- Ivan Samoylovych
Ivan Samoylovych ( _uk. Іван Самойлович) was the
Hetmanof Left-bank Ukrainefrom 1672 to 1687. His term in office was marked by further incorporation of the Cossack Hetmanateinto the nascent Russian Empireand by fruitless attempts to win the Right-bank Ukrainefrom Poland.
Rise to power
Samoylovych's father was a priest in a village near
Zhitomir. Ivan first rose to prominence during Ivan Briukhovetsky's revolt against Muscovy. After Briukhovetsky's execution he supported Demian Mnohohrishnyas a new hetman and swore allegiance to the Russian tsar. Securing Mnohohrishny's deposition, he was elected the Hetmanof the Left-Bank Ukrainein Konotopon June 17, 1672.
Samoylovych's principal ambition was to control the
Right-bank Ukraine, where two rival hetmans, Petro Doroshenkoand Mykhailo Khanenko, were active. In 1674 he joined his Cossackswith the Russian forces under Prince Grigory Romodanovskyagainst Doroshenko. After the latter's deposition, Samoylovych let him live in peace on the left bank of the Dnieper.
In 1677 the Turkish sultan proclaimed
Yuri Khmelnytskya successor to Doroshenko, invaded the right bank, and laid siege to its capital Chyhyryn. Although Samoylovych and Romodanovsky were generally successful in their operations against the Turks, the Russian army unexpectedly withdrew to the left bank on behest of the Tsar Alexis. By that time, the Muscovite government decided to depopulate the right bank altogether and to resettle its Cossacks in the areas controlled by Samoylovych. His son Semion was put in charge of these policies, known as zgon.
Conflict with Galitzine
In 1679 Poland invited
Vasily Galitzine(prime-minister of Russia) to join the Holy League against the Turks. The Eternal Peace Treatybetween Poland and Russia ran contrary with Samoylovych's plans to annex the right bank of the Dnieper, which still remained under Polish dominion. Samoylovych attempted to persuade Muscovite boyars in the Polish treachery but, failing in his design, sent an angry letter to the king of Poland. Despite subsequent apologies, this incident would eventually contribute to his downfall.
In 1687 Galitzine and Samoylovych failed in their
Crimean campaignsagainst the Tatars on account of steppe fires. It was rumoured that it was Samoylovych who had set the steppe on fire, because he preferred the Tatars to the Poles. Galitzine, meanwhile, was exasperated at Samoylovych's friendship with Prince Romodanovsky, his old political rival, and finally resolved to replace him with a more tractable Cossack.
In June 1687
Ivan Mazepaused the popular discontent with Samoylovych's haughty manners and high taxes to accuse him of separatism. Thereupon his youngest son, Hryhory Samoylovych, was incriminated in slandering the tsar and executed in Sevsk. The old hetman and his family were arrested and exiled to Tobolskin Siberia, where he died in 1690.
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