Gandhism (or Gandhianism) is a collection of inspirations, principles, beliefs and philosophy of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (known as Mahatma Gandhi), who was a major political and spiritual leader of
Indiaand the Indian Independence Movement.
It is a body of ideas and principles that describes the inspiration, vision and the life work of Gandhi. The term also encompasses what Gandhi's ideas, words and actions mean to people around the world, and how they used them for guidance in building their own future. Gandhism also permeates into the realm of the individual human being, non-political and non-social. A "Gandhian" can mean either an individual who follows, or a specific philosophy which is attributed to, Gandhism.
Satya" is the Sanskrit word for “truth,” and "aagraha" (from the Sanskrit root "aagrah" cognate with English word “grab”) can be rendered as “effort/endeavor/insist.” The term was popularized during the Indian Independence Movement, and is used in many Indian languagesincluding Hindi.
Gandhi stated that “I have nothing new to teach the world. Truth and non-violence are as old as the hills.”Fact|date=April 2007
The pivotal and defining element of Gandhism is
satya, a Sanskritword usually translated into English as truth, whose literal meaning is 'what actually is' (deriving from the root verb "as" meaning 'to be'). Truth must pervade all considerations of politics, ego, society and convention. Gandhi did not consider himself to be a pacifist, socialist or on any definable spectrum of politics. He professed to adhere to the pure, existing facts of life to make his decisions.
Gandhi’s commitments to non-violence, human freedom, equality and justice arose from his personal examination.
Truth is interpreted subjectively. Gandhism does not demand that its adherents agree to Gandhi’s own principles to the letter, but in spirit. If one honestly believes that violence is sometimes necessary, it is "truthful" to believe in it. When Gandhi returned to India in the middle of
World War I, he said he would have supported the British in the war. It would have been wrong, according to Gandhi, to demand equal rights for Indians in the Empire, and not contribute to its defence. On the other hand, by the time of the advance of the Japanese in World War II, Gandhi had given up notions of fighting alongside the British and argued for nonviolenceinstead.
Gandhi developed his vision, thought and way of life by his constant “experimenting with truth” — a phrase that formed the subtitle to his autobiography. He was prepared to learn through trial and error, often admitting to mistakes and changing his behaviour accordingly. This was particularly notable when Gandhi stopped all nationwide civil resistance in 1922 after the
Chauri Chauraincident. He would forsake political independence for truth — believing that Indians should not become murderers and commit the very evils they were accusing the British of perpetrating in India.
Gandhism is more about the spirit of Gandhi’s journey to discover the truth, than what he finally considered to be the truth. It is the foundation of Gandhi’s teachings, and the spirit of his whole life to examine and understand for oneself, and not take anybody or any ideology for granted.
Gandhi said: “The Truth is far more powerful than any weapon of mass destruction.”Fact|date=February 2007
Gandhi’s philosophy encompassed
ontologyand its association with truth. For Gandhi, "to be" did not mean to exist within the realm of time, as it has in the past with the Greek philosophers. But rather, "to exist" meant to exist within the realm of truth, or to use the term Gandhi did, satya. Gandhi summarized his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth", which his experimenting later prompted him to change to "Truth is God". The first statement seemed insufficient to Gandhi, as the mistake could be made that Gandhi was using truth as a description of God, as opposed to God as an aspect of satya. Satya(truth) in Gandhi's philosophy is God. It shares all the characteristics of the Hinduconcept of God, or Brahman, and is believed by Gandhians to live within each person as their conscience while at the same time guiding the universe.
Brahmacharya and Ahimsa
Brahmacharya, Ahimsa, Henry David Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy"
The concept of nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonresistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Christian contexts. Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography, "The Story of My Experiments with Truth". He was quoted saying:
"What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy?" Fact|date=July 2007
"An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind"."Fact|date=July 2007
"It has always been easier to destroy than to create"."Fact|date=July 2007
"There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for"."Fact|date=July 2007
At the age of 36, Gandhi adopted the vow of
brahmacharya, or celibacy. He committed himself to the control of the senses, thoughts and actions. Celibacywas important to Gandhi for not only purifying himself of any lustand sexual urges, but also to purify his lovefor his wife as genuine and not an outlet for any turmoil or aggression within his mind. Ahimsa, or non-violence, was another key tenet of Gandhi's beliefs. He held that total non-violence would rid a person of anger, obsession and destructive impulses. While his vegetarianismwas inspired by his rearing in the Hindu- Jainculture of Gujarat, it was also an extension of ahimsa.
On July 6, 1940, Gandhi published an article in "
Harijan" which applied these philosophies to the question of British involvement in World War II. Homer Jack notes in his reprint of this article, "To Every Briton" (" [http://books.google.com/books?id=XpWO-GoOhVEC&pg=PR13&lpg=PR11&dq=The+Gandhi+Reader:+A+Sourcebook+of+His+Life+and+Writings&sig=mu7B1to2ve7qqIYNmXQMd5jifsY#PPR14,M1 The Gandhi Reader] ") that, "to Gandhi, all war was wrong, and suddenly it 'came to him like a flash' to appeal to the British to adopt the method of non-violence." [Jack, Homer. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=XpWO-GoOhVEC&pg=PR13&lpg=PR11&dq=The+Gandhi+Reader:+A+Sourcebook+of+His+Life+and+Writings&sig=mu7B1to2ve7qqIYNmXQMd5jifsY#PPR14,M1The Gandhi Reader] ", p.344] In this article, Gandhi stated,
:I appeal to every Briton, wherever he may be now, to accept the method of non-violence instead of that of war, for the adjustment of relations between nations and other matters [...] I do not want Briton to be defeated, nor do I want her to be victorious in a trial of brute strength [...] I venture to present you with a nobler and braver way worthier of the bravest soldier. I want you to fight Nazism without arms, or, if I am to maintain military terminology, with non-violent arms. I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity. You will invite Herr Hitler and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions. Let them take possession of your beautiful island, with your many beautiful buildings. You will give all these but neither your souls, nor your minds. If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes, you will vacate them. If they do not give you free passage out, you will allow yourself, man, woman, and child, to be slaughtered, but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them [...] my non-violence demands universal love, and you are not a small part of it. It is that love which has prompted my appeal to you. [Jack, Homer. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=XpWO-GoOhVEC&pg=PR13&lpg=PR11&dq=The+Gandhi+Reader:+A+Sourcebook+of+His+Life+and+Writings&sig=mu7B1to2ve7qqIYNmXQMd5jifsY#PPR14,M1The Gandhi Reader] ", pp.345-6]
Gandhi espoused an economic theory of self-sufficiency and simplicity. He envisioned a more agrarian India upon independence that would focus on meeting the material needs of its citizenry prior to generating wealth and industrializing.
Gandhi also adopted the clothing style of most Indians in the early 20th century. His adoption of
khadi, or homespun cloth, was intended to help eradicate the evils of poverty, social and economic discrimination. It was also aimed as a challenge to the contrast that he saw between most Indians, who were poor and traditional, and the richer classes of educated, liberal-minded Indians who had adopted Western mannerisms, clothing and practices.
The clothing policy was designed to protest against the violence of British economic policies in India. Millions of poor Indian workers had been left unemployed and entrenched in poverty, owing to the industrialisation of cotton processing in Britain. Gandhi promoted khadi as a direct boycott of the Lancashire cotton industry, linking British imperialism to Indian poverty. He focused on persuading all members of the
Indian National Congressto spend some time each day hand-spinning on the charkha(spinning wheel). In addition to its point as an economic campaign, the drive for hand-spinning was an attempt to connect the privileged Indian brahminsand lawyers of Congress to connect with the mass of Indian peasantry.
Many prominent figures of the
Indian independence movement, including Motilal Nehru, were persuaded by Gandhi to renounce their smart London-made clothes in favour of khadi.
fastingwas an important method of exerting mental control over base desires. In his autobiography, Gandhi analyzes the need to fast to eradicate his desire for delicious, spicy food. He believed that abstention would diminish his sensual faculties, bringing the body increasingly under the mind's absolute control. Gandhi was opposed to the partaking of meat, alcohol, stimulants, salt and most spices, and also eliminated different types of cooking from the food he ate.
Fasting would also put the body through unusual hardship, which Gandhi believed would cleanse the spirit by stimulating the courage to withstand all impulses and pain. Gandhi undertook a "Fast Unto Death" on three notable occasions:
*when he wanted to stop all revolutionary activities after the
Chauri Chauraincident of 1922;
*when he feared that the 1934 communal award giving separate electorates to Untouchable Hindus would politically divide the
*and in 1947, when he wanted to stop the bloodshed between Hindus and Muslims in
In all three cases, Gandhi was able to abandon his fast before death. There was some controversy over the 1934 fast, which brought him into conflict with the Untouchable leader
B.R. Ambedkar. In the end, Gandhi and Ambedkar both made some concessions to negotiate the Poona Pact, which abandoned the call for separate electorates in turn for voluntary representation and a commitment to abolish untouchability.
Gandhi also used the fasts as a penance, blaming himself for inciting
Chauri Chauraand the divisive communal politics of both 1934 and 1947, especially the Partition of India. Gandhi sought to purify his soul and expiate his sins, in what he saw as his role in allowing terrible tragedies to happen. It took a heavy toll on his physical health and often brought him close to death.
Bhagavad Gita, Dharma, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Christian anarchism"
Hindu Universalism (also see Universalism) denotes the ideology that all religions are true and therefore worthy of toleration and respect. It was articulated by Gandhi:
"After long study and experience, I have come to the conclusion that  all religions are true;  all religions have some error in them;  all religions are almost as dear to me as my own Hinduism, in as much as all human beings should be as dear to one as one's own close relatives. My own veneration for other faiths is the same as that for my own faith; therefore no thought of conversion is possible." (M. K. Gandhi, All Men Are Brothers: Life and Thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi as told in his own words, Paris, UNESCO 1958, p 60.)
Gandhi believed that at the core of every religion was truth (satya), non-violence (ahimsa) and the Golden Rule. He was deeply influenced by the Christian teaching of "
turning the other cheek", once stating that if Christianitypractised the Sermon on the Mount, he would indeed be a Christian. Gandhi felt that one should be aware of worshipping the symbols and idols of the religion and not its teachings, such as worshipping the crucifix whilst ignoring its significance as a symbol for self-sacrifice.
Although Gandhi was raised as a
Hinduhe was critical of most religions, including Hinduism. He wrote in his autobiography:
"Thus if I could not accept Christianity either as a perfect, or the greatest religion, neither was I then convinced of Hinduism being such. Hindu defects were pressingly visible to me. If
untouchabilitycould be a part of Hinduism, it could but be a rotten part or an excrescence. I could not understand the raison d'etre of a multitude of sects and castes. What was the meaning of saying that the Vedaswere the inspired Word of God? If they were inspired, why not also the Bibleand the Koran? As Christian friends were endeavouring to convert me, so were Muslim friends. Abdullah Sheth had kept on inducing me to study Islam, and of course he had always something to say regarding its beauty"." Fact|date=July 2007
He then went on to say:
"As soon as we lose the moral basis, we cease to be religious. There is no such thing as religion over-riding morality. Man, for instance, cannot be untruthful, cruel or incontinent and claim to have God on his side"." Fact|date=July 2007
Gandhi was critical of the hypocrisy in organised religion, rather than the principles on which they were based. He also said the following about Hinduism:
Hinduismas I know it entirely satisfies my soul, fills my whole being... When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon, I turn to the Bhagavad Gita, and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow. My life has been full of tragedies and if they have not left any visible and indelible effect on me, I owe it to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita"."Fact|date=July 2007
The concept of Islamic
jihadcan also be taken to mean a nonviolent struggle or satyagraha, in the way Gandhi practiced it. On Islamhe said:
"The sayings of
Muhammadare a treasure of wisdom, not only for Muslims but for all of mankind". "Fact|date=July 2007Later in his life when he was asked whether he was a Hindu, he replied:
"Yes I am. I am also a
Christian, a Muslim, a Buddhistand a Jew"." Fact|date=July 2007
Gandhi's religious views are reflected in the hymns his group often sang:
Vaishnav jan toCall them Vishnava, those who understand the sufferings of others...
Raghupati Raghava Raja RamCall him Ramaor God or Allah...
Gandhi was assassinated in 1948, but his teachings and philosophy would play a major role in
India's economic and social development and foreign relations for decades to come.
Sarvodaya" is a term meaning 'universal uplift' or 'progress of all'. It was coined by the Gandhian leader Vinoba Bhaveto refer to the struggle of post-independence Gandhians to ensure that self-determination and equality reached the masses and the downtrodden. Sarvodaya workers associated with Vinoba, including Jaya Prakash Narayanand Dada Dharmadhikari, undertook various projects aimed at encouraging popular self-organisation during the 1950s and 1960s. Many groups descended from these networks continue to function locally in India today.
While the problem of the desperate poverty of tens of millions of landless farmers across the country had to be addressed, Gandhi did not believe that class warfare was inevitable, as
Lenin, Mao Zedongand Stalindid. Bhave and other Gandhi disciples organized the Bhoodancampaign encouraging landlords across the country to award land to their farmers. They were encouraged to acknowledge the desperate poverty and mistreatment of these farmers, to accept them as fellow Indians and their brethren. This peaceful land distribution program was frowned upon by supporters of free-market economics, the Communists and socialists alike, but did enjoy notable successes.Fact|date=February 2007
Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, was often considered Gandhi's successor, although he was not religious and often disagreed with Gandhi. He was, however, deeply influenced by Gandhi personally as well as politically, and used his premiership to pursue ideological policies based on Gandhi's principles.
Nehru's foreign policy was staunch anti-
colonialismand neutrality in the Cold War. Nehru backed the independence movement in Tanzaniaand other Africannations, as well as the American Civil Rights Movement led by Martin Luther King Jr.and the anti-apartheid struggle of Nelson Mandelaand the African National Congressin South Africa. Nehru refused to align with either the United Statesor the Soviet Union, and helped found the Non-Aligned Movement.
Nehru also pushed through major legislation that granted legal rights and freedoms to Indian women, and outlawed
untouchabilityand many different kinds of social discrimination, in the face of strong opposition from orthodox Hindus.
Not all of Nehru's policies were Gandhian. Nehru refused to condemn the
USSR's 1956-57 invasion of Hungaryto put down an anti-communist, popular revolt. Some of his economic policies were criticised for removing the right of property and freedoms from the landowing peasants of Gujaratfor whom Gandhi had fought for in the early 1920s. Nehru's socialism sometimes conflicted with Gandhism.
Nehru's biggest failure is often considered to be the 1962
Sino-Indian War, though his policy is said to have been inspired by Gandhian pacifism. In this instance, it led to the defeat of the Indian Armyagainst a surprise Chinese invasion. Nehru had neglected the defence budget and disallowed the Army to prepare, which caught the soldiers in India's north eastern frontier off-guard with lack of supplies and reinforcements.
Apartheid, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, American Civil Rights Movement"
Gandhi's deep commitment and disciplined belief in non-violent civil disobedience as a way to oppose tyranny, oppression and injustice has inspired many subsequent political figures, including
Martin Luther King Jr.of the United States, Julius Nyerereof Tanzania, Nelson Mandelaand Steve Bikoof South Africa, Lech Wałęsaof Polandand Aung San Suu Kyiof Myanmar.
Gandhi's early life work in
South Africabetween the years 1910 and 1915, for the rights of Indian residents oppressed by the racist, white minority South African regime inspired the later work of the African National Congress. From the 1950s, the ANC organized non-violent civil disobedience akin to the campaign advanced by the Indian National Congressunder the inspiration of Gandhi between the 1920s and 1940s. ANC activists braved the sticks and bullets of the police, water-hoses, tear gas and dogs to protest against tyranny, racism and oppression in South Africa. Many, especially Mandela, languished for decades in jail, while the world outside was divided in its effort to remove apartheid. Steve Biko, perhaps the most vocal adherent to non-violent civil resistance, was allegedly murdered in 1977 by agents of the regime.
When the first universal, free elections were held in South Africa in 1994, the ANC was elected and Mandela became President. Mandela made a special visit to
Indiaand publicly honored Gandhi as the man who inspired the freedom struggle of black South Africans. Statues of Gandhi have been erected in Natal, Pretoriaand Johannesburg. Martin Luther King Jr., a young Christian minister and leader of the American Civil Rights Movement seeking the liberation of African Americansfrom racial segregation in the American South, and also from economic and social injustice and political disenfranchisement, traveled to India in 1962 to meet Jawaharlal Nehru. The two discussed Gandhi's teachings, and the methodology of organizing peaceful resistance. The graphic imagery of black protestors being hounded by police, beaten and brutalized, evoked admiration for King and the protestors across America and the world, and precipitated the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Solidaritymovement of Lech Wałęsaof Polandoverthrew a Soviet-backed communist government after two decades of peaceful resistance and strikes in 1989, beginning the downfall of the Soviet Communist empire. Myanmar's Aung San Suu Kyiremains under house arrest, and her National League for Democracysuppressed in their non-violent quest for democracy and freedom in military-controlled Myanmar. This struggle was inaugurated when the military dismissed the results of the 1991 democratic elections and imposed military rule.
"Without truth, nothing"
Mohandas Gandhi's early life was a series of personal struggles to decipher the truth about life's important issues and discover the true way of living. He admitted in his autobiography to beating his young wife, and indulging in carnal pleasures out of lust, jealousy and possessiveness, not genuine love. He had eaten meat, smoked a cigarette, and almost visited a prostitute. It was only after much personal turmoil and repeated failures that Gandhi developed his philosophy.
Gandhi disliked having a cult following, and was averse to being addressed as "
Mahatma", claiming that he was not a perfect human being.
In 1942, while he had already condemned
Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussoliniand the Japanese militarists, Gandhi took on an offensive in civil resistance, called the Quit India Movement, which was even more dangerous and definitive owing to its direct call for Indian independence. Gandhi did not see the British as defenders of freedom giving their continuance of imperialist domination in India. He did not feel a need to take sides with world powers.
Gandhism is brutal adherence to truth. If it means condemning the practice of
untouchabilityin Hindu society, it means condemning the victimization of Muslim women and coerced conversions to Islam and Christianity in the same breath. Gandhism has no respect for power. No institution or individual is infallible, save God.
Gandhi believed that all humans are susceptible to sinful actions and behavior, and the worst of dictators were essentially the same despite the difference in their lives, beliefs and actions. Despite this, he held firmly that humans had no right to punish each other. He believed punishment to be the responsibility of God.
Despite Gandhi's adherence to Hindu cultural and religious values, Gandhism is broad over everything save the truth, which is definite and inviolable. There have been
MuslimGandhians, such as Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, known as the "Frontier Gandhi"; ChristianGandhians, such as Horace Alexander; JewishGandhians, such as Herman Kallenbach; and atheistGandhians, such as Jawaharlal Nehru.
To become a Gandhian, one must set upon the same personal journey to seek truth and build one's life around it. It is not necessary to arrive at the same conclusions as Gandhi. But undergoing personal challenges, travails and the testing of one's spirit, resolve and fundamental values is a definitive element.
Criticism and controversy
Partition of India, Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi"
ahimsaimplies pacifism, and is thus a source of criticism from across the political spectrum.
Concept of partition
As a rule, Gandhi was opposed to the concept of partition as it contradicted his vision of religious unity. [ reprinted in " [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0394714660/ The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas] .", Louis Fischer, ed., 2002 (reprint edition) pp. 106–108.] Of the partition of India to create Pakistan, he wrote in "
Harijan" on 06 October 1946:
: [The demand for Pakistan] as put forth by the Moslem League is un-Islamic and I have not hesitated to call it sinful. Islam stands for unity and the brotherhood of mankind, not for disrupting the oneness of the human family. Therefore, those who want to divide India into possibly warring groups are enemies alike of India and Islam. They may cut me into pieces but they cannot make me subscribe to something which I consider to be wrong [...] we must not cease to aspire, in spite of [the] wild talk, to befriend all Moslems and hold them fast as prisoners of our love. [ reprinted in " [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0394714660/ The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas] ."Louis Fischer, ed., 2002 (reprint edition) pp. 308–9.]
However, as Homer Jack notes of Gandhi's long correspondence with Jinnah on the topic of Pakistan: "Although Gandhi was personally opposed to the partition of India, he proposed an agreement [...] which provided that the Congress and the Moslem League would cooperate to attain independence under a provisional government, after which the question of partition would be decided by a plebiscite in the districts having a Moslem majority." [Jack, Homer. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=XpWO-GoOhVEC&pg=PR13&lpg=PR11&dq=The+Gandhi+Reader:+A+Sourcebook+of+His+Life+and+Writings&sig=mu7B1to2ve7qqIYNmXQMd5jifsY The Gandhi Reader] ", p. 418.]
These dual positions on the topic of the partition of India opened Gandhi up to criticism from both Hindus and Muslims.
Muhammad Ali Jinnahand contemporary Pakistanis condemned Gandhi for undermining Muslim political rights. Vinayak Damodar Savarkarand his allies condemned Gandhi, accusing him of politically appeasing Muslims while turning a blind eye to their atrocities against Hindus, and for allowing the creation of Pakistan (despite having publicly declared that "before partitioning India, my body will have to be cut into two pieces" ["The life and death of Mahatma Gandhi", on BBC News [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/50664.stm] , see section "Independence and partition."] ). In contemporary times, Marxist academicians like Ayesha Jalalblame Gandhi and the Congress for being unwilling to share power with Muslims and thus hastening partition. Hindus such as Pravin Togadiaand Narendra Modihave also criticized Gandhi's leadership and actions on this topic. Gandhi also came under some political fire for his criticism of those who attempted to achieve independence through more violent means. His refusal to protest against the hanging of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Udham Singhand Rajguruwere sources of condemnation among some parties. [ [http://www.kamat.com/mmgandhi/onbhagatsingh.htm Mahatama Gandhi on Bhagat Singh] .] [ [http://india_resource.tripod.com/gandhi.html Gandhi - 'Mahatma' or Flawed Genius?] .] Economists, such as Jagdish Bhagwati, have [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-150092,curpg-2.cms criticized] Gandhi's ideas of swadeshi.
Of this criticism, Gandhi stated, "There was a time when people listened to me because I showed them how to give fight to the British without arms when they had no arms [...] but today I am told that my non-violence can be of no avail against the [Hindu-Moslem riots] and, therefore, people should arm themselves for self-defense." [ reprinted in " [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0394714660/ The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas] .", Louis Fischer, ed., 2002 (reprint edition) p. 311.]
Gandhi also expressed his dislike for partition during the late 1930s in response to the topic of the partition of Palestine to create Israel. He stated in "Harijan" on
26 October 1938:
:Several letters have been received by me asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and persecution of the Jews in Germany. It is not without hesitation that I venture to offer my views on this very difficult question. My sympathies are all with the Jews. I have known them intimately in South Africa. Some of them became life-long companions. Through these friends I came to learn much of their age-long persecution. They have been the untouchables of Christianity [...] But my sympathy does not blind me to the requirements of justice. The cry for the national home for the Jews does not make much appeal to me. The sanction for it is sought in the Bible and the tenacity with which the Jews have hankered after return to Palestine. Why should they not, like other peoples of the earth, make that country their home where they are born and where they earn their livelihood? Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs. What is going on in Palestine today cannot be justified by any moral code of conduct. [ reprinted in " [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0394714660/ The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas] .", Louis Fischer, ed., 2002 (reprint edition) pp. 286-288.] [ [http://lists.ifas.ufl.edu/cgi-bin/wa.exe?A2=ind0109&L=sanet-mg&P=31587. SANET-MG Archives - September 2001 (#303) ] ]
He continued this argument in a number of articles reprinted in Homer Jack's " [http://books.google.com/books?id=XpWO-GoOhVEC&pg=PR13&lpg=PR11&dq=The+Gandhi+Reader:+A+Sourcebook+of+His+Life+and+Writings&sig=mu7B1to2ve7qqIYNmXQMd5jifsY The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings] ." In the first, "Zionism and Anti-Semitism," written in 1938, Gandhi commented upon the 1930s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of
Satyagraha. He offered non-violence as a method of combating the difficulties Jews faced in Germany, stating,
:If I were a Jew and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there, I would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest Gentile German might, and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon; I would refuse to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment. And for doing this I should not wait for the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance, but would have confidence that in the end the rest were bound to follow my example. If one Jew or all the Jews were to accept the prescription here offered, he or they cannot be worse off than now. And suffering voluntarily undergone will bring them an inner strength and joy [...] the calculated violence of Hitler may even result in a general massacre of the Jews by way of his first answer to the declaration of such hostilities. But if the Jewish mind could be prepared for voluntary suffering, even the massacre I have imagined could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant. For to the God-fearing, death has no terror. [Jack, Homer. " [http://books.google.com/books?id=XpWO-GoOhVEC&pg=PR13&lpg=PR11&dq=The+Gandhi+Reader:+A+Sourcebook+of+His+Life+and+Writings&sig=mu7B1to2ve7qqIYNmXQMd5jifsY The Gandhi Reader] ", pp. 319–20.]
Gandhi was highly criticized for these statements and responded in the article "Questions on the Jews" with "Friends have sent me two newspaper cuttings criticizing my appeal to the Jews. The two critics suggest that in presenting non-violence to the Jews as a remedy against the wrong done to them, I have suggested nothing new....what I have pleaded for is renunciation of violence of the heart and consequent active exercise of the force generated by the great renunciation. [ Jack, Homer. "The Gandhi Reader", p. 322.] He responded to the criticisms in "Reply to Jewish Friends" [ Jack, Homer. "The Gandhi Reader", pp. 323–4.] and "Jews and Palestine." [ Jack, Homer "The Gandhi Reader", pp. 324–6.] by arguing that "What I have pleaded for is renunciation of violence of the heart and consequent active exercise of the force generated by the great renunciation." [ Jack, Homer. "The Gandhi Reader", p. 322.]
author = Dutta, Dadage, M. S. Mishra
title = Fundamentals of Gandhism
publisher = Mittal Publications
year = 1995
isbn = 978-8170996064
* Fischer, Louis. " [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0394714660/ The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas] ." Vintage: New York, 2002. (reprint edition) ISBN 1-4000-3050-1
last = Jack
first = Homer
title = " [http://books.google.com/books?id=XpWO-GoOhVEC&pg=PR13&lpg=PR11&dq=The+Gandhi+Reader:+A+Sourcebook+of+His+Life+and+Writings&sig=mu7B1to2ve7qqIYNmXQMd5jifsY#PPP1,M1 The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings.] "
publisher = Grove Press
year = 1956
isbn = 0-8021-3161-1
last = Narayan
first = Shriman
title = Relevance of Gandhian economics
publisher = Navajivan Publishing House
year = 1970
id = ASIN B0006CDLA8
last = Pani
first = Narendar
title = Inclusive Economics: Gandhian Method and Contemporary Policy
publisher = Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd.
year = 2002
isbn = 978-0761995807
last = Sharma
first = R.
title = Gandhian economics
publisher = Deep and Deep Publications Pvt. Ltd.
year = 1997
isbn = 978-8171009862
last = Weber
first = Thomas
title = Gandhi, Gandhism and the Gandhians
publisher = Roli Books Pvt. Ltd.
year = 2006
isbn = 8174364684
* [http://www.mkgandhi.org/philosophy/gandhiphil.htm Gandhian Philosophy in Short]
* [http://bahai-library.org/books/gandhi/node9.html Gandhian ideals]
* [http://www.fredsakademiet.dk/library/kumar/kumar4.htm Relevance of Gandhism in Modern Polity]
* [http://www.mkgandhi.org/articles/trusteeship.htm Gandhian Trusteeship as an "Instrument of Human Dignity"]
* [http://www.peacemagazine.org/archive/v14n2p28.htm Review of "Gandhian economics"]
* [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1249762.cms Gandhian economics is relevant]
* [http://www.iop.or.jp/0414/kawada.pdf Gandhism and Buddhism PDF]
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