Hypoxaemia (or hypoxemia) is a deficiency in the concentration of dissolved oxygen in
arterialblood. A frequent error is made when the term is used to describe poor tissue diffusion as in hypoxia. It is possible to have a low oxygen content (e.g., due to anaemia) but a high PO2 in arterial blood so incorrect use can lead to confusion.
Hypoxaemia is different from hypoxia, which is an abnormally low oxygen availability to the body or an individual tissue or organ.
The type of hypoxia that is caused by hypoxaemia is referred to as "hypoxemic hypoxia". Because of the frequent incorrect use of hypoxaemia, this is sometimes erroneously stated as "hypoxic hypoxia".
Causes are classified into groups:
#Low inspired partial pressure of oxygen (low PiO2)
#Impairment of diffusion across blood-gas membrane
#Reduced mixed venous oxygen content in the context of a Shunt
Conditions that result in hypoxaemia act via one or more of these primary causes.
Low inspired oxygen partial pressure (low PiO2)
If the partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired gas is low, then a reduced amount of oxygen is delivered to the gas exchanging parts (alveoli) of the
lungeach minute. The reduced oxygen partial pressure can be a result of reduced fractional oxygen content (low FiO2) or simply a result of low barometric pressure, as can occur at high altitudes. This reduced PiO2 can result in hypoxaemia even if the lungs are normal. Additionally, it is the "inspired" oxygen content that is important in this case rather than the "atmospheric" concentration as the person may not be breathing atmospheric gas (e.g., during an anesthetic). NOTE: People will often simplify this concept and state low FiO2 as one of the 6 principal causes of hypoxemia, but this fails to account for important circumstances such as high altitude induced hypoxemia, where indeed FiO2 is normal.
If the alveolar ventilation is low, there may be insufficient oxygen delivered to the alveoli each minute. This can cause hypoxaemia even if the lungs are normal, as the cause may be outside the lungs (e.g., airway obstruction, depression of the brain's respiratory center, or muscular weakness).
Impaired diffusion across the blood-gas membrane in the lung can cause hypoxaemia. However this is a very rare cause as it is only in extremely unusual circumstances that actually does cause a problem. Most of the past cases once thought to be due to a diffusion problem are now recognised as being due to ventilation-perfusion inequality.
Shunting of blood from the right side to the left side of the circulation (right-to-left shunt) is a powerful cause of hypoxaemia. The shunt may be intracardiac or may be intrapulmonary. It has been traditionally thought that this cause could be readily distinguished from the others as the only cause that cannot be corrected by the administration of 100% oxygen. However, this may be an oversimplification as some types of intrapulmonary shunts can be closed with 100% O2 and the hypoxemia remediedcite journal | author = Lovering, Andrew Thomas
coauthors = Stickland, Michael K.; Amann, Markus; Eldridge, Marlowe W. | year = 2007 | title = Acute hyperoxia prevents arteriovenous intrapulmonary shunting during submaximal exercise in healthy humans | journal = FASEB J. | volume = 21 | issue = 6 | pages = A1438-] .
Ventilation-perfusion inequality (or "ventilation perfusion mismatch") is a common cause of hypoxaemia in people with lung disease. It is the areas of the lung with
ventilation/perfusion ratios that are less than one (but not zero) that cause hypoxaemia by this mechanism. A ventilation/perfusion ratio of zero is considered a shunt.
#cite book | last=West |first=John B. |title=Pulmonary Pathophysiology: The Essentials |year=1977 |publisher=Williams & Wilkins
#cite book |title=Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary |last= Anderson |first= Kenneth N. (ed.) |edition=6th ed. |year=2002 |publisher=C.V. Mosby |isbn=978-0323014304
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