- Bias (statistics)
statistics, the term bias is used for describing several different concepts:
biased sampleis one in which some members of the population are more likely to be included than others.
Spectrum biasrefers to evaluating the ability of a diagnostic test in a biased group of patients which leads to an overestimation of the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
bias of an estimatoris the difference between an estimator's expectation and the true value of the parameter being estimated.
Omitted-variable biasis the bias that appears in estimates of parameters in a regression analysis when the assumed specification is incorrect, in that it omits an independent variable that should be in the model.
statistical hypothesis testing, a test is said to be unbiased when the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis exceeds the significance level when the alternative is true "and" is less than or equal to the significance level when the null hypothesis is true.
Systematic biasor systemic biasare external influences that may affect the accuracy of statistical measurements.
Data-snooping biascomes from the misuse of data mining techniques.
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