- Pictures at an Exhibition
"Pictures at an Exhibition" ( _ru. Картинки с выставки – Воспоминание о Викторе Гартмане, "Kartinki s vystavki – Vospominaniye o Viktore Gartmane", "Pictures from an Exhibition – A Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann") is a famous
suiteof ten pianopieces composed by Modest Mussorgskyin 1874.
The suite is generally acknowledged to be Mussorgsky's greatest solo piano composition, and has become a showpiece for
virtuosopianists. It has also become known through various orchestrations and arrangements produced by other musicians and composers (see: "Arrangements by other composers", below, for further discussion), with Ravel's arrangement being the most recorded and performed.
Mussorgsky composed the work in commemoration of his friend, the artist and architect
Viktor Hartmann, who was only 39 when he suffered an aneurysmand died in 1873. The working title for the suite was "Hartmann": "Hartmann" is seething as "Boris" was," Mussorgsky wrote to Stasov in June 1874. "Sounds and ideas float in the air and my scribbling can hardly keep pace with them." [ Calvocoressi (1956: pg. 182)] It was probably in 1870, and through the highly influential critic Vladimir Stasov, that Mussorgsky had met Hartmann, whose devotion to the cause of an intrinsically Russian art must have made him a congenial spirit. It was at Stasov's instigation that a posthumous exhibition of over 400 of the artist's works was mounted in the Academy of Fine Arts in St Petersburg, in February and March 1874. "Pictures at an Exhibition" takes the form of an imaginary musical tour around such a collection. Despite his alcoholism, Mussorgsky finished this masterpiece a month and a half after having viewed the tribute to Hartmann. A sufferer of " delirium tremens", Mussorgsky would die at age forty-two, just seven years after composing "Pictures".cite book| title = The Lives of the Great Composers| edition = Revised| last = Schonberg| first = Harold C.| coauthors = | year = 1981| publisher = W. W. Norton & Company, New York, London| id = ISBN 0-393-01302-2| pages = 370]
As the pictorial basis for his musical exhibition, Mussorgsky mostly selected drawings and watercolours that Hartmann had produced during his travels abroad. Sadly, we cannot in all cases be certain which Hartmann work Mussorgsky was alluding to, because not all the paintings and drawings have survived. In an article in The Musical Quarterly in 1939, Alfred Frankenstein claimed to have identified seven pictures by catalogue number of the eleven: Two Jews: Rich, and Poor (two separate drawings became the source of "Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuyle"), "Gnomus", "Tuileries" (now lost), "Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks", "Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuyle", "Catacombae", "The Hut on Hen’s Legs" ("
Baba Yaga"), and "The BogatyrGates".
Remarkably, Mussorgsky structures the suite in a manner that actually allows him to represent his own progress through the exhibition. This he does by means of the opening "Promenade" and the four interludes (only the last of which is also labelled "Promenade") that are clear variations of its material: "My physiognomy can be seen in the interludes," he wrote in a letter to Stasov. More remarkable still, however, is the fact that by the end of the work the "Promenade" theme has stopped functioning as a merely linking device and instead started to appear within the actual "pictures" themselves: The theme features prominently in the movements "Cum mortuis in lingua mortua" and "The Bogatyr Gates", mysterious in one, celebratory in the other.
As with most of Mussorgsky’s works, "Pictures at an Exhibition" has a complicated publication history. Although composed very rapidly (during June 2-22, 1874), the work did not appear in print until 1886 (five years after the composer’s death), when an edition by the composer’s great friend
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakovwas published. This publication, moreover, was not a completely accurate representation of Mussorgsky’s score, but presented an edited and revised text that had been reworked to a certain amount, as well as containing a substantial number of errors and misreadings.
Only in 1931, more than half a century after the work’s composition, was "Pictures at an Exhibition" published in a scholarly edition in agreement with the composer’s manuscript. In 1940, the Italian composer
Luigi Dallapiccolapublished an important critical edition of Mussorgsky’s work with extensive commentary. Mussorgsky’s hand-written manuscript was published in facsimile in 1975.
Gallery of Hartmann’s pictures
The works by Hartmann that can be shown with any certainty to have been used by Mussorgsky in assembling his suite are as follows:
Movements of the suite
It may be inferred from Vladimir Stasov's program, identified below, [ Calvocoressi, Abraham (1946: pp. 172-173)] and the six surviving pictures we know of, that the ten pieces comprising the suite correspond to eleven pictures by Hartmann ("Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuÿle" represents two different pictures). The five "Promenade" movements, consisting of an introduction and four links, are not numbered among the ten pictures. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th "Promenade" movements are untitled in the composer's manuscript.
The recording accompanying this explanation is by the Skidmore College Orchestra and is courtesy of [http://musopen.com Musopen] .
* "Promenade" (
* "No. 1 "Gnomus"" ( _la. The Gnome): Key of E flat minor, in 3/4 time. Stasov: "A sketch depicting a little gnome, clumsily running with crooked legs." Hartmann’s sketch is believed to represent a toy nutcracker.
* " [Untitled] ": Key of A flat major. The promenade theme, illustrating the composer walking from work to work.
* "No. 2 "Il vecchio castello"" ( _it. The Old Castle): Key of G sharp minor, in 6/8 time. Stasov: "A medieval castle before which a troubador sings a song." This piece is probably based on an architectural watercolor by Hartman of an Italian castle. [ Alfred Frankenstein, "Victor Hartman and Modeste Musorgsky," The Musical Quarterly 25 (1939), 282. ]
* " [Untitled] ": Key of B major. The promenade theme, extremely short (8 measures).
* "No. 3 "Tuileries" (Dispute d'enfants après jeux)" ( _fr. Tuileries (Dispute between Children at Play)): Key of B major, in 4/4 time. Stasov: "An avenue in the garden of the Tuileries, with a swarm of children and nurses." Hartmann originally pictured an empty garden, presumably the Jardin des Tuileries, near the Louvre in Paris, France. Mussorgsky musically added children chattering and playing in the garden.
* "No. 4 "Bydło"" ( _pl. Cattle): Key of G sharp minor, in 2/4 time. Stasov: "A Polish cart on enormous wheels, drawn by oxen."
* " [Untitled] ": Key of D minor. The promenade theme.
* "No. 5 "Балет невылупившихся птенцов"" [Balet nevylupivshikhsya ptentsov] ( _ru. "Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks"): Key of F major, in 2/4 time. Stasov: "Hartmann’s design for the décor of a picturesque scene in the ballet "Trilby"." Gerald Abraham provides the following details: "Trilby" or "The Demon of the Heath", a ballet with choreography by
Petipa, music by Julius Gerber, and décor by Hartmann... produced in 1870. The fledglings were canary chicks." This movement is in ternary form(ABA):::#Scherzino::#Trio::#Scherzino (repeat of No.1)::#Coda
* "No. 6 "Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuÿle"" (Yiddish): Key of B flat minor, in 4/4 time. Stasov: "Two Jews: Rich and Poor" ( _ru. Два еврея: богатый и бедный) Some have incorrectly perceived this description to be part of the original title. Some arrangements have retitled this piece as "Two Polish Jews, Rich and Poor (Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle)". The title given here is the one used in Mussorgsky’s original manuscript. These are two separate drawings, presented by Hartmann to Mussorgsky. The use of augmented second intervals approximate Jewish modes such as the
Phrygian dominant scale.
* "Promenade": Key of B flat major. Many arrangements including Ravel’s omit it.
* "No. 7 "Limoges, le marché" (La grande nouvelle)" ( _fr. The Market at Limoges (The Great News)): Key of E flat major, in 4/4 time. Stasov: "French women quarreling violently in the market."
Limogesis a city in central France. Mussorgsky originally provided two paragraphs, in French, describing the marketplace discussion (the 'great news') represented in this movement, but crossed them out. The coda leads without a break into the next movement.
* "No. 8 "Catacombae" (Sepulcrum romanum)" ( _la. The Catacombs (Roman sepulcher)). This movement consists of two parts – a "Largo" in b minor, 3/4 time, and an "Andante" in b minor, 6/4 time. Stasov: "Hartmann represented himself examining the Paris catacombs by the light of a lantern." In the first part, alternating loud and soft chords mysteriously evoke the cavernous acoustics of the catacombs. The second part features a ghostly variation of the promenade theme. The composer's manuscript for this portion of the movement is accompanied by the following penciled notes in Russian: "NB – With the dead in a dead language. A Latin text. Well may it be in Latin! The creative spirit of the dead Hartmann leads me towards the skulls, invokes them; the skulls begin to glow softly." This portion of Catacombs may accordingly be called ""Cum Mortuis in Lingua Mortua" ( _la. With the Dead in a Dead Language), and has historically and erroneously been translated "Con mortuis in lingua mortua"."
* "No. 9 "Избушка на курьих ножках" (Баба-Яга)" [Izbushka na kur'ikh nozhkakh (Baba-Yaga)] ( _ru. "The Hut on Hen’s Legs (Baba-Yaga)"): Key of C minor, in 2/4 time. Stasov: "Hartmann's drawing depicted a clock in the form of Baba-Yaga's hut on fowl's legs. Mussorgsky added Baba-Yaga's flight in a mortar." This movement is in
ternary form(ABA):::#Allegro::#Andante::#Allegro (similar to No.1)::#Coda:The central andante is one of the more demanding portions of the suite, featuring a 16th notetriplet tremolothroughout. The coda leads without a break to the next and final movement.
* "No. 10 "Богатырские ворота" (В стольном городе во Киеве)" [Bogatïrskie vorota (v stol'nom gorode vo Kieve)] ( _ru. "The Bogatyr Gates (in the Capital in Kiev)"): Key of E flat major, in 4/4 time.
Bogatyrs are heroes that appear in Russian epics called bylinas. This movement is commonly translated as "The Great Gate of Kiev." The title is also sometimes rendered "The Heroes' Gate at Kiev." Stasov: "Hartmann's sketch was his design for city gates at Kiev in the ancient Russian massive style with a cupola shaped like a slavonic helmet." Hartmann made a sketch for a planned (but never built) monumental gate for Tsar Alexander II. This gate was to have commemorated the Tsar’s narrow escape from an assassination attempt on 1866 April 4. Hartmann felt that his design for the gate was the finest work he had yet done, and it won the competition for the gate’s design. The movement has the following form (roughly ABABCA):::#Majestic::#Solemn ("piano")::#Majestic (with descending and ascending 8th note scales)::#Solemn ("fortissimo")::#Bells (with a final variation of the 'promenade' theme)::#Majestic (half note triplets)::#Coda
Arrangements by others
The first musician to arrange Mussorgsky’s "Pictures at an Exhibition" for
orchestrawas the little-known Russian composer and conductor Mikhail Tushmalov(1861–1896). However, his version (first performed in 1891 and possibly produced as early as 1886 when he was a student of Rimsky-Korsakov) does not include the entire suite: Only seven of the ten “pictures” are present, leaving out "Gnomus", "Tuileries", and "Bydło", and all the "Promenades" are omitted except for the last one, which is used in place of the first.
The next orchestration was that undertaken by the British conductor Henry Wood in 1915. Wood withdrew his version when Ravel's was published but it has been recorded (by the London Philharmonic under Nicholas Braithwaite) and issued on the Lyrita label, revealing not only the omission of all but the first of the "Promenades" but extensive re-composition elsewhere.
The first person to orchestrate the piece in its entirety was the Slovenian-born conductor and violinist Leo Funtek, who finished his version in 1922 while living and working in Finland.
The version by
Maurice Ravel(also produced in 1922, to a commission by Serge Koussevitzky) is a virtuoso effort by a master colourist, and has proved the most popular in the concert hall and on record. Ravel does, however, omit the "Promenade" between "“Samuel” Goldenberg und “Schmuÿle”" and "Limoges". Koussevitzky held sole conducting rights in his commission for several years and not only published Ravel's score himself but in 1930 made its first recording with the Boston Symphony Orchestra.
This exclusivity occasioned the appearance of other contemporary versions, such as the publication of an orchestral arrangement by Leonidas Leonardi, an orchestration student of Ravel himself, whose score requires even larger forces than Ravel's. Leonardi conducted the premiere of his transcription in Paris in 1924. Another arrangement appeared when
Eugene Ormandytook over the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1936 following Stokowski's decision to resign the conductorship. He wanted a version of "Pictures" he could call his own so he commissioned Lucien Cailliet (the Philadelphia Orchestra's 'house arranger' and a member of the woodwind section) to produce one, and this was premiered and recorded by Ormandy in 1937. Walter Goehr, on the other hand, published a version in 1942 for smaller forces than Ravel but curiously dropped 'Gnomus' altogether and made 'Limoges' the first 'Picture'!
It should be noted that although Ravel's version has been much recorded, a number of conductors have made their own changes to the scoring, including Arturo Toscanini, Nikolai Golovanov and Djong Victorin Yu. The conductor Leonard Slatkin has also made several of his own 'compendium' versions, in which each Promenade and Picture is by a different orchestral arranger. Also, conductor and pianist
Vladimir Ashkenazyalleged that Ravel not only made his version using a corrupt edition of the piano version but also added his own amendments in notation and dynamics while incorporating all the misprints. This plus what he considered Ravel's inauthentic orchestral coloration prompted him to make his own arrangement of "Pictures". [Parrott, Jasper, with Vladimir Ashkenazy, "Ashkenazy: Beyond Frontiers" (New York: Athenum, 1985), p. 164.]
Leopold Stokowskihad introduced Ravel’s version to Philadelphia audiences in November 1929; he produced his own very free orchestration (incorporating much re-composition) ten years later, aiming for what he called a more 'Slavic' orchestral sound, feeling that Ravel's was too 'Gallic'. Stokowski revised his version over the years, and made three gramophone recordings of it (1939, 1941 and 1965). The score was not printed until 1971 and has since been recorded by several other conductors, including Matthias Bamert, Gennady Rozhdestvensky, Oliver Knussen and Jose Serebrier.
Many other orchestrations and arrangements have been created, and the original piano composition is also frequently performed and recorded. A brass ensemble arrangement was made by
Elgar Howarthfor the " Philip Jones Brass Ensemble" in the 1970s. There is even an adaptation for solo classical guitarby Kazuhito Yamashita. Excerpts have also been recorded, including a 78rpm disc of "The Old Castle" and "Catacombs" orchestrated by Sir Granville Bantock, and a spectacular version of "The Great Gate of Kiev" scored by Douglas Gamleyfor full symphony orchestra, male voice choir and organ.
There have also been several very different non-classical interpretations: one incorporating
progressive rock, jazzand folk musicelements by the British trio " Emerson, Lake & Palmer" in their 1971 album "Pictures at an Exhibition", and an electronic musicadaptation by Isao Tomitain 1975. A heavy metal arrangement of the entire suite was released by German band "Mekong Delta". Another metal band, Armored Saint, use the "Great Gate of Kiev"'s main theme as the introduction to the track "March of the Saint". In 2002, electronic musician-composer Amon Tobinparaphrased Gnomus for the track "Back From Space" on his album " Out from Out Where". In 2003, guitarist-composer Trevor Rabinreleased his electric guitar adaptation of "Promenade," once intended for the Yes album " Big Generator", later included in his demo album " 90124".
A listing of orchestral arrangements of "Pictures at an Exhibition":
Mikhail Tushmalov(ca. 1886; three “pictures” and four "Promenades" omitted)
* Henry Wood (1915; four "Promenades" omitted)
Leo Funtek(1922; all Promenades included)
Maurice Ravel(1922; the fifth "Promenade" omitted)
Giuseppe Becce(1922; for “salon-orchestra”)
Leopold Stokowski(1939; third "Promenade", "Tuileries", fifth "Promenade" and "Limoges" omitted)
Walter Goehr(1942; "Gnomus" omitted; includes a subsidiary part for piano)
Helmut Brandenburg(ca. 1970)
Emile Naoumoff(ca. 1974, for piano and orchestra)
Zdenek Macal(ca. 1977)
Lawrence Leonard(1977; in concerto style for piano and orchestra)
Pung Siu-Wen(ca. 1983; for orchestra of Chinese instruments)
Alan Gout(1990; for chamber orchestra)
Djong Victorin Yu( 1993; amended Ravel version)
Mekong Delta(1997; for group and orchestra)
Julian Yu(2002; for chamber orchestra)
Hanspeter Gmur(date unknown)
Hidemaro Konoye(date unknown)
Misao Kitazume(date unknown)
A listing of non-orchestral arrangements of "Pictures at an Exhibition":
Giuseppe Becce(1930; for piano trio)
Duke Ellington(date unknown; for big band)
Vladimir Horowitz(1946; revised version for solo piano. His performance of this arrangement at a 1951 concert in Carnegie Hallhas been described as one of the greatest piano performances of all time [David Dubal, The Art of the Piano, ISBN 1574670883] ; it was recorded for posterity)
Rudolf Wurthner(ca. 1954; for accordion orchestra; abridged version)
Ralph Burns(1957; for jazz orchestra)
Erik Leidzen(ca. 1960; for band)
Allyn Ferguson(ca. 1963; for jazz orchestra)
Mark Hindsley(ca. 1963; for band)
Dale Eymann(ca. 1965; for band; "The Bogatyr Gates" only)
B. Futerman(ca. 1968; Russian folk instruments orchestra, "The Bogatyr Gates" only)
Roger Boutry(ca. 1970; for band)
Emerson, Lake & Palmer(1971; rock group)
Harry van Hoof(ca. 1972; brass ensemble; "The Bogatyr Gates" only)
Isao Tomita(1975; for synthesizer)
Oskar Gottlieb Blarr(1976; for organ)
Elgar Howarth(ca. 1977; for brass ensemble)
Arthur Willis(1970s; for organ)
Dr. Keith Chapman(1970s; for the Wanamaker organ)
Günther Kaunzinger(1980; for organ)
Kazuhito Yamashita(1980; for classical guitar)
Elgar Howarth(1981; for brass band)
Reginald Haché(1982; for two pianos)
Henk de Vlieger(1984; for 14 percussion players, celesta and harp)
Arie Abbenes& Herman Jeurissen(ca. 1984; for carillon & band; "The Bogatyr Gates" only)
James Curnow(1985; for concert band; abridged version)
Jan Hala(ca. 1988; for guitar and pop orchestra; "Baba-Yaga" only)
Jean Guillou(ca. 1988; for organ)
Heinz Wallisch(ca. 1989; for two guitars)
Yuri Chernov(ca. 1991; for Russian folk instrument orchestra; "The Bogatyr Gates" only)
Gert van Keulen(1992; for band)
Hans Wilhelm Plate(1993; for 44 grand pianos and one prepared piano)
Jim Prime& Thom Hannum(ca. 1994; for brass quintet and band; abridged version)
Hans-Karsten Raecke(ca. 1994; for chorus, vocal soloists, synthesizers, brass and percussion)
Trevor Parks(1994; for two pianos and wind band)
Elmar Rothe(1995; for three guitars)
Mekong Delta(1997; for metal band)
Joachim Linckelmann(ca. 1999 for wind quintet)
Vladimir Boyashov(ca. 2000 for Russian folk orchestra)
Christian Lindberg(ca. 2000; for trombone and piano)
Tim Seddon(ca. 2002 two pianos)
Clare & Brent Fisher(2004; for jazz bigband)
Carl Simpson(2004; for wind orchestra)
Wayne Lytle, for the DVD Animusic 2 under the title "Cathedral Pictures" (2005; for synthesizer; "Promenade", "Baba Yaga" and "The Bogatyr Gates")
Cameron Carpenter(2006, for organ)
Sergei V. Korschmin(2006; for brass ensemble)
David Aydelott(2006; for marching band)
Joseph Kreines(2006; for band, commissioned by the Timber Creek High SchoolWind Ensemble)
Ward Swingle(date unknown; for vocal ensemble, double bass and percussion; "Limoges" only)
John Boyd(date unknown; for band)
Vyacheslav Rozanov(date unknown; for bayan orchestra; "The Old Castle" only)
* William Schmidt (date unknown; for saxophone choir);
Andres Segovia(date unknown; for guitar; "The Old Castle" only)
Elias Seppala(date unknown; for band)
Atsushi Sugahara(date unknown; for percussion ensemble)
Tohru Takahashi(date unknown; for band)
Simon Wright(date unknown; for band)
Akira Yodo(date unknown; for clarinet choir)
Michael Sweeney(date unknown; for band)
Dag Jensen(date unknown; for four bassoons and contrabassoon)
Massimo Gabba(2006; for organ)
Howard Perlman(2006; for trombone quartet; "The Great Gate of Kiev" only)
Adam Berces(2007; for synthesizer - 'Pictures at an Exxhibition'album)
Nicholas Sprenger and Co-Arranger Carter Page(2007; for electric 7-String Guitar and electric 4-String Bass Guitar, Shortened versions of "Promenade", "The Old Castle", "Bydlo" and a reprise of "Promenade" in place of "The Great Gate Of Kiev" for the Experimental/Avant-Garde/Metal band KHAZM)
* Mauricio Romero (2007; complete transcription for double bass alone)
* Tony Matthews (2007; complete transcription for Brass Quintet)
Michael Allen(2000; for brass ensemble, recorded by the Burning River Brass)
Erin Ponto(2007; complete transcription for 2 harps)
Merlin Patterson(2007-2008; complete transcription for wind ensemble)
Slav de Hren(2008; for a punk-jazz band and vocal ensemble. Some of the pieces are complete transcriptions, others are improvisations on the original theme)
Usage and Tributes
* In 1966, famed Japanese
mangaartist Osamu Tezukadirected a 50-minute animated film based on "Pictures at an Exhibition" entitled "Tenrankai no e".
* "Gnomus", "Tuileries" and other excerpts were used extensively for the score of
Hanna-Barbera’s cartoon series, "The Smurfs".
* An excerpt of the piece was used as part of the score in several episodes of the
Warner Bros.animated television series " Animaniacs".
* The piece is used in the NES game "
Mario Is Missing".
* An abridgement of the "Promenade" theme was the theme tune of the British political sit-com "
The New Statesman".
* The "Promenade" theme was used in audio-visual mode in "self-test" software of 8-bit Atari computers ("self test" is built into ROM of the computer).
* The movement "Gnomus" is played during the interpretive dance scene in the movie "
The Big Lebowski".
* "The Bogatyr Gates" is used as the entrance theme to WWE wrestler and
color commentatorJerry "The King" Lawler. Previously the company had used the same music as the entrance theme for other wrestlers portrayed as the "King of Wrestling," most notably Harley Raceand Haku.
* There is a society devoted to the promotion of performances and arrangements of the suite, International Kartinki's Vystavki Association (IKVA).
* The "Promenade" theme is also a song that one may choose as the background music in the game .
* The "Promenade" was used for a comedy character's ("Horacio Cascarin") "Museum of Soccer" created by the Mexican comedian
Animusic's Cathedral Pictures is based on Pictures at an Exhibition, consisting of the first "Promenade", "The Hut on Hen's Legs(Baba Yaga)", and "The Bogatyr Gates".
* Part of "The Hut on Hen's Legs" (Baba Yaga) was used as the theme music for the 1977 BBC documentary series "The Secret War".
* The "Promenade" theme is used at the opening of rapper
Method Man's first solo album, " Tical (album)".
* A short excerpt from "Baba Yaga" is used in the
South Parkepisode " Tweek vs. Craig" as Kenny imagines all the sharp tools he'd be around if he transferred from Home Ec to Shop Class.
*The Promenade was used as the jingle (via synthesizer) in the ident logo for the now defunct
World Northal Corporation, a distributor of foreign films during the 70s and 80s, most notably Kung Fu Theatertype movies.
*An excerpt of "The Hut on Hen's Legs" is also used in
Animalympicsduring Tatiana Tushenko's gymnastics performance.
*The ending part of the song is heard on the "introduction sequence" of earlier RCA SelectaVision CED videodiscs.
*On their album entitled "
Handful of Rain", the band Savatagemade a reference to the work in the song "Chance" in the lyrics: "Pictures at an Exhibition/Played as he stood in his trance..."
*The "Promenade" theme is used when the main character of
Burn After Readingis put on hold with her insurance company.
*The "Promenade" theme can be heard in Sid Meier's
Civilization Revolution. Upon the conclusion of a successful campaign, players are invited to view their accomplishments in the Hall of Glory, during which the passage constantly loops.
* Link to download music - [http://www.musopen.com/view.php?type=piece&id=107 Pictures at an Exhibition] recording from
* Link to download piano version - [http://www.serg.vangennip.com/www/piano.html Pictures at an Exhibition] recording from Serg van Gennip.
Lists of solo piano pieces
*Calvocoressi, M.D., Abraham, G., "Mussorgsky, 'Master Musicians' Series", London: J.M.Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1946
*Calvocoressi, M.D., "Modest Mussorgsky: His Life and Works", London: Rockliff, 1956
*Frankenstein, Alfred. "Victor Hartmann and Modeste Musorgsky." "The Musical Quarterly" 25, no. 3 (1939): 268–291.
*Russ, Michael. "Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition" (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 1992). ISBN 0-521-38607-1 (paperback), ISBN 0-521-38442-7 (hardback).
* [http://www.stmoroky.com/reviews/gallery/pictures/hartmann.htm Reproductions of Viktor Hartmann’s pictures]
* [http://www.russisches-musikarchiv.de/bilder.htm Another page with reproductions (German)]
* [http://www.geocities.jp/tatsuyabanno/Bilderausstellung/Bilderausstellung-e.html A page with additional pictures reproduced in higher resolution (Japanese site with English pages)]
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