- Transcendent theosophy
Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’li (حكمت متعالي), the doctrine and
philosophythat has been developed and perfected by the Persian philosopher, Mulla Sadra, is one of two main disciplines of Islamic philosophythat is very live and active even today.
The expression al-hikmat al-muta’liyah comprises two terms al-hikmat (meaning theosiphia) and muta’liyah (meaning exalted or Transcendent). This school of Mulla Sadra in Islamic philosophy is usually called al-hikmat al-muta’liyah. It is a most appropriate name for his school, not only for historical reasons, but also because the doctrines of Mulla Sadra are veritably both hikmah or theosophy in its original sense and an intellectual vision of the transcendent which leads to the Transcendent Itself. So Mulla Sadra’s school is transcendent for both historical and metaphysical reasons.
When Mulla Sarda talked about hikmah or theosophy in his words, he usually meant the transcendent philosophy. He gave many definitions to the term hikmah, the most famous one is: hikmah is a vehicle through which “man becomes an intelligible world resembling the objective world and similar to the order of universal existence”.
Mulla Sadra's philosophy and
ontologyis considered to be just as important to Islamic philosophy as Martin Heidegger's philosophy later was to Western philosophyin the 20th century. Mulla Sadra bought "a new philosophical insight in dealing with the nature of reality" and created "a major transition from essentialismto existentialism" in Islamic philosophy, several centuries before this occurred in Western philosophy.citation|title=Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy|first=Muhammad|last=Kamal|year=2006|publisher=Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.|isbn=0754652718|pages=9 & 39]
A concept that lies at the heart of Mulla Sadra's philosophy is the idea of "
existence precedes essence", a key foundational concept of existentialismwhich was not popularized in the West until Jean-Paul Sartrein the 20th century. This was also the opposite of the idea of " essenceprecedes existence" previously supported by Avicennaand his school of Avicennismas well as Shahab al-Din Suhrawardiand his school of Illuminationism. Sayyid Jalal Ashtiyani later summarizes Mulla Sadra's concept as follows: [Harv|Razavi|1997|pp=129-30]
For Mulla Sadra, "existence precedes the essence and is thus principle since something has to exist first and then have an essence." This is primarily the argument that lies at the heart of Mulla Sadra's philosophy. [Harv|Razavi|1997|p=130]
Islamic philosophy, whereas previous methods of philosophical thought held that "essence precedes existence", a concept which dates back to Avicennacitation|first=Jones|last=Irwin|title=Averroes' Reason: A Medieval Tale of Christianity and Islam|date=Autumn 2002|journal=The Philosopher|volume=LXXXX|issue=2] and Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi, [Harv|Razavi|1997|p=129] Mulla Sadra substituted a metaphysicsof existence for the traditional metaphysics of essences, and giving priority ab initioto existence over quiddity. [Corbin (1993), pp. 342 and 343]
Mulla Sadra effected an entire revolution in the metaphysics of being by his thesis that there are no immutable essences, but that each essence is determined and variable according to the degree of intensity of its act of existence. [Corbin (1993), pp. 342-3]
In his view reality is existence, differentiated in a variety of ways, and these different ways look to us like essences. What first affect us are things that exist and we forms ideas of essences afterwards, so existence precedes essence. This position referred to as primacy of existence (Arabic: "Isalat al-Wujud"). [Leaman (2007), p. 35]
Another central concept of Mulla Sadra's philosophy is the theory of "substantial motion" ("al-harakat al-jawhariyyah"), which is "based on the premise that everything in the order of
nature, including celestial spheres, undergoes substantial change and transformation as a result of the self-flow ("fayd") and penetration of being("sarayan al-wujud") which gives every concrete individual entity its share of being. In contrast to Aristotleand Ibn Sina who had accepted changeonly in four categories, i.e., quantity("kamm"), quality("kayf"), ("wad’") and ("‘ayn"), Sadra defines change as an all-pervasive realityrunning through the entire cosmos including the category of substance ("jawhar")." [citation|first=Ibrahim|last=Kalin|contribution=Sadr al-Din Shirazi (Mulla Sadra) (b. 1571-1640)|url=http://www.cis-ca.org/voices/s/sadra.htm|title=Resources on Islam & Science|editor1-first=Muzaffar|editor1-last=Iqbal|editor1-link=Muzaffar Iqbal|editor2-first=Ibrahim|editor2-last=Kalin|date=March 2001|accessdate=2008-02-04] Gottfried Leibnizlater described a similar concept a century later. [citation|first1=Keven|last1=Brown|first2=Eberhard|last2=Von Kitzing|title=Evolution and Bahá'í Belief: ʻAbduʼl-Bahá's Response to Nineteenth-century Darwinism|publisher=Kalimat Press|isbn=1890688088|pages=222-3]
*Harvard reference|title=Suhrawardi and the School of Illumination|first=Mehdi Amin|last=Razavi|year=1997|publisher=
Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "Sadr al-Din Shirazi and Transcendent Theosophy"
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