Urban park


Urban park
Central Park, the most visited urban park in the United States, is surrounded by the skyscrapers of New York City.
The Dinosaurs Valley (reconstructions of prehistoric reptiles) within Silesian Culture and Recreation Park in Poland's Upper-Silesian Metropolis.

An urban park, is also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space or municipal gardens (United Kingdom), is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality. The design, operation and maintenance is usually done by government, typically on the local level, but may occasionally be contracted out to a private sector company.

Common features of municipal parks include playgrounds, gardens, hiking, running and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths, sports field and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps and/or picnic facilities, depending on the budget and natural features available.

Contents

History

In The Politics of Park Design: A History of Urban Parks in America, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982), Professor Galen Cranz identifies four phases of park design in the U.S. In the late 19th century, large tracts of land on the outskirts of cities were purchased by city governments to create "pleasure grounds": semi-open, charmingly landscaped areas whose primary purpose was to allow city residents, especially the workers, to relax in nature. As time passed and the urban area grew around the parks, land in these parks was used for other purposes, such as zoos, golf courses and museums. These parks continue to draw visitors from around the region and are considered regional parks, because they require a higher level of management than smaller local parks. According to the Trust for Public Land, the three most visited municipal parks in the United States are Central Park in New York, Lincoln Park in Chicago, Mission Bay Park in San Diego.[1] Other famous urban parks include Monsanto Forest Park (the largest in Europe) in Lisbon, Portugal, Richmond Park in London, UK and Stanley Park in Vancouver, Canada.

In the early 1900s, according to Cranz, U.S. cities built neighborhood parks with swimming pools, playgrounds and civic buildings, with the intention of Americanizing the immigrant residents. In the 1950s, when money became available after World War II, new parks continued to focus on both outdoor and indoor recreation with services, such as sports leagues using their ball fields and gymnasia. These smaller parks were built in residential neighborhoods, and tried to serve all residents with programs for seniors, adults, teens and children. Green space was of secondary importance.

As urban land prices climbed, new urban parks in the 1960s and after have been mainly pocket parks. These small parks provide greenery, a place to sit outdoors, and often a playground for children.

All four types of park continue to exist in urban areas. Because of the large amount of open space and natural habitat in the former pleasure grounds, they now serve as important wildlife refuges, and often provide the only opportunity for urban residents to hike or picnic in a semi-wild area. However, these parks can be targeted by city managers or politicians as sources of free land for other uses. Partly for this reason, some of these large parks have "friends of X park" advisory boards that help protect and maintain their semi-wild nature.

Urban parks by size

Note: 1,000-acre (400 ha)
City Park Size (acres)
Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa Table Mountain National Park[2] 60,070 acres (24,310 ha)[3]
Moscow, Moscow, Russia Losiny Ostrov National Park[4] 28,717 acres (11,621 ha)
Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Sanjay Gandhi National Park 25,700 acres (10,400 ha)
El Paso, Texas, USA Franklin Mountains State Park 23,909 acres (9,676 ha)
New Orleans, Louisiana, USA Bayou Sauvage National Wildlife Refuge 22,770 acres (9,210 ha)
Phoenix, Arizona, USA South Mountain Park 16,094 acres (6,513 ha)
Scottsdale, Arizona, USA McDowell Sonoran Preserve 11,250 acres (4,550 ha)
Houston, Texas, USA Cullen Park 9,270 acres (3,750 ha)
Los Angeles, California, USA Topanga State Park 8,960 acres (3,630 ha)
Jacksonville, Florida, USA Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve 7,870 acres (3,180 ha)
Houston, Texas, USA George Bush Park 7,800 acres (3,200 ha)
Phoenix, Arizona, USA North Mountain Preserve 7,500 acres (3,000 ha)
New York City, New York, USA Gateway National Recreation Area (part) 7,138 acres (2,889 ha)
San Jose, California, USA Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge (part) 6,800 acres (2,800 ha)
Louisville, Kentucky, USA Jefferson Memorial Forest 6,011 acres (2,433 ha)
Eufaula, Alabama, USA Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge (part) 6,000 acres (2,400 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Mission Trails Regional Park 5,840 acres (2,360 ha)
Raleigh, North Carolina, USA William B. Umstead State Park 5,579 acres (2,258 ha)
Moscow, Moscow, Russia Bitsa Park 5,457 acres (2,208 ha)
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Ahupuaʻa O Kahana State Park 5,229 acres (2,116 ha)
Portland, Oregon, USA Forest Park 5,157 acres (2,087 ha)
Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Eagle Creek Park and Golf Course 4,766 acres (1,929 ha)
Memphis, Tennessee, USA Shelby Farms 4,500 acres (1,800 ha)
Anchorage, Alaska, USA Far North Bicentennial Park 4,500 acres (1,800 ha)
Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA False Cape State Park and Natural Area Preserve 4,321 acres (1,749 ha)
Madrid, Community of Madrid, Spain Casa de Campo 4,256 acres (1,722 ha)
Los Angeles, California, USA Griffith Park 4,217 acres (1,707 ha)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Fairmount Park proper[5] 4,167 acres (1,686 ha)
Jacksonville, Florida, USA Pumpkin Hill Creek Preserve 3,896 acres (1,577 ha)
Austin, Texas, USA Walter E. Long Park 3,715 acres (1,503 ha)
Chico, California, USA Bidwell Park 3,670 acres (1,490 ha)
Fort Worth, Texas, USA Fort Worth Nature Center/Wildlife Refuge 3,662 acres (1,482 ha)
Dallas, Texas, USA Mountain Creek Lake Park 3,643 acres (1,474 ha)
Kingsport, Tennessee, USA Bays Mountain Park 3,585 acres (1,451 ha)
Meridian, Mississippi, USA Bonita Lakes Park 3,462 acres (1,401 ha)
Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA North Landing River State Natural Area Preserve 3,440 acres (1,390 ha)
Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA First Landing State Park 3,410 acres (1,380 ha)
Calgary, Alberta, Canada Fish Creek Provincial Park 3,331 acres (1,348 ha)
Dallas, Texas, USA Trinity River Park 3,173 acres (1,284 ha)
Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA Mohawk Park and Golf Course 3,100 acres (1,300 ha)
Brecksville, Ohio, USA Brecksville Reservation (part) 3,026 acres (1,225 ha)
Jacksonville, Florida, USA Cecil Field Greenway 2,866 acres (1,160 ha)
Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil Cocó Park 2,855 acres (1,155 ha)
Calgary, Alberta, Canada Nose Hill Park 2,785 acres (1,127 ha)
Bronx, New York, USA Pelham Bay Park 2,765 acres (1,119 ha)
Newport News, Virginia, USA Newport News Park (part) 2,688 acres (1,088 ha)
Louisville, Kentucky, USA Otter Creek Park[6] 2,600 acres (1,100 ha)
Lisbon, Portugal Monsanto Forest Park 2,471 acres (1,000 ha)
Paris, France Bois de Vincennes 2,456 acres (994 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Los Penasquitos Canyon 2,405 acres (973 ha)
Birmingham, England, UK Sutton Park 2,400 acres (970 ha)
Kansas City, Missouri, USA Longview Lake Park (part) 2,381 acres (964 ha)
London, England, UK Richmond Park 2,360 acres (960 ha)
Kansas City, Missouri, USA Blue River Parkway 2,319 acres (938 ha)
Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada Wascana Centre 2,300 acres (930 ha)[7]
Strongsville, Ohio, USA Mill Stream Run Reservation (part) 2,238 acres (906 ha)
Lee's Summit, Missouri, USA Fleming Park (part) 2,229 acres (902 ha)
Bristol, Tennessee, USA Steele Creek Park 2,224 acres (900 ha)
Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada Rockwood Park 2,200 acres (890 ha)[8]
Houston, Texas, USA Bear Creek Pioneers Park 2,168 acres (877 ha)
Paris, France Bois de Boulogne 2,090 acres (850 ha)
Berkeley, California, California, USA Tilden Regional Park 2,077 acres (841 ha)
Nashville, Tennessee, USA Warner Parks 2,058 acres (833 ha)
Los Angeles, California, USA Sepulveda Basin Recreation Area 2,031 acres (822 ha)
Galveston, Texas, Texas, USA Galveston Island State Park 2,013 acres (815 ha)
Belgrade, Serbia Ada Ciganlija 1,976 acres (800 ha)
Portland, Oregon, USA Smith and Bybee Wetlands Natural Area 1,973 acres (798 ha)
Dallas, Texas, USA White Rock Lake Park 1,952 acres (790 ha)
Kansas City, Missouri, USA Swope Park 1,805 acres (730 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Torrey Pines State Reserve 1,800 acres (730 ha)
San Jose, California, USA Calero County Park 1,782 acres (721 ha)
Staten Island, New York, USA Greenbelt Park 1,778 acres (720 ha)
Austin, Texas, USA Barton Creek Greenway 1,771 acres (717 ha)
Jacksonville, Florida, USA Little Talbot Island State Park 1,768 acres (715 ha)
Dublin, Ireland Phoenix Park 1,760 acres (710 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Mission Bay Park 1,756 acres (711 ha)
Washington, D.C., USA Rock Creek Park 1,754 acres (710 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Tijuana River Valley Regional Park 1,710 acres (690 ha)
Jacksonville, Florida, USA Big Talbot Island State Park 1,708 acres (691 ha)
North Little Rock, Arkansas, USA Burns Park 1,700 acres (690 ha)[9]
Mexico City, Mexico Chapultepec Park 1,695 acres (686 ha)
Lawrence, Indiana, USA Fort Harrison State Park 1,640 acres (660 ha)
Eureka Springs, Arkansas, USA Lake Leatherwood Park 1,620 acres (660 ha)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Pennypack Park 1,618 acres (655 ha)
Claremont, California, USA Claremont Hills Wilderness Park 1,589 acres (643 ha)
Upper-Silesian Metropolis, Silesia, Poland Silesian Culture and Recreation Park 1,532 acres (620 ha)
Phoenix, Arizona, USA Adobe Dam Recreation Area 1,526 acres (618 ha)
Riverside, California, USA Hidden Valley Wildlife Area 1,510 acres (610 ha)
Des Moines, Iowa, USA Water Works Park 1,500 acres (610 ha)
Vienna, Austria Prater 1,500 acres (610 ha)
Nashville, Tennessee, USA Beaman Park 1,493 acres (604 ha)
San Francisco, California, USA Presidio of San Francisco Park 1,491 acres (603 ha)
Lincoln, Nebraska, USA Wilderness Park 1,472 acres (596 ha)
Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Mt. Airy Forest 1,471 acres (595 ha)
Houston, Texas, USA Memorial Park 1,466 acres (593 ha)
Omaha, Nebraska, USA Glenn Cunningham Lake 1,439 acres (582 ha)
Los Angeles, California, USA Hansen Dam Recreation Center 1,437 acres (582 ha)
Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA Stumpy Lake Park 1,435 acres (581 ha)
Lee's Summit, Missouri, USA Longview Lake Park (part) 1,429 acres (578 ha)
Riverside, California, USA Sycamore Canyon Wilderness Park 1,424 acres (576 ha)
Anchorage, Alaska, USA Kincaid Park 1,411 acres (571 ha)
Munich, Bavaria, Germany Englischer Garten 1,400 acres (570 ha)
San Antonio, Texas, USA Rancho Diana 1,392 acres (563 ha)
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Sacred Falls State Park 1,374 acres (556 ha)
Huntersville, North Carolina, USA Latta Plantation Nature Preserve 1,343 acres (543 ha)
Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA Garden of the Gods Park 1,319 acres (534 ha)
New Orleans, Louisana, USA New Orleans City Park 1,300 acres (530 ha)
St. Louis, Missouri, USA Forest Park 1,293 acres (523 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Black Mountain Park 1,284 acres (520 ha)
Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA North Cheyenne Canyon Park 1,260 acres (510 ha)
Queens, New York, USA Flushing Meadows – Corona Park 1,255 acres (508 ha)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada Tommy Thompson Park 1,235 acres (500 ha)
Oakland, California, USA Martin Luther King, Jr. Shoreline Park 1,220 acres (490 ha)
Chicago, Illinois, USA Lincoln Park 1,216 acres (492 ha)
Washington, D.C., USA Anacostia Park 1,215 acres (492 ha)
Phoenix, Arizona, USA Cave Buttes Recreation Area I & II 1,200 acres (490 ha)
Baltimore, Maryland, USA Gwynns Falls/Leakin Park 1,200 acres (490 ha)
Jersey City, New Jersey, USA Liberty State Park 1,188 acres (481 ha)
Glendale, Arizona, USA Thunderbird Conservation Park 1,185 acres (480 ha)
Tallahassee, Florida, USA McClay Gardens State Park 1,179 acres (477 ha)
Columbus, Ohio, USA Three Creeks Parks 1,156 acres (468 ha)
Bronx, New York, USA Van Cortlandt Park 1,146 acres (464 ha)
Mesa, Arizona, USA Red Mountain Park 1,144 acres (463 ha)
Lincoln, Nebraska, USA Pioneers Park 1,139 acres (461 ha)
Memphis, Tennessee, USA T.O. Fuller State Park 1,138 acres (461 ha)
Austin, Texas, USA Emma Long Park 1,137 acres (460 ha)
Huntsville, Alabama, USA Monte Sano Nature Preserve 1,107 acres (448 ha)
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Assiniboine Park 1,100 acres (450 ha)
Detroit, Michigan, USA Rouge Park 1,100 acres (450 ha)
London, England, UK Bushy Park 1,099 acres (445 ha)
Charlotte, North Carolina, USA McDowell Nature Preserve 1,098 acres (444 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Balboa Park 1,091 acres (442 ha)
Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA Cheyenne Mountain State Park 1,060 acres (430 ha)
Bedford, Ohio, USA Bedford Reservation (part) 1,033 acres (418 ha)
Dallas, Texas, USA Rochester Park 1,032 acres (418 ha)
Arlington, Texas, USA River Legacy Park 1,031 acres (417 ha)
San Francisco, California, USA Golden Gate Park 1,027 acres (416 ha)
San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico Parque Tangamanga I 1,015 acres (411 ha)
Birmingham, Alabama, USA Ruffner Mountain Park 1,011 acres (409 ha)
San Antonio, Texas, USA Olmos Basin 1,010 acres (410 ha)
Willoughby Hills, Ohio, USA North Chagrin Reservation (part) 1,004 acres (406 ha)
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Stanley Park 1,000 acres (400 ha)
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA Stinchcomb Wildlife Refuge 988 acres (400 ha)
Staten Island, New York, USA Richmond Parkway 984 acres (398 ha)
Detroit, Michigan, USA Belle Isle Park 982 acres (397 ha)
Greensboro, North Carolina, USA Bryan Park 980 acres (400 ha)
Morgan Hill, California, USA Anderson Lake County Park]] 975 acres (395 ha)[10]
Huntsville, Alabama, USA Blevins Gap Nature Preserve 971 acres (393 ha)
Kansas City, Missouri, USA Riverfront Park 955 acres (386 ha)
Grandview, Missouri, USA Longview Lake Park (part) 952 acres (385 ha)
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Koko Head Regional Park 951 acres (385 ha)
East Meadow, New York, USA Eisenhower Park 930 acres (380 ha)
Walton Hills, Ohio, USA Bedford Reservation (part) 924 acres (374 ha)
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Centennial Parklands 900 acres (360 ha)
San Diego, California, USA San Diego National Wildlife Refuge Complex 900 acres (360 ha)
Phoenix, Arizona, USA Papago Park 895 acres (362 ha)
Raleigh, North Carolina, USA Lake Wheeler Park 869 acres (352 ha)
San Antonio, Texas, USA McAllister Park 856 acres (346 ha)
Long Beach, California, USA El Dorado Park 850 acres (340 ha)
Buffalo, New York, USA Delaware Park 846 acres (342 ha)
Huntsville, Alabama, USA Wade Mountain Nature Preserve 843 acres (341 ha)
Manhattan, New York, USA Central Park 840 acres (340 ha)
San Antonio, Texas, USA San Antonio Missions National Historical Park 835 acres (338 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Scripps Miramar Open Space 822 acres (333 ha)
La Porte, Texas, USA San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Park 820 acres (330 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Tierrasanta Open Space 818 acres (331 ha)
New York City, New York, USA William T. Davis Wildlife Refuge 814 acres (329 ha)
Nashville, Tennessee, USA Shelby Bottoms 810 acres (330 ha)
Nashville, Tennessee, USA Bell's Bend Park 809 acres (327 ha)
Youngstown, Ohio, USA Mill Creek Park 802 acres (325 ha)
Kansas City, Missouri, USA Robert H. Hodge Park 801 acres (324 ha)
Plano, Texas, USA Oak Point Park 801 acres (324 ha)
Phoenix, Arizona, USA Tres Rios 800 acres (320 ha)
Brooklyn, New York, USA Gerritsen Beach (Marine Park) 798 acres (323 ha)
Nashville, Tennessee, USA Hamilton Creek Park 790 acres (320 ha)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Cobb's Creek Park 786 acres (318 ha)
Zagreb, Croatia Maksimir Park 781 acres (316 ha)
San Diego, California, USA Sabre Springs Open Space 780 acres (320 ha)
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Ka'ena Point State Park 779 acres (315 ha)
Dallas, Texas, USA White Rock Creek Greenbelt 773 acres (313 ha)
Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA Bear Creek Canon Park 769 acres (311 ha)
Baltimore, Maryland, USA Druid Hill Park 745 acres (301 ha)
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA Theodore Wirth Park 742 acres (300 ha)
Bronx, New York, USA Bronx Park 718 acres (291 ha)
Tacoma, Washington, USA Point Defiance Park 702 acres (284 ha)
Leeds, England, UK Roundhay Park 700 acres (280 ha)
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Guindy National Park 697 acres (282 ha)
Queens, New York, USA Alley Pond Park 655 acres (265 ha)
Manchester, England, UK Heaton Park 650 acres (260 ha)
London, England, UK Hyde Park 625 acres (253 ha)
Brooklyn, New York, USA Prospect Park 585 acres (237 ha)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada Toronto Islands Park 600 acres (240 ha)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada Downsview Park 572 acres (231 ha)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Frick Park 561 acres (227 ha)
Queens, New York, USA Forest Park 538 acres (218 ha)
Seattle, Washington, USA Discovery Park 534 acres (216 ha)
Montreal, Quebec, Canada Parc du Mont Royal 529 acres (214 ha)
Boston, Massachusetts, USA Franklin Park 527 acres (213 ha)
Chicago, Illinois, USA Jackson Park 500 acres (200 ha)
Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA Phalen Park 494 acres (200 ha)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Schenley Park 456 acres (185 ha)
Christchurch, New Zealand Hagley Park 407 acres (165 ha)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada High Park 398 acres (161 ha)
Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA Como Park 384 acres (155 ha)
Chicago, Illinois, USA Washington Park 372 acres (151 ha)
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Tholkappia Poonga (Adyar Eco Park or Adyar Poonga) 358 acres (145 ha)
São Paulo, Brazil Ibirapuera Park 345 acres (140 ha)
Bangalore, Karnataka, India Cubbon Park 334 acres (135 ha)

[11]

See also

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "America's Most Visited City Parks". http://www.tpl.org/content_documents/citypark_facts/ccpe_Most_Visited_Parks_09.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  2. ^ "Table Mountain National Park: Park Profile". South African National Parks. http://www.sanparks.org/parks/table_mountain/about/profile.php. Retrieved 6 August 2010. "...the TMNP is surrounded entirely by a City..." 
  3. ^ "About SANParks". South African National Parks. http://www.sanparks.org/about/default.php. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  4. ^ "Losiny Ostvor official site". South African National Parks. http://elkisland.ru/index/0-2. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  5. ^ "Fairmount Park" is officially the name of Philadelphia's entire municipal park system, consisting of 63 units. The system is named after the original Fairmount Park, the system's oldest unit, which occupies nearly half of the system's area.
  6. ^ The park is currently closed. Although owned by the metropolitan government of Louisville, it is located outside the government's territorial jurisdiction in Meade County, Kentucky. It is in the process of being purchased by the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, and is scheduled to reopen in 2011 as a state-operated outdoor recreation area. "Otter Creek Park to Reopen in 2011" (Press release). Louisville Metro Government. June 16, 2010. http://www.louisvilleky.gov/Mayor/News/2010/06-16-10-ottercreek.htm. Retrieved December 21, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Walk 1 - A Place for People!". Wascana Centre Authority. http://wascana.ca/index.php?id=52. Retrieved 2010-04-02. 
  8. ^ "Rockwood Park". Tourism New Brunswick. http://www.tourismnewbrunswick.ca/Product.aspx?pid=39. Retrieved 2010-08-19. 
  9. ^ "Burns Park". http://www.northlittlerock.org/entries.aspx?id=246&section=1&subsection=19&filter1=&filter2=&filter3=. 
  10. ^ http://www.sccgov.org/portal/site/parks/parksarticle?path=%252Fv7%252FParks%2520and%2520Recreation%252C%2520Department%2520of%2520%2528DEP%2529&contentId=5ebef6fa8d311110VgnVCM10000048dc4a92____&cpsextcurrchannel=1 access date: 5/22/2010
  11. ^ [U.S. data comes from the Trust for Public Land's Center for City Park Excellence."The 150 Largest City Parks". Trust for Public Land. http://www.tpl.org/content_documents/citypark_facts/ccpe_150_LargestParks_4_2010.pdf. Retrieved May 6, 2010. 

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