directly to the gut. The mix is a rich one."[67]
  • Robert Keller's "Only Bees Die" (2010, ISBN 978-1452860343) is another travelogue/essays/speeches/example of work written as an "unofficial guide for new Volunteers serving in Eastern Europe." Several members of the wider international development community recommend the book to anyone serving in former communist, traditionally poorer countries.[citation needed]

Films

In popular culture, the Peace Corps has been used as a comedic plot device in such movies as Airplane!, Christmas with the Kranks, Shallow Hal, and Volunteers or used to set the scene for a historic era, as when Frances "Baby" Houseman tells the audience she plans to join the Peace Corps in the introduction to the movie Dirty Dancing. The Peace Corps has also been documented on film and examined more seriously and in more depth.

  • The 2006 movie Death of Two Sons, directed by Micah Schaffer, juxtaposes the deaths of Amadou Diallo, a Guinean-America who was gunned down by four New York City policemen with 41 bullets, and Peace Corps volunteer Jesse Thyne who lived with Amadou's family in Guinea and died in a car crash there. The two men never met, but their destinies intertwine in this unique documentary.[68]
  • In the 2005 Angelina Jolie/Brad Pitt movie Mr. and Mrs. Smith, Angelina's character Jane reveals to her husband John that she lied about being in the Peace Corps. Visibly upset, he responds, "I really liked that about you!".
  • Jimi Sir, released in 2007, is a documentary portrait of volunteer James Parks' experiences as a high school science, math and English teacher during the last 10 weeks of his service in Nepal.[69] James speaks Nepali fluently and brings you into a culture where there are no roads, vehicles, electricity, plumbing, telephone or radio. Jimi Sir has been called the best movie ever made about the Peace Corps experience.[69]
  • The 1970 movie ¿Qué Hacer?, filmed in Chile and directed by Saul Landau on the eve of the election of Salvador Allende as president of Chile, tells the story of CIA agent Martin who is sent to Chile to recruit Suzanne, a volunteer. Suzanne instead falls for the Chilean revolutionary Hugo and gets involved in a plot to kidnap Martin. Suzanne finally realizes that the revolution must be fought, but that for her the fight is back in the US.[70]
  • Many Colombians[who?] believe that volunteers first taught Colombians how to process coca leaves into cocaine. U.S. officials[who?] and Peace Corps volunteers[who?] have long denied the allegation, but some Colombian historians[who?] and journalists[who?] have kept it alive. The movie El Rey, directed and written by Antonio Dorado in 2004, attacks corrupt police, unscrupulous politicians and half-hearted revolutionaries but also depicts the "training".[71]
  • In the 1969 film, Yawar Mallku/Sangre de cóndor/Blood of the Condor, Bolivian Director Jorge Sanjinés portrayed "Peace Corps volunteers in the campo as arrogant, ethnocentric, and narrow-minded imperialists out to destroy Indian culture. One particularly powerful scene showed Indians attacking a clinic while the volunteers inside sterilized Indian women against their will." The film is thought to be at least partially responsible for the expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971. Peace Corps volunteer Fred Krieger who was serving in Bolivia at the time said, "It was an effective movie – emotionally very arousing – and it directly targeted Peace Corps volunteers. I thought I would be lynched before getting out of the theatre. To my amazement, people around me smiled courteously as we left, no one commented, it was just like any other movie."[72]

Television

  • The series finale of the television show, Boy Meets World, showed characters Jack and Rachel both deciding to join the Peace Corps after they graduate from college.
  • In Grey's Anatomy, season 5, Callie Torres says she was in the Peace Corps and that is what made her want to go to medical school.
  • In the Family Guy episode, "Jungle Love", Chris joins the Peace Corps and is assigned to a South American village, where he marries a native girl.
  • In How I Met Your Mother, season 1, it is mentioned that Barney Stinson was to run away with his girlfriend Shanon and join the Peace Corps, but instead she leaves for a womanizing suit-wearing man, which causes Barney to "suit up".
  • The character Goodwin in Lost mentions that he was once a Peace Corps volunteer, and in being one learned how to bow drill.
  • In Seinfeld, while explaining why he wants John F. Kennedy's golf clubs, Jacopo Peterman tells Elaine the inspiration for starting his company was his time in the Peace Corps.
  • In the final episode of The Suite Life on Deck, Maya gets a mission from the Peace Corps to go to Chad, and in turn, breaks up with Zack.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Fast Facts What Is Peace Corps? Learn About Peace Corps Peace Corps". http://www.peacecorps.gov/index.cfm?shell=learn.whatispc.fastfacts. Retrieved January 22, 2009. 
  2. ^ "MS 281 COMPLETION OF SERVICE DATE ADVANCEMENT AND EXTENSION OF SERVICE" (PDF). http://www.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/manual//200_Volunteers/280-289_Volunteer_Transfers_Completions_of_Service_Termination/MS_281/COS_Date_Advancement_and_Extension_of_Service.pdf. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  3. ^ Leamer, Laurence (2001). The Kennedy Men: 1901–1963. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-688-16315-7. 
  4. ^ a b Lucker, Danica (August 23, 2008). "Ex-volunteers, friends to mark CSU role in birth of Peace Corps : TheRocky.com: Denver News, Business, Homes, Jobs, Cars, & Information". M.rockymountainnews.com. http://m.rockymountainnews.com/news/2008/Aug/23/ex-volunteers-friends-to-mark-csu-role-in-birth/. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  5. ^ New Frontiers for American Youth: Perspective on the Peace Corps. Public Affairs Press. 1961. 
  6. ^ "Teaching With Documents: Founding Documents of the Peace Corps." National Archives and Records Administration.
  7. ^ Megan Gibson. "Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About the Peace Corps" (September 22, 2011). Time.
  8. ^ James Tobin. "JFK at the Union: The Unknown Story of the Peace Corps Speech." National Peace Corps Association/University of Michigan.
  9. ^ The Avalon Project (1997). "Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/inaug/kennedy.htm. Retrieved May 11, 2007. 
  10. ^ June 22, 1962 Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=8730
  11. ^ (2005) "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps". Peace Corps Online.
  12. ^ "Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961)". Ourdocuments.gov. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=92. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  13. ^ "Organization of American Historians". Historycooperative.org. 2000-06-01. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/87.1/br_135.html. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  14. ^ "US History – The Peace Corps". Peace Corps Online. http://peacecorpsonline.org/messages/messages/2629/4074.html. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Peace Corps Girl Stirs Anger In Nigeria by Alleging 'Squalor'". New York Times. October 16, 1961. p. 10. 
  16. ^ a b c "The infamous Peace Corps postcard". Peace Corps Writers. 2007. http://www.peacecorpswriters.org/pages/2000/0001/001pchist.html. Retrieved May 11, 2007. 
  17. ^ "Postcard to Friend Reporting 'Primitive Living' Leads to Protest by Students". New York Times. October 16, 1961. p. 10. 
  18. ^ "RIFT ON PEACE CORPS HEALING IN NIGERIA". New York Times. November 7, 1961. p. 7. 
  19. ^ Yee, Daniel (2005). "Jimmy Carter said his mother's service in the Peace Corps as a nurse when she was 70 years old "was one of the most glorious experiences of her life."". Peace Corps Online. http://peacecorpsonline.org/messages/messages/2629/2029056.html. Retrieved May 11, 2007. 
  20. ^ [1],.
  21. ^ Weiss, Philip (2005-05-21). "Deborah Gardner's death - Murder in the Peace Corps - Dennis Priven". Nymag.com. http://nymag.com/nymetro/news/crimelaw/features/n_10403/. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  22. ^ Hastings, David, ed., 2004. Geoscientists in the Peace Corps. Geotimes, August 2004.
  23. ^ "Microsoft Word - Fact Sheet National Service 070408 FINAL.doc" (PDF). http://www.barackobama.com/pdf/NationalServicePlanFactSheet.pdf. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  24. ^ "The Obameter: Double the Peace Corps – Obama promise No. 221:". PolitiFact. http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/promises/promise/221/double-the-peace-corps/. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  25. ^ Boston – AP (March 4, 2006). "Peace Corps eyes recruitment of minorities, older Americans, peace, corps, percent – Regional News – WRGB CBS 6 Albany". 42.652579;-73.756232: Cbs6albany.com. http://www.cbs6albany.com/news/peace-3345-corps-percent.html. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  26. ^ "The Technologies of Peace – | Harvard International Review". Hir.harvard.edu. May 2, 2007. http://hir.harvard.edu/index.php?page=article&id=1336&p=2. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  27. ^ "United States – Selected Population Profile in the United States (White alone, not Hispanic or Latino)". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201PR&-qr_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201T&-qr_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201TPR&-reg=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201:451;ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201PR:451;ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201T:451;ACS_2009_1YR_G00_S0201TPR:451&-ds_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-format=. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  28. ^ Eden Stiffman (April 8, 2011). "Peace Corps Under Fire". First Response Action. http://www.firstresponseaction.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=76&Itemid=82. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  29. ^ "History". Michigan Review. http://www.michiganreview.com/archives/2939. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  30. ^ "Violent Crimes Against Peace Corps Volunteers". U.S. Government. 2010. http://www.peacecorpswiki.org/images/OIGSARC.pdf. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  31. ^ "Peace Corps Gang Rape: Volunteer Says U.S. Agency Ignored Warnings". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/peace-corps-gang-rape-volunteer-jess-smochek-us/story?id=12599341. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
  32. ^ "Environment | What Do Volunteers Do? | Learn About Volunteering | Peace Corps". Peacecorps.gov. December 15, 2010. http://www.peacecorps.gov/index.cfm?shell=learn.whatvol.env. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  33. ^ "Environment Education or Awareness | Environment | What Do Volunteers Do? | Learn About Volunteering | Peace Corps". Peacecorps.gov. September 30, 2010. http://www.peacecorps.gov/index.cfm?shell=learn.whatvol.env.enved. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Forestry | Environment | What Do Volunteers Do? | Learn About Volunteering | Peace Corps". Peacecorps.gov. September 30, 2010. http://www.peacecorps.gov/index.cfm?shell=learn.whatvol.env.forestry. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  35. ^ Peace Corps Hotline. "Crisis Corps: Opportunity to serve again" by Melinda Bridges. November 1, 2002.[dead link]
  36. ^ Arnold, David. "Helping Rwanda." WorldView, Spring 1995, Vol. 8, No. 2. pg. 21
  37. ^ "Peace Corps "Peace Corps Press Release" November 19, 2007". Peacecorps.gov. 2007-11-19. http://www.peacecorps.gov/index.cfm?shell=resources.media.press.view&news_id=1275. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  38. ^ "United States Code: Browse Titles Page". Frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. December 23, 2008. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/usc.cgi?ACTION=BROWSE&TITLE=22USCC34&PDFS=YES. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Code of Federal Regulations, Title 22". Government Printing Office. April 1, 2009. http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_09/22cfrv2_09.html. Retrieved August 1, 2009. 
  40. ^ "Executive Orders". Archives.gov. http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/11103.html. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  41. ^ "Executive Orders". Archives.gov. http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12137.html. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  42. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 94th Congress (1975–1976) – H.R.6334 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d094:HR06334:. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 95th Congress (1977–1978) – H.R.11877 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d095:HR11877:. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 96th Congress (1979–1980) – H.R.6790 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d096:HR06790:. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  45. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 97th Congress (1981–1982) – S.1196 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d097:SN01196:. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  46. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 99th Congress (1985–1986) – S.960 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d099:SN00960:. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  47. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 99th Congress (1985–1986) – H.R.3838 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d099:HR03838:. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  48. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 102nd Congress (1991–1992) – S.3309 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. October 28, 1992. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d102:SN03309:%7CTOM:/bss/d102query.html. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  49. ^ http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=105_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ12.pdf
  50. ^ http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=106_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ030.pdf
  51. ^ "Enlisted Assignments and Utilization Management, Army Regulation 614–200" (PDF). Department of the Army. February 26, 2009. http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r614_200.pdf. Retrieved August 1, 2009. 
  52. ^ "United States Code: Browse Titles Page". Frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/usc.cgi?ACTION=RETRIEVE&FILE=$$xa$$busc22.wais&start=6127969&SIZE=21991&TYPE=TEXT. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  53. ^ "Peace Corps Polyglot: Aaron Williams Confirmed as Next Director of Peace Corps". Peacecorpsconnect.typepad.com. August 7, 2009. http://peacecorpsconnect.typepad.com/peacecorpspolyglot/2009/08/aaron-williams-confirmed-to-be-the-next-director-of-peace-corps-.html. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  54. ^ Inspector General. Retrieved June 12, 2010.[dead link]
  55. ^ "Peace Corps Writers. "915 Peace Corps volunteer writers by country"". Peacecorpswriters.org. http://peacecorpswriters.org/pages/depts/resources/country.html. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  56. ^ a b "Peace Corps Writers. "High Risk/High Gain: A Freewheeling Account of Peace Corps Training" by Alan Weiss. Reviewed by John Coyne. May 11, 2005". Peacecorpswriters.org. http://peacecorpswriters.org/pages/2005/0511/511booklocker.html. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  57. ^ a b c Hull, Tim. "Tucson Weekly. "Under the Skin of a Locale" by Tom Miller. June 16, 2005". Tucsonweekly.com. http://www.tucsonweekly.com/gbase/Books/Content?oid=oid:69891. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  58. ^ International Traveler. "The Farm on the River of Emeralds" by Moritz Thomsen reviewed by Brad Newsham.[dead link]
  59. ^ Packer, George. "Amazon Books. ''Come as You Are'' by Coates Redmond. 1986". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0151194351. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  60. ^ "Peace Corps Writers. "Remembering Coates Remon" by Maureen Carroll. May 2005". Peacecorpswriters.org. http://www.peacecorpswriters.org/pages/2005/0503/503pchist.html. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  61. ^ a b Al, Rami. "Salon. "Destination: Togo" by Matt Steinglass". Salon.com. http://www.salon.com/books/literary_guide/2006/06/15/togo/index_np.html. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  62. ^ "Random House. "A Conversation with Tom Bissell"". Randomhouse.com. http://www.randomhouse.com/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780375727542&view=printqa. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  63. ^ Hartwig, Kari A. 2007. Monique and the Mango Rains (review). African Studies Review, Vol. 50, No. 2 pg. 273–275.
  64. ^ "Peace Corps Writers - Books Nominated for Peace Corps Writer Awards". Peacecorpsworldwide.org. 2011-08-19. http://peacecorpsworldwide.org/pc-writers/2011/08/19/announcement/. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  65. ^ P. David Searles, Amazon.com review posted February 6, 2010
  66. ^ Peace Corps Worldwide, Peace Corps Writers, July 28, 2011
  67. ^ Peace Corps Worldwide, Peace Corps Writers, December 13, 2009
  68. ^ New York Daily News. "Disappointed Diallo ma" by Nicole Bode. November 27, 2006. The original link is dead. An archival link is available here.
  69. ^ a b ""Jimi Sir an American Peace Corps volunteer in Nepal" December 18, 2004". Jimisir.com. http://jimisir.com/. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  70. ^ Phil Franks (1970-12-11). "Ibiblio. "WE DON'T... WIN? Country Joe & the Revolution in Chile" December 11, 1970". Ibiblio.org. http://www.ibiblio.org/mal/MO/philm/countryjoe/joefilm.html. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  71. ^ Miami Herald. "Popular film revives Peace Corps rumors: The top movie in Colombia is about the origins of the cocaine trade with an unexpected villain: the U.S. Peace Corps." by Steven Dudley. November 6, 2004. Archive link.
  72. ^ Amigos de Bolivia y Peru. "Sacrificial Llama? The Expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971" by James F. Siekmeier. The original story is a dead link. An archival copy is available here.

Further reading

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Peace Corps — Corps de la Paix Les Corps de la Paix (Peace Corps en anglais) est une agence indépendante du gouvernement américain, créée en 1961, dont la mission est de favoriser la paix et l amitié du monde en particulier auprès des pays du tiers monde. Plus …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Peace Corps —   [ piːs kɔː; englisch »Friedenskorps«], amerikanische Organisation freiwilliger Entwicklungshelfer für den Einsatz in Ländern der Dritten Welt, geschaffen 1961 unter der Regierung von J. F. Kennedy, vorgesehene Dienstzeit: zwei Jahre; war 1971… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Peace Corps — Peace Corps, the a US government organization that aims to help poorer countries, by sending them ↑volunteers (=people who work without payment) , especially young people, who teach skills in education, health, farming etc …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Peace Corps — Peace′ Corps n. gov an independent agency and program of the U.S. government that sends volunteers to help developing countries meet their needs for skilled workers …   From formal English to slang

  • Peace Corps — ☆ Peace Corps n. an agency of the U.S. established in 1961 to provide volunteers skilled in teaching, construction, etc. to assist people of underdeveloped areas abroad …   English World dictionary

  • Peace Corps — a civilian organization, sponsored by the U.S. government, that sends volunteers to instruct citizens of underdeveloped countries in the execution of industrial, agricultural, educational, and health programs. * * * U.S. government agency of… …   Universalium

  • Peace Corps — noun a civilian organization sponsored by the United States government; helps people in developing countries • Hypernyms: ↑organization, ↑organisation * * * a civilian organization, sponsored by the U.S. government, that sends volunteers to… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Peace-Corps — Emblem des Friedenscorps Das Friedenscorps oder auch Peace Corps ist eine Unabhängige Behörde (independent federal agency) der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Ihre Aufgabe ist es, das gegenseitige Verständnis zwischen den Amerikanern und den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Peace Corps — Emblem des Friedenscorps Das Friedenscorps oder auch Peace Corps ist eine Unabhängige Behörde (independent federal agency) der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Ihre Aufgabe ist es, das gegenseitige Verständnis zwischen den Amerikanern und den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Peace Corps — also peace corps N PROPER: the N The Peace Corps is an American organization that sends young people to help with projects in developing countries …   English dictionary