- Minor places in Middle-earth
Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z References
- (O.E. 'old fortress') A small fortified settlement in Rohan, built by Eorl the Young in the region known as the Folde, some miles to the southeast of Edoras. Though his son, Brego, moved to Edoras early in Rohan's history, Aldburg remained the residence of the descendants of Éofor, Brego's third son. At the time of the War of the Ring, it was the home of king Théoden's nephew Éomer, who was the Third Marshal of the Mark and heir to the Kingship.
- All-welcome Inn
- An inn located at the junction of the Northway and the East Road on the Hobbiton side of Frogmorton. It was much used by travellers, especially Dwarves from the Ered Luin.
- Amon Hen
- A hill located on the western bank of the river Anduin, at the southern end of the long lake Nen Hithoel above the Falls of Rauros. It is one of the three peaks at the Falls of Rauros, the others being Amon Lhaw, the Hill of the Ear, and Tol Brandir, an island located between the two hills. The Seat of Seeing was built there, serving as a watchtower for the northern borders of Gondor. It was constructed in the early days of Gondor, perhaps even as early as the Second Age.
- In The Fellowship of the Ring, the Fellowship travels down the Anduin from Lothlórien to Amon Hen, but here the Fellowship is broken: Boromir attempts to take the One Ring by force from Frodo Baggins, who flees; Boromir is shortly afterward killed defending Meriadoc Brandybuck (Merry) and Peregrin Took (Pippin) from orcs sent by Saruman to capture the Ring; and the Orcs abscond with Merry and Pippin. After Frodo escapes from Boromir, he sits upon the Seat of Seeing while still wearing the Ring and is able to see events hundreds of miles distant. From Amon Hen, Frodo and Samwise Gamgee cross the Anduin on their way east to Mordor, while Merry and Pippin are carried by Saruman's Orcs in the direction of his hold at Isengard, and the rest of the Fellowship set out in pursuit of the Orcs.
- Amon Lhaw
- (S. 'Hill of the Ear') One of the three peaks above the Falls of Rauros which drained the lake known as Nen Hithoel, it towered amongst the Emyn Muil on the eastern banks of the Anduin. Its twin, Amon Hen (The Hill of Sight) lay upon the western bank. Between them, at the centre of the stream above Rauros, was the island peak Tol Brandir upon which none had ever set foot.
- Although at one time Amon Lhaw had been on the northern boundary of Gondor and a high seat was built there (probably called The Seat of Hearing), this was no longer the case at the time of the War of the Ring; by then, it had long since fallen under the influence of Mordor. Also called the Hill of Hearing and perhaps Hill of the Ear in Westron.
- The ascending section of the Greenway or North-South Road which passed between the Barrow-downs in the west and the South Downs in the east. Beyond Andrath the road met the Great East Road just west of the gates of Bree.
- When the Nazgûl came north from Mordor to seek the Ring in the Shire at the end of the Third Age, their leader, the Witch-king of Angmar camped in Andrath. It is mentioned in the appendices of The Return of the King that it is likely that the Witch-king aroused the Barrow-wights in the nearby Barrow-downs while camped at Andrath.
- A monument comprising two enormous pillars carved in the likenesses of Isildur and Anárion, standing upon either side of the River Anduin at the northern approach to Nen Hithoel.
- The figures were originally constructed about T.A. 1240 at the order of Rómendacil II to mark the northern border of Gondor, although the realm was greatly diminished in size by the time the Fellowship of the Ring passed the Argonath on February 25, 3019.
- Each of the two figures was shown wearing a crown and a helm, with an axe in its right hand and its left hand raised in a gesture of defiance to the enemies of Gondor.
- Also known as the Gate of Kings or the Pillars of the Kings.
- See Dimrill Dale
- The farmland of Farmer Maggot located in the Marish of the eastern part of the Shire. The boggy nature of the land makes for above ground habitation rather than the traditional hobbit-hole. Tolkien himself suggested the name Bamfurlong comes from Old English meaning roughly bean-field.
- The Dwarvish name for Caradhras, one of the largest mountains in the Misty Mountains. It lies in close proximity to Redhorn Pass and the Dimrill Stair.
- The Barrow-downs or Tyrn Gorthad were a series of low hills east of the Shire, behind the Old Forest, and west of the village of Bree. Many of the hills were crowned with standing stones and barrows, hence their name.
- The Barrow-downs were first inhabited by Men related to the Edain in the First Age, together with the Hills of Evendim to the north. They fled west as Easterlings invaded Eriador and passed on to Beleriand, but after these had left or been killed in the War of Wrath the Edain returned to their old homes.
- During the Second Age they were fairly numerous, and when they met with the Númenóreans the Barrow-downs were the first places where the Dúnedain émigrés from Númenor settled. When Elendil returned to Middle-earth, the Barrow-downs were incorporated in the kingdom of Arnor. The Downs were revered by the Númenóreans because they were rightly recognized as the first tombs of their ancestors, long before they had encountered the Elves of Beleriand.
- After the split of Arnor the Barrow-downs became the capital of Cardolan. After Rhudaur fell to Angmar, the Dúnedain of Cardolan entrenched themselves here, but in T.A. 1409 the realm fell and the Great Plague in 1636 killed any remaining Dúnedain hiding in the barrow-downs. The Barrow-wights were now sent there by the Witch-king. In the 1850s King Araval of Arthedain tried to recolonize Cardolan, but this failed because of the Barrow-wights.
- Travelling from the Old Forest to Bree, Frodo, Sam, Merry, and Pippin while travelling through the downs were ensnared by a barrow-wight, probably in the same cairn which held the grave of the last prince of Cardolan. They were rescued by Tom Bombadil, and from the burial treasure received enchanted daggers — designed to slay the evil servants of Angmar.
- Merry used his weapon to help destroy the Lord of the Nazgûl in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, Sam left his beside Frodo in Cirith Ungol but it was later returned to him by Gandalf, while Pippin made use of his dagger in the Battle of the Black Gate to slay a Troll-chief.
- Bridge Inn
- An inn located on the west side the Brandywine Bridge in the Shire. It was likely used by travellers on the East Road. Its location would have put it near the point where the road north from Stock met the main East Road. When the Shire was occupied by Saruman's men during the War of the Ring, the Bridge Inn was demolished and replaced with a guard house, with gates erected on the Bridge.
- Brown Lands
- A region across the Anduin from Fangorn forest. In the First Age the Entwives settled there and began to make gardens, and they also taught the Men that already lived there to engage in agriculture. The Entwives' gardens, as the region was called at that time, lasted for a long time into the Second Age, until Sauron later blasted the entire area at some time before the Battle of Dagorlad, which was when it became known as the Brown Lands. Treebeard appeared convinced that the Entwives were not all destroyed but were "lost"; their ultimate fate remains a mystery.
- It is described as withered, as if by fire, without any living green thing. In The Fellowship of the Ring, the fellowship pass by the region in elven boats as they sail down the River Anduin. Interestingly, Aragorn's notable knowledge of geography and family history lets him down as he "could not tell" what had "so blasted" the region.
- See Fanuidhol
- The province of Gondor which was renamed Rohan when it was given to the folk of Eorl the Young.
- A stony eyot in the upper reaches of the River Anduin, to the north of the Old Ford. In Chapter 7 of The Hobbit, Gandalf states that the steps from the base of the rock to the flat top were made by Beorn and that "Carrock" is Beorn's name for it. This is somewhat of a linguistic joke on Tolkien's part, since car in Anglo-Saxon means "rock," the Irish for "rock" is "carraig", and the Welsh for rock is "Carreg."
- Also called Zirakzigil in Khuzdul and translated to English as Silvertine. A peak in the Misty Mountains, the western-most of three peaks (with Caradhras and Fanuidhol) that stood above the Dwarves' city of Khazad-dûm. Durin's Tower was located at the peak of Zirakzigil. This was where Gandalf fought Balrog in the Battle of the Peak.
- Cirith Gorgor
- (S. 'Cleft of Horror'), called the Haunted Pass in Westron. The main passage into Mordor located at the point where the mountain ranges Ered Lithui and Ephel Dúath met. It was protected by the Black Gate and guarded by the two Towers of the Teeth, Carchost and Narchost. The name is sometimes translated 'the Haunted Pass'.
- Cirith Ungol
- (pronounced [ˈkiriθ ˈuŋɡɔl]) is the pass through the western mountains of Mordor and the one of two entrances to that land from the West, along with the Morgul Pass. The name is Sindarin for Spider's Cleft, or Pass of the Spider, presumably referring to the guardian of the pass, Shelob, the daughter of the ancient spider Ungoliant.
- The Pass of Cirith Ungol was high above the Morgul Pass, on the northern side of the Morgul Vale. In Mordor, the road from Cirith Ungol came down to join the Morgul-road. These routes were guarded by the Tower of Cirith Ungol, built by the Men of Gondor after the War of the Last Alliance, but occupied by Orcs at the time of the War of the Ring.
- Its principal purpose was to defend Ithilien and Minas Ithil (later known as Minas Morgul) from attacks from Sauron's remaining servants. For that reason its two bastions were directed to the north and southeast. It also served to stop Sauron's servants from deserting Mordor.
- Gondor occupied the fortress probably until T.A. 1636 when the Great Plague killed large parts of Gondor's population. After the Plague Gondor never again occupied Cirith Ungol and evil was allowed to return to Mordor.
- The fortress was associated with the mountain fortress of Durthang in Northwestern Mordor, and the Towers of the Teeth at the Morannon. All three fortifications were taken over by Orcs once the Gondorians had abandoned them.
- During the Quest of the Ring Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee were led to this pass by Gollum to Torech Ungol, the lair of the giant spider-like creature Shelob who dwelt there, in order to get into Mordor.
- The Tower of Cirith Ungol
- A watchtower on the border of Mordor. The Tower of Cirith Ungol was located high in the Mountains of Shadow overlooking the pass that was called Cirith Ungol — the Pass of the Spider — because the Great Spider Shelob dwelled there. At the top of the pass was a cleft with two great horns of rock on either side. On the northern horn stood the Tower of Cirith Ungol, built up against the eastern face of the rock. The Tower of Cirith Ungol was made of black stone. It had three tiers, each set back from the next like steps. The sheer sides faced northeast and southeast and formed a bastion pointing eastward. At the top of the Tower was a round turret that could be seen above the pass.
- A road ran down from the pass and skirted the Tower alongside a sheer precipice before turning southward to join the Morgul Road. The Tower of Cirith Ungol was surrounded by an outer wall that was 30 feet (9.1 m) high. The sides of the wall were smooth. At the top was overhanging stonework that prevented anyone from climbing over it.
- The main gate was in the southeastern side of the wall. It was guarded by the Two Watchers — hideous statues seated on thrones. Each Watcher had three joined bodies facing inward, outward, and toward the other. The description in the Book is as follows:
- "They were like great figures seated upon thrones. Each had three joined bodies, and three heads facing outward, and in inward, and across the gateway. The heads had vulture faces, and on their great knees were laid clawlike hands. They seemed to be carved out of huge blocks of stone, immovable, and yet they were aware: some dreadful spirit of vigilance abode in them. They knew an enemy. Visible or invisible, none could pass unheeded."
- They thus had a kind of "psychic barrier" that barred the gate. Sam Gamgee had to overcome this obstacle while searching for his master Frodo Baggins. Sam did so by using the phial of Galadriel, which overcame their will and allowed him to pass. As soon as he was through, however, they sounded an alarm. It is not known if the Watchers were built by men of Gondor, as was the Tower itself, or if it had been added later by Sauron. Certainly, the spirit that dwell within them must have come later, as it was clearly identified as being evil.
- Within the outer wall was a paved courtyard. There was a great door on the southeastern side of the Tower of Cirith Ungol. A passageway ran back through the Tower with rooms on either side. At the far end was the arched door of the Undergate — a back entrance to the Tower that opened onto a tunnel that joined with Shelob's Lair.
- To the right of the Undergate was a winding stairway to the upper levels of the Tower. At the top of the stairs was a domed chamber with doors facing east and west leading out onto the roof of the third tier. The roof was about 20 yards (18 m) across and was surrounded by a parapet. On the western side of the roof stood the turret of the Tower.
- The turret had slitted windows facing westward and eastward through which torchlight glowed like red eyes. A winding stairway led up to a passage running through the middle of the turret. A trapdoor in the ceiling of the passage opened onto a large round chamber at the very top of the Tower of Cirith Ungol.
- The Tower of Cirith Ungol was built by the Men of Gondor after Sauron was defeated in the War of the Last Alliance at the end of the Second Age. The Tower was the easternmost outpost of the defences of Ithilien. Its original purpose was to keep watch on the land of Mordor to ensure that no evil things escaped and to guard against the possibility of the Dark Lord's return. But over time, as Gondor's power declined, the vigilance on Mordor became lax and the Tower was deserted.
- After the Lord of the Nazgûl returned to Mordor in 1980, the Tower came under his control. From Cirith Ungol, he led an assault on Minas Ithil, which was captured in 2002 and became his stronghold known as Minas Morgul. Sauron returned to Mordor in 2942, and he used the Tower of Cirith Ungol to prevent any of his slaves or prisoners from escaping from Mordor. A garrison of Orcs were stationed in the Tower, and at the time of the War of the Ring their captain was Shagrat.
- On March 13, 3019, Shagrat brought Frodo Baggins through the Undergate to the Tower of Cirith Ungol and imprisoned him in the topmost chamber of the turret. Frodo was stripped and questioned mercilessly. Gorbag — an orc from Minas Morgul — coveted Frodo's mithril shirt and he fought Shagrat for it. The orcs of their two companies fought and killed one another until nearly all of them were dead.
- Sam Gamgee came to the Tower of Cirith Ungol to rescue Frodo. He got past the Two Watchers by raising the Phial of Galadriel, but once he was through the gate the Watchers gave a terrible cry and an alarm bell rang in the Tower. Sam entered the Tower and encountered Snaga, who mistook Sam for a Great Elf-warrior and fled back up the stairs. Sam followed him to the roof of the third tier. There Sam confronted Shagrat, who fled with the mithril shirt.
- Sam entered the turret in search of Frodo, but he could not find a way to the uppermost chamber until he saw Snaga climb up through the trapdoor in the ceiling. He followed Snaga, and when he saw the orc whipping Frodo he charged at him, and Snaga fell through the trapdoor to his death.
- Sam returned the Ring to Frodo and they escaped from the Tower disguised in Orc armour and livery. They used the Phial to pass the Watchers, and the archway collapsed behind them. As they fled, a Winged Nazgûl descended from the sky and perched on the wall of the Tower of Cirith Ungol, now in charge.
- See Fanuidhol
- The great, treeless, open plain between the Emyn Muil and Cirith Gorgor. The name means the Battle Plain in Sindarin, and refers to the Battle of Dagorlad fought there between Sauron's forces and the Last Alliance of Elves and Men at the end of the Second Age. The bodies of the dead decayed as normal, but over time part of the field became a wetland, the Dead Marshes, where the images of the fallen could be seen.
- Later, in the Third Age, the Dagorlad was the site of many battles between Gondor and various Easterling armies, including the Battle of the Morannon. The countless battles of two ages left Dagorlad as a devastated wasteland, contaminated and unhealthy, with ponds of poisonous slick and mounds of scorched earth.
- A city of Men on the Celduin (the River Running) between the Lonely Mountain and the Long Lake. It was ruled by Girion until its destruction in T.A. 2770 by the dragon Smaug. After the Dwarves restored their kingdom under the Lonely Mountain, Men began to settle once more in Dale.
- Dale was sacked for a second time during the War of the Ring by invaders from Mordor and the Easterlings. The people of Dale took refuge in Erebor with the Dwarves, and it was during the Battle of Dale that King Dáin II Ironfoot of Erebor and King Brand of Dale were slain. However, after the fall of Sauron, the siege was broken and Dale rebuilt once more, though it was never restored to its former glory, partly because of the weakening of the dwarves who lived in Erebor.
- Deeping Coomb
- The deep, well-defended valley in the northern White Mountains that held Helm's Deep and the castle of the Hornburg. The site of an important battle, the Battle of the Hornburg, during the War of the Ring. The word coomb is a rare Brythonic survival word; meaning a small deep dry valley, easily defended. It gives its name to many places in the British Isles.
- A forest of pine wood and fir situated at the base of the Dwimorberg mountain, past Dunharrow. The name means literally 'dark wood'. An ancient road was visibly forged there, that led to a glen where a standing stone lay in front of the Dark Door, the entrance to the Paths of the Dead. The pathways led under the Dwimorberg mountain and had been haunted by the spirits of the Dead Men of Dunharrow in the Third Age until they fulfilled their oath to Aragorn and departed.
- Dimrill Dale
- A name in the tongue of Men of the North for a valley lying east of Khazad-dûm. The valley is also called Nanduhirion in Sindarin and Azanulbizar in Khuzdul. A bloody battle was fought there in T.A. 2799 between Dwarves and the Orcs of Moria, in which the latter were defeated and their leader Azog killed. In T.A. 2989 Balin and his followers fought the orcs here on the way to the Mines of Moria. Thirty years later the Fellowship of the Ring encamped there having escaped from Moria, after the loss of Gandalf. A feature of the vale was the Mirrormere, a crystal clear lake in which Durin first saw the stars. The river Silverlode ran through the vale to Lórien.
- A land which lay on the northwestern shores of the Sea of Rhûn. Known for its wine, Dorwinion was drawn at Tolkien's advice on Pauline Baynes' map of Middle-earth as lying at the end of the Carnen and Celduin, at the northwest shore of the Sea of Rhûn, and in that position it has since appeared on other maps. It was possibly part of Gondor for several centuries in the early Third Age.
- Drúwaith Iaur
- A region to the west of Gondor. It was not a part of the realm of Gondor, and therefore also not of the Reunited Kingdom. It was the home to the remnants of the Drúedain, the original inhabitants of the Ered Nimrais, who were dispersed by the Númenóreans as they were hostile to them. The northern part of Drúwaith Iaur was also home to the Dunlendings, who feared the Drûgin because they used poisoned arrows.
- A place in north-west Middle-earth, the land of the Men called Dunlendings. These Men were tall, somewhat swarthy and dark-haired, and were descended from the same ancient stock as the House of Haleth, making them distantly related to the Dúnedain. They are the traditional enemies of the Rohirrim and are jealous of the wealth of Rohan , themselves living on marginal land. During the War of the Ring they were persuaded by Saruman to invade Rohan in conjunction with the forces of Isengard .
- Durin's Tower
- The tower that stood on the peak of Celebdil above Khazad-dûm, where Gandalf defeated Durin's Bane. It could be reached only by a long stairwell, the Endless Stair, which began in the deep far below the mines.
- A peak in the White Mountains, which is situated at the head of the valley of Harrowdale. Dunharrow stands above a cliff on the valleys eastern side, parallel to the Dwimorberg mountain itself. Beyond Dunharrow is a forest of pine wood and fir, known as the Dimholt.
- The Dimholt itself contains a small glen, which holds a standing stone that lies in front of a doorway that leads to the Paths of the Dead. The paths lead under the Dwimorberg and were in the Third Age haunted by the spirits of the Men of the Mountains. After the events at the end of the Third Age when Aragorn released them from their oath, the Dwimorberg was haunted no longer.
- (S. 'elf-haven') An ancient harbour and settlement of Elvish origin in Gondor, located just south of the junction of the rivers Morthond and Ringló.
- In one account by Tolkien, Edhellond was founded by the Sindarin refugees in three small ships fleeing the ruin of Beleriand following Morgoth's successful onslaught of the Elvish kingdoms. Another version tells that some refugees of Doriath, in the course of their wandering, founded the haven. In both versions, the original founders possessed the knowledge of shipbuilding, which in the First Age was known only to Círdan and the elven-folk of the Falas. Whatever its ultimate origins, in time Edhellond was swelled by Nandorin Elves seeking for the sea.
- Amroth, Lord of Lothlórien, was lost at or near Edhellond in the year 1981 of the Third Age while looking for his beloved Nimrodel. Already then nearly all Elves had sailed into the West from Edhellond, seeking escape from the shadows of Middle-earth. By the time of the War of the Ring no Elves remained in Edhellond, and while it was uninhabited, the area passed into the dominion of Gondor.
- (S. ????) The tallest of the three towers that stood on the Tower Hills. These towers were said to have been built by Gil-galad, High King of the Noldor in Middle-earth, in honour of Elendil who came to Middle-earth in the aftermath of the fall of Númenor.
- Afterwards Elendil often came to the tower and set there one of the palantíri of the North, the only one that could look to Westernesse but could not be used to communicate with other palantíri unlike the other six. This palantír eventually became known as the Elendil Stone.
Elostirion endured for millennia after the death of Gil-galad and Elendil, under the care of Círdan and the Elves of Lindon; but the Elendil Stone palantír that it once held was taken to the Blessed Realm when Elrond and company sailed away at the end of the Third Age.
- Emyn Beraid
- See Tower Hills
- Emyn Muil
- A craggy, impassable highland located upon either side of Nen Hithoel. In The Two Towers, Frodo and Sam, attempting to reach the Black Gate of Mordor, are lost in the eastern Emyn Muil for days until Gollum finds them. After a great deal of persuasion he agrees to show them the way, leading them south into the Dead Marshes.
- Emyn Uial
- (S. 'hills of dusk') The highlands in northern Eriador, called also the Hills of Evendim. The hills began about a hundred Númenórean miles north of the Shire; at the southern end is the city of Annúminas, the first capital of Arnor, at Lake Evendim. The Baranduin or Brandywine River flows out of this lake. A tributary of the river Lhûn also rises in the hills.
- In the Second Age, when the Men of Númenor first returned to Middle-earth, the Hills of Evendim were populated by Men related to the ancestors of the Edain. For this reason the Númenóreans later settled nearby, and the hills formed the core of the later kingdom of Arnor. After the establishment of the Kingdoms in Exile by Elendil and his sons, the Men of Evendim merged with the Dúnedain and men not of Edain stock, like the Men of Bree, to form the population of Arnor.
- also spelled Enedhwaith, originally referred to both a region of Middle-earth and the men that inhabited it, although the region Enedwaith retained that name even when the Enedwaith people were no more.
- The boundaries of the Enedwaith, which is Sindarin for 'Middle-region' as well as 'Middle-folk', were defined in the north by the rivers Gwathló and Glanduin, to the east by the Hithaeglir, and to the west by Belegaer, 'The Great Sea'. The southern border was less clear, but was probably formed by the river Isen. During the First and early Second Age Enedwaith was deeply forested, but the arrival of the timber-hungry Númenóreans, from the seventh century of the Second Age onwards, devastated the landscape. The denuded forests of Enedwaith, and much of those to the north in Eriador, were finally destroyed by the War of the Elves and Sauron around 1700 S.A., during which much of what had survived the felling was burnt. Only remote corners like Eryn Vorn survived in Eriador, and the Old Forest still further north. Many surviving natives took refuge in the eastern highlands of Enedwaith, "the foothills of the Misty Mountains", which ultimately became Dunland.
- After S.A. 3320, Enedwaith formed the most northern part of the new Kingdom of Gondor, at least officially. The south-east was still "in places well-wooded", but elsewhere Enedwaith was by this time "mostly grassland." Following the Great Plague in T.A. 1636 however, Gondor's authority permanently lapsed throughout the region.
- Tharbad, originally one of two ancient cities on the Gwathló, and the only one to survive beyond the early Third Age, was finally abandoned following devastating floods in 2912 T.A., and thereafter, only two groups survived in Enedwaith: the Dunlendings in the far east, and a "fairly numerous but barbarous fisher-folk" wandering the coast.
- Ered Lithui
- (S. 'Mountains of Ash') The mountain range forming the northern border of Mordor. From the Morannon, where it met the Ephel Dúath, the Ered Lithui ran generally eastward for hundreds of miles. The name "Mountains of Ash" suggests that the range is downwind of Mount Doom and collects its ash fallout.
- Ered Mithrin
- Ered Mithrin or Grey Mountains was a large mountain range to the north of Rhovanion. The Grey Mountains were the last remnants of the wall of the Ered Engrin or Iron Mountains, which once stretched all over the north of Middle-earth, but were broken at the end of the First Age.
- Ered Wethrin
- Ered Wethrin ("Mountains of Shadow") was a mountain range in the north of Middle-earth in the First Age. In the south, it was an east-west range that divided Dor-lómin and Mithrim to the north from Beleriand to the south, then in the east it curved around to the northwest, forming the boundary of Hithlum. A line of hills to the southwest formed the southern boundary of Nevrast, while the Mountains of Mithrim were a northwesterly spur that separated Dor-lómin from Mithrim.
- Several rivers arose in the Ered Wethrin, including Narog, Teiglin, and Sirion. The easternmost point of the Ered Wethrin reached nearly to the Echoriath, forming a steep-sided valley through which the upper Sirion ran. The Ered Wethrin disappeared beneath the waves at the end of the First Age, when the Valar changed the shape of Middle-earth.
- Eryn Vorn
- 'The Black Wood', was a densely forested peninsular in southern Eriador. Forming the western tip of what became known as Minhiriath, it was originally part of the vast ancient treescape that covered most of north-western Middle-earth, and was named by the early Númenórean explorers of the Second Age.
- Throughout the following millennium, Minhiriath's landscape beyond the cape was systematically deforested by the Númenóreans in their greed for ship-building timber, and was then almost completely burnt down during the ensuing War of the Elves and Sauron. By the war's end in S.A. 1700, the surviving natives had retreated either north to Bree, or hidden themselves in Eryn Vorn, but the whole region was largely ignored by both Elf and Númenórean thereafter.
- Eryn Vorn eventually fell under the jurisdiction of Arnor after Númenor's destruction at the end of the Second Age, and from 861 in the Third Age, the Black Woods became a nominal part of Cardolan, one of Arnor's three successor states.
- The people of Cardolan were almost completely destroyed by the Great Plague a few centuries later, and although it is not known how this affected the Black Wood, it is probable that they remained populated throughout their history, for although no permanent settlements of men existed anywhere west of Bree by the late Third Age, "a few secretive hunter-folk lived in the woods" of Minhiriath by the time of the War of the Ring. The Black Wood was the only woodland in Minhiriath large enough to be mapped, so presumably these secretive folk were the descendants of those who hid in Eryn Vorn over four thousand years earlier.
- These are highlands west of the Misty Mountains and north of the Coldfells. It was a location of warfare between the Free Peoples and Angmar in the Third Age when the Witch King fled after losing the battle of Fornost.
- Was the name the Rohirrim gave to a section of the Firienholt. It was notorious for its boar, after whom the forest was named. The first element is Old English Eofor, "boar".
- The Floating Log
- A "good inn" located in the village of Frogmorton in the Shire. During the War of the Ring, the inn was closed, so that Frodo Baggins and his companions were taken to a Shirriff-house instead while travelling through Frogmorton.
- An ancient and historic region of Rohan, close to the Kings of Rohan's courts in Edoras, which indeed originally held the King's seat at the town of Aldburg. Its name comes from Old English, with the approximate meaning 'bosom of the Earth', which shows its importance in Rohan's early history.
- The Forsaken Inn
- An inn on the East Road east of Bree, presumably constructed by Men. It was mentioned by Aragorn discussing with Frodo Baggins the further course of their journey: "None have measured the road between Rivendell and the Forsaken Inn, a day's ride east of Bree."
- The East Road was used years earlier by Bilbo Baggins; the Forsaken Inn is not specifically referred to in The Hobbit, but "an inn or two" at the edge of the Lone-lands are mentioned.
- In the Interplay version of The Fellowship of the Ring for PC, the Forsaken Inn is located southeast of Bree's east gate. A secret cellar beneath the inn contains clues to obtaining Durin's Axe.
- In Turbine's Lord of the Rings Online, the Forsaken Inn is located on the western edge of the Lone-lands, along the Great East Road. In the game, the inn is in a bad state. The Forsaken Inn was built by a group of brigands and corsairs who discovered a cave system running underneath the land which lead to the Hoarwell... The bandits believing it a great place to waylay victims and hide stolen goods. They built the inn above the entrance to the cave to disguise their hideout, and make it easier to rob and kill visitors to the inn. Deep down in the caverns they hid their ship, and built traps and riddle doors to guard the treasure. From one of their victims they obtained a minor necklace of power, that brought a curse down upon the brigands, causing the bodies of their victims to rise again killing them all. The inn fell into disrepair... Until it fell under new management, who were unaware of the secrets held underneath the inn. It is rumored that the inn is haunted, and strange screams and moans can be heard coming from some of the rooms of the inn at night.
- See Mount Gram
- Goblin Town
- A goblin (or orc) dwelling which lay under the High Pass in the Misty Mountains, ruled by the Great Goblin. It was a series of tunnels and caverns, which led all the way through the mountains, with a "back door" near the Eagles' eyrie in Wilderland. The cave of Gollum was close to this door.
- During the journey to Erebor Bilbo Baggins was captured by the goblins of Goblin Town together with the Dwarves of Thorin Oakenshield. They were brought before the Great Goblin, who accused them of spying, and was enraged to find out Thorin was carrying the sword Orcrist "Orc-cleaver". With the help of Gandalf, Bilbo and the Dwarves escaped and killed the Great Goblin, after which a frantic pursuit occurred.
- The Golden Perch
- An inn situated in the village of Stock in the Eastfarthing of the Shire. It was credited by Peregrin Took for having "the best beer in the Eastfarthing".
- A plateau in north-western Mordor, in the midst of which stands the volcanic Mount Doom. To the northeast of Mount Doom upon a spur of the Ered Lithui, Sauron constructed his fortress of Barad-dûr. During the War of the Ring, Gorgoroth was the location for the mines and forges that produced Mordor's arms and armour. The plateau was covered in volcanic ash with little to no plant growth. Human settlement or habitation of the plateau was considered impossible.
- A similar name was given to a range of mountains in Beleriand, Ered Gorgoroth.
- The Green Dragon
- An inn at Bywater, the last building on the side of the village nearest to Hobbiton.
- At the beginning of the Quest of Erebor, Thorin Oakenshield with his company went ahead to The Green Dragon to make preparations and await Bilbo Baggins. The inn was also the site of a conversation between Samwise Gamgee and Ted Sandyman about the strange things that had been happening, such as queer folk passing through the Shire and a "Tree-man" seen by Halfast of Overhill. When Frodo Baggins and the others returned to Bywater from Gondor, they found the inn "lifeless and with broken windows", as it was not maintained under Saruman's men.
- In The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, The Green Dragon is the employer of Rosie Cotton, who works there as a bar maid. This is where Samwise Gamgee approaches her following the Fellowship's return from Gondor. The inn was also not vandalized by Saruman's men in the films, because the Scouring of the Shire is only shown as an alternate future in Galadriel's mirror. It is featured twice, in brief interludes near the beginning and end of the three movies. The largest size of ale featured by The Green Dragon is half a pint.
- Merry and Pippin sing a song about The Green Dragon in The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King:
Oh, you can search far and wide
You can drink the whole town dry
But you'll never find a beer so brown
But you'll never find a beer so brown
As the one we drink in our hometown
As the one we drink in our hometown
You can keep your fancy ales
You can drink 'em by the flagon
But the only brew for the brave and true
Comes from The Green Dragon!
- The song is mostly invented by the film's writers, though the phrase "a beer so brown" appears in "The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late", an actual Tolkien poem found in The Fellowship of the Ring and The Adventures of Tom Bombadil.
- In The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, the inn is not simply vandalized, but utterly destroyed by the goblins of Gorkil in the Evil Campaign. "The Green Dragon Inn" is also seen in the Shire map for skirmish mode, where it functions as a normal inn once captured.
- Gulf of Lune
- A sea-arm that broke through the range of the Ered Luin into Eriador. The Gulf of Lune, named after the river Lhûn or "Lune", was created during the War of Wrath when Beleriand was broken. In the midst of Ossiriand, Belegaer broke through the mountains, creating the Gulf of Lune. The remnant of Beleriand north of the gulf became known as Forlindon, and the part south of it as Harlindon (North and South Lindon). At the eastern end of the Gulf the Grey Havens of Mithlond were established.
- During the Second Age the ships of the Númenóreans first came to the Gulf of Lune to visit the Noldor and Sindar under Gil-galad who remained behind, and during the Third Age from it the ships of the Eldar passed into the West.
- The deep north-south valley cut out of the White Mountains by the Snowbourn River. At its southern end, beneath the mountain known as the Starkhorn, stood Dunharrow, a great refuge of the Rohirrim. At its northern end, where the Snowbourn issued onto the plains of Rohan, stood that nation's capital, Edoras.
- Hills of Evendim
- See Emyn Uial
- The pass in the northwest of Mordor, also called by the Mannish name of the Isenmouthe or Carach Angren (both versions of the name mean 'iron jaws'). It was formed where spurs reaching out from the ranges of the Ephel Dúath and the Ered Lithui met, leaving only a narrow passage between the Plateau of Gorgoroth and the smaller valley of Udûn to the north. As the passage to the Black Gate of the Morannon, Carach Angren was heavily fortified, and both the rocky spurs that overlooked it carried fortresses and watchtowers. Across the passage itself, a wall of earth had been built, and a great ditch had been dug across the opening spanned by a single bridge.
- The Ivy Bush
- A "small inn on the Bywater road" in the Shire. Here Gaffer Gamgee recounted to the visitors his stories about Bilbo and Frodo Baggins, who were about to throw a magnificent joint birthday party. A hotel in Wales is named the Ivy Bush Hotel.
- A land which lay to the south-east of Mordor and to the east of Near Harad. Tolkien says little about the land or its people. It was the home of the Variags of Khand, warriors who appear tangentially in the text with little description. The index of Volumes VIII and XII of The History of Middle-earth, presumably due to Christopher Tolkien, glosses Variag as "the people of Khand".
- Lake Evendim
- (S. Nenuial) Lake in Eriador. Lake Evendim was in the Hills of Evendim north of the Shire. The lake was the source of the Baranduin or Brandywine River.
- In the early part of the Second Age, Galadriel and Celeborn may have dwelled in the area around Lake Evendim with many Elves in their following before they moved to Eregion around the year S.A. 700. Men also lived around Lake Evendim in the early part of the Second Age. When the North-kingdom of Arnor was established in S.A. 3320, the High King Elendil had his seat at Annúminas on the shore of Lake Evendim near the mouth of the Baranduin or Brandywine River. One of the palantíri was kept there.
- After Arnor was divided into three kingdoms in 861 of the Third Age, the capital was moved to Fornost. Annúminas began to fall into ruin and was eventually abandoned. In the Fourth Age, Annúminas was re-established as the northern capital by Aragorn, King Elessar. In the year 15 of the Fourth Age, the King and Queen Arwen came north to dwell by the shores of Lake Evendim for a time.
- Last Bridge
- The crossing point of the river Mitheithel by the Great East Road. The bridge served as an important landmark on the road from Bree to Rivendell, as it was just over the halfway mark between these two points and at least a weeks' journey east of Bree.
- Bilbo Baggins, the dwarves, and Gandalf crossed this bridge in The Hobbit, though it is not specifically mentioned, and their encounter with the trolls occurred in the Trollshaws nearby. In The Fellowship of the Ring, Aragorn finds a beryl on the bridge that was left by Glorfindel as a warning that the Nazgûl were searching the Great East Road for the One Ring. Glorfindel mentions waging battle with the Nazgûl upon the bridge, as to make it safe for the Hobbits and Aragorn to reach Rivendell.
- Lond Daer Enedh
- This place under the original name Vinyalondë, or 'New Haven', was founded by Númenor's crown prince Aldarion on the estuary of the river Gwathló in the early Second Age. It was the first permanent settlement of the Númenóreans in Middle-earth. From here Aldarion's "Guild Of Venturers" began harvesting the local timber for the shipbuilding industry of Númenor.
- Within a few centuries, the deforestation of the outlying regions Enedwaith and Minhiriath became cataclysmic, angering the local native population (ancestors of the Dunlendings), and they began to fight back with increasing ferocity, destroying the haven several times, and frequently burning the great wood-stores in 'hit-and-run' attacks.
- By the time of the War of the Elves and Sauron in the middle of the Second Age, this 'New Haven' had become very well established, and its name had shifted over the intervening one thousand years to 'Lond Daer', the Great Haven. As such, it was one of the two beachheads of the Númenórean forces in Eriador that were used to support the Elves around S.A. 1700.
- Lond Daer's shipyards were starved of timber following the war, as the forces of Sauron had burnt almost all of what remained in Enedwaith and Minhiriath. Once its shipbuilding yards were no longer practicable, Lond Daer declined in importance, and the Númenórean hunger for ever more wealth shifted focus to the establishment of newer havens to the south, Pelargir and Umbar. Following this, Lond Daer was once again renamed, being now one of several major ports in Middle-earth, and was known as Lond Daer Enedh, or 'Great Middle Haven'. Despite this, Númenor still maintained traffic on the Gwathló as far as the city of Tharbad.
- After the Downfall of Númenor, Elendil founded the realm of Arnor in the lands north of Lond Daer, but the haven was now redundant, and fell into ruin. Instead, control over the region was maintained from Tharbad. The ancient ruins of Lond Daer were still visible as late as the end of the Third Age, however, and still featured on maps from that time.
- Long Lake
- A lake situated at the confluence of the Forest River and the northern reaches of the Celduin south of the Lonely Mountain. The lake gets its name from being longer north-south than it was wide east-west (standing on the west shore where the Forest River emptied into the lake the east could barely be seen, but the north and south could not). The lake emptied out over waterfalls on the southern edge into the River Running that led all the way to the great Sea of Rhûn. The town of Esgaroth was built entirely upon the lake itself, which thus formed a natural moat. It was built very near to the Forest River outlet, but protected from the stream by a promontory of rock. The water in the Lake itself was calm.
- (S. 'towering blue head') The easternmost peak of the White Mountains, below and to the east of which stands the city of Minas Tirith. In The Return of the King, shortly after Aragorn's coronation as King Elessar Gandalf takes him by an ancient path into the foothills of Mindolluin far above the city. There he discovers, upon an otherwise barren slope, a sapling of Nimloth, the White Tree of Gondor, which he plants in the Court of the Fountain as a sign of rebirth.
- (Sindarin for 'Between Rivers' and thus an Elvish form of Mesopotamia) was located in Eriador, a name for all the lands between the Hithaeglir and the Ered Luin. Minhiriath had no clear border in the north, but to the south, and east and west it was bounded by river and sea : the Brandywine, the Greyflood and Belegaer,'The Great Sea'.
- The original inhabitants of Minhiriath (Minhiriathrim) were descended from the same Atani as the ancestors of the Númenóreans, but because they spoke mutually unintelligible languages, the Númenóreans did not class the Minhiriathrim as Middle Men.
- When the large-scale deforestation of their land began under the Númenórean 'Ship Kings' after the 7th century Second Age, the minhiriathrim became openly hostile, and were persecuted. Only those who "fled from Minhiriath into the dark woods of the great Cape of Eryn Vorn" survived. Most, if not all of these forest-dwellers subsequently "welcomed Sauron and hoped for his victory over the Men of the Sea", but they were to be disappointed - and permanently trapped - by Sauron's burning of much of the rest of the surviving forest, and final defeat, in S.A. 1701.
- From S.A. 3320, Minhiriath became nominally part of the newly established Kingdom of Arnor, at which time it formed the upper part of,
- ..a land that was far and wide on either bank a desert, treeless but untilled.
- ('Of Galadriel & Celeborn' from Unfinished Tales)
- From T.A. 861, Minhiriath was inherited by one of Arnor's three successor states, Cardolan, but the "ravaging" of Cardolan by evil forces in T.A. 1409 no doubt caused extensive depopulation of the whole country. Even worse was the advent of the Great Plague in T.A. 1636, after which Minhiriath was "almost entirely deserted". After T.A. 1975, even though "a few secretive hunter-folk lived in the woods" throughout the Third Age (probably a reference which includes Eryn Vorn), Minhiriath was claimed by no kingdom at all.
- Although "still in places well-wooded" by the time of the War of the Ring, the once continuously forested Minhiriath bore the permanent scars of over 5000 years of felling, burning and war.
- The same is not necessarily the case for its human population, however: when talking of Eriador (and particularly the lands south and west of Bree) to an innkeeper at the end of the War of the Ring, for example, Gandalf confidently predicts that,
- ..the waste in time will be waste no longer, and there will be people and fields where once there was wilderness.
- ("The Journey Home", The Lord of the Rings)
- The lake located beneath the doors of Khazad-dûm. It is known as Kheled-zâram by the Dwarves. According to the Dwarves of Durin's folk, after Durin the Deathless had awoken at Mount Gundabad in the north of the Hithaeglir (Misty Mountains), he travelled south until he came upon this lake. He looked down in it, and in the reflection saw a crown of stars above his head. Then he founded Khazad-dûm at that place.
- Morgul Pass
- The Morgul Pass is the main pass from the Morgul Vale into Mordor. The Morgul Pass was at the far eastern end of the Morgul Vale. The Mountains of Shadow were relatively low at that point. The Morgul-road ran through the valley past Minas Morgul and over the Morgul Pass. The road then ran down into Mordor and crossed Gorgoroth to Mount Doom and Barad-dûr. The Morgul Pass was so called because it was located in the Morgul Vale. The word morgul means "black magic." The element mor means "black, dark." The element gûl means "sorcery, magic" from the stem ngol or nólë meaning "long study, lore, knowledge." This pass was also called the Nameless Pass, presumably by those who did not wish to utter the evil name of Morgul.
- Far up the northern wall of the Morgul Pass, far above the main roadway, was a steep secondary pass reached by a perilous stairway, and known as Cirith Ungol.
- Mount Gundabad
- A mountain at the northern extremity of the Misty Mountains, a stronghold of Dwarves and later, Orcs.
- According to the Dwarves, Durin the Deathless, oldest of the Fathers of the Dwarves, awoke at Mount Gundabad some time after the awakening of the Elves. Mount Gundabad remained a sacred place to the Dwarves ever after.
- In the middle of the Second Age, Orcs (servants of Sauron) invaded Gundabad. The site would not be cleansed until very late in the Second Age, possibly around or after the fall of Sauron and the loss of the One Ring.
- In the Third Age, the Orcs of Angmar yet again claimed it as their capital, which was one of the reasons for the Dwarves' special hatred of this people. After the fall of Angmar, Gundabad remained an Orc stronghold, even after it was sacked during the War of the Dwarves and Orcs. The army of goblins that fought in the Battle of the Five Armies was said to have mustered at the mountain in The Hobbit.
- Mountains of Angmar
- A mountain chain in the far north, running north-west from Mount Gundabad at the northern end of the Misty Mountains. The evil kingdom of Angmar gave its name to the mountains. The mountains were probably inhabited at various times both by Dwarves and Orcs. The capital of Angmar, Carn Dûm, was located at the western foothills of the Mountains of Angmar.
- Mountains of Ash
- See Ered Lithui
- Mountains of Moria
- The three peaks of the Misty Mountains — Caradhras, Celebdil and Fanuidhol — beneath which Moria was delved by the Dwarves. The main body of their city seems to have been beneath Celebdil. During the events of The Lord of the Rings, the Company of the Ring attempted to travel over Caradhras, but they were forced to enter the Mines due to a heavy snowfall.
- See Dimrill Dale
- Nen Hithoel
- A large lake upon the Great River Anduin amid the Emyn Muil to the east of Rohan. The lake is approximately 20 miles (32 km) long from north to south, and 10 miles (16 km) wide. Upon the lake's northern approach from Anduin the Men of Gondor constructed the huge pillars of the Argonath in the reign of Rómendacil II to mark the northern boundary of their realm, although by the time of the War of the Ring that boundary has long since receded. At the southern end of the lake stand three hills. Amon Hen, the Seat of Seeing, stands upon the western shore and Amon Lhaw, the Seat of Hearing upon the east. The third hill forms an island in the lake itself, Tol Brandir. None has ever set foot upon the island due to the intense currents at the lake's south end, for the lake is drained by the falls of Rauros.
- The Fellowship of the Ring arrived at Nen Hithoel on February 25, T.A. 3019 and made camp at Parth Galen close to Amon Hen. The fall of Boromir and the breaking of the Fellowship occurred soon after. Frodo and Sam took a boat for the eastern shore, Merry and Pippin were captured by Uruk-Hai, and after sending Boromir's body over the falls in another boat, Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli, calling themselves the Three Hunters, set out to track the Uruk-Hai and find the captive Hobbits.
- Old Ford
- The point where the Old Forest Road crossed the River Anduin, about forty miles (sixty-four kilometres) downriver from the Carrock. In older times, the river was crossed by a stone bridge here, but by the end of the Third Age, the bridge had long since disappeared, and the crossing was no more than a simple ford.
- Old Púkel Land
- See Drúwaith Iaur
- A city of Middle-earth, the old capital city of Gondor. Founded by Elendil and his sons Isildur and Anárion at the end of the Second Age, Osgiliath was located on the Great River Anduin. Osgiliath was burned during the Kin-strife, later being struck by the Great Plague. The half-deserted city was completely abandoned in T.A. 2475 when Uruks from Mordor occupied Ithilien, and the city was completely ruined. Osgiliath was the scene of some of the earliest fighting in the War of the Ring, and eventually the city was occupied by Mordor, and the army of Sauron marched from the city and surrounded Minas Tirith, beginning the siege of Gondor and leading directly into the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. In Peter Jackson's film of The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, Faramir takes Frodo, Sam and Gollum to Osgiliath, where they witness a battle. This does not occur in the book.
- Parth Galen
- (S: 'Green Sward') A green lawn above the Falls of Rauros at the feet of Amon Hen. It is on the western shore of Nen Hithoel near the southern end — a fair, green sward, watered by a small spring. Sward means a large open expanse of lawn: parth means "field, enclosed grassland", related to "path", meaning "level space, sward"; galen (or calen) means "green." It was here that the breaking of the Fellowship of the Ring took place.
- The Prancing Pony
- An inn at the centre of the village of Bree.
"Even from the outside the inn looked a pleasant house to familiar eyes. It had a front on the Road, and two wings running back on land partly cut out of the lower slopes of the hill, so that at the rear the second-floor windows were level with the ground. There was a wide arch leading to a courtyard between the two wings, and on the left under the arch there was a large doorway reaches by a few broad steps. ... Above the arch there was a lamp, and beneath it swung a large signboard: a fat white pony reared up on its hind legs. Over the door was painted in white letters: THE PRANCING PONY by BARLIMAN BUTTERBUR."
- It was situated at the base of the Bree-hill, at the spot where the East Road made a bend and a side road ran towards the Greenway and Fornost. The building is described in The Lord of the Rings:
- Inside there was a large common room, several private parlours, and a number of bedrooms, including a few rooms in the north wing designed for Hobbits, that were low to the ground and had round windows. The inn also had stables.
- The Prancing Pony was a meeting place for both Bree-folk and travellers, and was frequented by Men, Hobbits and Dwarves. Some of the Bucklanders from the Shire are known to have travelled to the inn occasionally. The art of smoking pipe-weed was said to have begun in Bree and from The Prancing Pony it spread among the races of Middle-earth. The inn was also noted for its fine beer, enchanted at an occasion by Gandalf. At the time of the War of the Ring, the proprietor was Barliman Butterbur, whose family kept the inn "from time beyond record". Two Hobbits worked for Butterbur: Nob, a servant in the inn, and Bob, who worked in the stables.
- Two important events leading up to the War of the Ring took place at The Prancing Pony. The first was "a chance-meeting" of Gandalf and Thorin Oakenshield, which eventually led to the destruction of Smaug and far lighter casualties during the war in the northern theatre. The second event occurred during the journey of Frodo Baggins to Rivendell, when he and his companions stayed at The Prancing Pony for a night. After singing "The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late", Frodo accidentally put the One Ring on and became invisible, which led to an attack on the inn by the Black Riders. Frodo also met Aragorn at that time, who saved him and led the party away.
- Business at The Prancing Pony declined during the war because of an influx of rough Men from the South who terrorized Bree and the surrounding countryside. However, when Gandalf stopped with the Hobbits at the inn on their way home, he prophesied that "better days" were coming as the Kingdom was restored and "some fair folk" would be staying at The Prancing Pony.
- In Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring movie the hobbits only briefly reside in the common room, without Frodo singing, after which Frodo is taken away by Aragorn.
- The Inn also features in Lord of the Rings Online and features in the development of the game's storyline for individual adventurers.
- An outlying hill beneath the height of Erebor, the Lonely Mountain. It stood at the end of a ridge of high ground extending southwards from the mountain itself, overlooking the River Running and the valley of Dale. The Dwarves of Erebor built a guard post on the hill, and above its chamber for many years lived two intelligent ravens, Carc and his wife. It was they, and the ravens of hill, that gave it its name.
- Sarn Gebir
- A hilly area just west of the Falls of Rauros on the river Anduin.
- Sea of Rhûn
- A large saltwater lake or sea in the region of Rhûn. The Sea of Rhûn, according to Tolkien's maps, covers roughly 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km²). The Celduin (River Running) flows from the northwest through Dorwinion into a northwestern arm of the sea, while several unnamed rivers flow from the northeastern shore.
- See Celebdil
- Stair Falls
- A waterfall outside the West-gate of Moria. They were formed by the stream Sirannon, which flowed from the valley in front of the West-gate and over a cliff about 30 feet (9.1 m) high and then continued southwestward to join the Glanduin. There was a flight of stone steps carved into the cliff on the northern side of the falls, but the main path wound up the cliffside a bit north of the stairs. The Stair Falls were once strong and full, but by the time of the War of the Ring the waterfall was cut off when the Sirannon was dammed, forming a pool where the Watcher in the Water lurked.
- The Fellowship came to the cliff where the Stair Falls had been on January 13, 3019. Gandalf, Gimli, and Frodo climbed the Stair, discovered that the pool blocked their path, returned and used the main path up the cliff and around the pool. It seems possible that after the War and reoccupation of Moria, the Sirannon may have been unblocked and the Stair Falls may have flowed once more, but this is nowhere stated.
- A snow-clad peak that rose in the inner regions of the White Mountains. From its feet sprang the Snowbourn River, whose widening valley ran northwards through the mountains to emerge onto the plains of Rohan. The Rohirrim called that valley Harrowdale, and built their courts of Edoras at its mouth, from where the lonely white peak of the Starkhorn could be seen along the straight length of the valley.
- (S. Nîn-in-Eilph) A marshy area in Eriador. Formed where the Glanduin (mistakenly labelled as "Swanfleet river" on some maps) joins the Gwathló (Greyflood), the Swanfleet is effectively an inland delta, with uncertain streams and a very uncertain difference between land and water.
- It strongly resembles the Gladden Fields on the other side of Hithaeglir, and as such many Stoors felt right at home here after their migration into Eriador. These Stoors remained here until the Great Plague nearly wiped them out, and the remainder then went to the South Farthing of the Shire. Near the Swanfleet was a ford over the Glanduin, from where led a road to the ruins of Ost-in-Edhil, the ruined city of Eregion.
- A city on the southern edge of Eriador in Middle-earth. Tharbad, Sindarin for 'The Crossing Road', was originally the name given to a fort where the old North-South Road crossed the fenlands at the head of the Gwathló. The area around Tharbad was flat and marshy; the road approached the river from either side along miles of causeway.
- Tol Brandir
- An island crag set in the lake of Nen Hithoel which straddles the Falls of Rauros. The island was bordered by Amon Hen to the west and Amon Lhaw to the east. In days past, the hills near Tol Brandir had been important watchtowers for the Kingdom of Gondor. However, no man ever visited Tol Brandir, or so the legends state.
- Tol Brandir means "tall island" and is the name used by the Elves. The men called the island "Tindrock", derived from the Old English word "tind" meaning sharp point (literally, therefore, 'pointed rock').
- Torech Ungol
- Torech Ungol or Shelob's Lair was the home of the giant spider Shelob. It was located below Cirith Ungol, a pass into Mordor. The orcs were generally afraid of Shelob but had built extensive tunnels into the lair for their own purposes. When some of them were unruly or Shelob needed to be appeased, the orcs would throw some of their own kind into the lair without much concern for them.
- In Peter Jackson's film adaptations to the books, the entire sequence in Shelob's Lair was moved to The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. Because The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers needed a new climax, a new sub-plot was created in which Faramir took Frodo to Osgiliath. This addition was criticized by some purists.
- Jackson explained that he moved the scene from The Two Towers into The Return of the King for the sake of the timeline of events as given in the books. Although the episode with Shelob occurred in the Two Towers book, it was chronologically simultaneous with events in other parts of Middle-earth that took place during the Return of the King. For example, even in the books, Frodo's capture at Shelob's Lair happened as Gandalf and Pippin were engaged in battle at the besieged Minas Tirith, not at Helm's Deep or even Isengard.
- Tower Hills
- A series of steep hills at the west end of Eriador, called in Sindarin Emyn Beraid. They lay about 30 Númenórean miles east of the Grey Havens, and about 50 miles (80 km) west of the White Downs, of old the border of the Shire. High upon the Tower Hills stood three tall Elven towers, the highest of which was called Elostirion and held a palantír.
- The Tower Hills formed the ancient border between the Elven realm of Lindon and the Kingdom of Arnor, and the Great East Road which led all the way to Rivendell ran through them. In the early Fourth Age, Elanor Gamgee and her husband Fastred Fairbairn moved to the Tower Hills, founding the town of Undertowers on the eastern slopes of the Hills, and becoming the Wardens of Westmarch, when the Tower Hills became the new western border of the Shire by the issue of King Elessar.
- Towers of the Teeth
- Also called the Teeth of Mordor. Two towers situated on either side of the Black Gate of Mordor. The towers — known individually as Carchost and Narchost — were originally constructed by the men of Gondor after Sauron's defeat in the Second Age to guard the entrance to Mordor, but were taken over by Sauron in the later Third Age, having been abandoned sometime after the defeat of King Ondoher in 1944 to the Wainriders, as the Towers are stated to have been manned before the Battle.
- Tolkien's writings leave it unclear which tower was located on which side of the Morannon. However, Carchost appears to have stood to the eastern side and Narchost on the western side. Carchost is a Sindarin name that means "Tooth Fort", a compound of carch (meaning 'tooth or fang') and ost (meaning 'fortress'). Narchost is a Sindarin name that means "Fire Fort". The towers were destroyed in the War of the Ring with the defeat of Sauron following the destruction of the One Ring. Their collapse is shown in Peter Jackson's film interpretation of The Return of the King.
- The upland woods, consisting at least partly of beech trees, that lay to the west of Rivendell between the rivers Hoarwell and Loudwater. They were the haunt of trolls. Three of these trolls waylaid Bilbo Baggins and his companions during The Hobbit. Years later Frodo Baggins and his companions found them on their way to Rivendell, but they were inert stone.
- There is a contradiction regarding the layout of the Trollshaws. In The Hobbit, the company passes over a "stone bridge" and very soon after that spots the trolls' fire, an hour or two away. In The Fellowship of the Ring, however, Aragorn explicitly leads the Hobbits over the Last Bridge and takes six days to reach the site of the troll camp. This discrepancy was not noticed by J. R. R. Tolkien, but was discussed by Christopher Tolkien in The Return of the Shadow.
- See Celebdil
- ^ Rateliff, John D. (2007), The History of the Hobbit, London: HarperCollins, p. 815, ISBN 978-0-00-723555-1
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R.. "Appendix A: Gondor and the Kings of Anárion". The Lord of the Rings. ISBN 0974146803.
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R.. "The Great River". The Lord of the Rings (The Fellowship of the Ring). ISBN 0345332083.
- ^ a b Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Appendix A, iii, first section, ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Peoples of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-82760-4 , See also Araval at the Encyclopedia of Arda
- ^ a b c Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "The Scouring of the Shire", ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Book 2, Ch. IX: "The Great River", ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- ^ a b Hammond and Scull, J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist & Illustrator, Figure 158: "Dimrill Dale and Mountains of Moria", p. 163.
- ^ Carpenter, Humphrey, ed. (1981), The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, #306, ISBN 0-395-31555-7
- ^ Robert Foster (1978), Guide to Middle-earth, http://books.google.com/books?id=qpNzD69cm7AC
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, History of Galadriel and Celeborn: Amroth and Nimrodel, ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Appendix D to "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn", ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Appendix B: The Tale of Years (Chronology of the Westlands), The Third Age, ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Appendix A (II), ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- ^ The word "Folde" is the genitive singular of the Old English word "Foldan", which in turn is a feminine noun. It meaning can be translated to "of the earth", or simply "earth" or "land". and 
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "A Knife in the Dark", ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- ^ a b Tolkien, J. R. R. (1937), Douglas A. Anderson, ed., The Annotated Hobbit, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002, "Roast Mutton", ISBN 0-618-13470-0
- ^ The Fellowship of the Ring, "A Short Cut to Mushrooms".
- ^ The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Shadow of the Past".
- ^ The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King DVD, "Return to Edoras"
- ^ http://tolkien.cro.net/talesong/merryinn.html
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1989), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Treason of Isengard, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, The Council of Elrond - 4th version, pg 124, ISBN 0-395-51562-9
- ^ The Fellowship of the Ring, "A Long-expected Party".
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age," p. 360, ISBN 0-395-25730-1
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The History of Galadriel and Celeborn," p. 234-35, ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1996), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Peoples of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Of Dwarves and Men," p. 313, ISBN 0-395-82760-4
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Appendix A: "The Númenórean Kings: Númenor," p. 317, ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Two Towers, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "The Palantír," p. 203, ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Appendix A: "The North-kingdom and the Dúnedain," p. 324, ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "Homeward Bound," p. 272-73, ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1955), The Return of the King, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), Appendix B: "The Tale of Years," p. 378, ISBN 0-395-08256-0
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "The Council of Elrond", p. 257, ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "Appendix: Elements in Quenya and Sindarin Names," entry for uial, ISBN 0-395-25730-1
- ^ The Fellowship of the Ring, "At the Sign of the Prancing Pony".
- ^ The Fellowship of the Ring, "The Council of Elrond".
- ^ The Fellowship of the Ring, Prologue: "Concerning Pipe-weed".
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1980), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Unfinished Tales, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, "The Quest of Erebor", ISBN 0-395-29917-9
- ^ The Return of the King, "Homeward Bound".
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "A Journey in the Dark," p. 314-16, ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Fellowship of the Ring, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "The Bridge of Khazad-dûm," p. 336-37, ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Appendix, p. 364, ISBN 0-395-25730-1
- ^ Tolkien, J.R.R. (1980). "History of Galadriel and Celeborn". In Christopher Tolkien. Unfinished Tales. George Allen and Unwin. ISBN 0-395-29917-9.
- ^ Tomb of Elendil - Tolkien Gateway
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Two Towers, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "Shelob's Lair", ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- ^ Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954), The Two Towers, The Lord of the Rings, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987), "The Choices of Master Samwise", ISBN 0-395-08254-4
- ^ From Book to Script: Finding the Story [DVD]. New Line.
- ^ What Happened to Gallant Captain Faramir?
- ^ The Trouble With Frodo: Fragility in The Two Towers
J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium Published during his lifetime Posthumous publications Lists of articlesBy category · By name · Writings · Characters · Peoples · Individual Dwarves · Individual Elves · Individual Hobbits · Hobbit families · Individual Númenoreans · Individual Orcs · Kings of Arnor · Kings of Dale · Kings of Gondor · Rulers of Númenor · Kings of Rohan · Realms · Ages · Animals · Plants · Food and drink · Inns · Objects · Weapons and armour · Wars and battles · Rivers · Roads · Languages
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