Glutamine synthetase

Glutamine synthetase



Glutamine synthetase (GS) (EC number| [ Some evolutionary relationships of the primary biological catalysts glutamine synthetase and RuBisCO. "1987; PubMed|2900091] is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine:

Glutamate + ATP + NH3 → Glutamine + ADP + phosphate

GS classes

There seem to be three different classes of GS: [ Evolution of the glutamine synthetase gene, one of the oldest existing and functioning genes. "1993 Apr 1; PubMed|8096645" PMID_free|8096645] [Glutamine synthetase II in Rhizobium: reexamination of the proposed horizontal transfer of DNA from eukaryotes to prokaryotes. "1989 Nov; PubMed|2575672] [Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes. "1994 Jun; PubMed|7916055"]

* Class I enzymes (GSI) are specific to prokaryotes, and are oligomers of 12 identical subunits. [ [ picture] ] The activity of GSI-type enzyme is controlled by the adenylation of a tyrosine residue. The adenylated enzyme is inactive [ [ InterPro:IPR001637 Glutamine synthetase class-I, adenylation site] ] .

* Class II enzymes (GSII) are found in eukaryotes and in bacteria belonging to the Rhizobiaceae, Frankiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae families (these bacteria have also a class-I GS). GSII are decamer of identical subunits [Crystal structure of human glutamine synthetase in complex with ADP and phosphate] . Plants have two or more isozymes of GSII, one of the isozymes is translocated into the chloroplast.

* Class III enzymes (GSIII) has, currently, only been found in "Bacteroides fragilis" and in "Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens". It is a hexamer of identical chains. It is much larger (about 700 amino acids) than the GSI (450 to 470 amino acids) or GSII (350 to 420 amino acids) enzymes.

While the three classes of GS's are clearly structurally related, the sequence similarities are not so extensive.


External links

* [ InterPro entry]
* [ PDB molecule of the month]

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