Jena


Jena

Infobox German Location
Art = City
Wappen = Wappen Jena.pngimage_photo = Jenamarktplatz.jpg
image_caption = Jena Market Square
lat_deg = 50 |lat_min = 55 |lat_sec = 38
lon_deg = 11 |lon_min = 35 |lon_sec = 10
Lageplan =
Bundesland = Thüringen
Landkreis = Kreisfreie Stadt
Höhe = 155
Fläche = 114
Einwohner = 102494
pop_ref = [cite web |url=http://www.tls.thueringen.de/seite.asp?aktiv=dat01&startbei=datenbank/default2.asp |title=Population of Thuringia by district |author=Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik |accessdate=2007-08-10]
Stand = 2006-12-31
PLZ = 07701–07751
Vorwahl = 03641
PLZ-alt = 69xx
Kfz = J
Gemeindeschlüssel = 16 0 53 000
Adresse = Markt 1
07743 Jena
Website = [http://www.jena.de/ www.jena.de]
Bürgermeister = Albrecht Schröter
Bürgermeistertitel = Oberbürgermeister
Partei = SPD

Jena (pronunciation IPA2|ˈjeːna) is a university city in central Germany on the river Saale. With a population of 102,494, it is the second largest city in the federal state of Thüringen (Thuringia), after Erfurt.

History

Jena was first mentioned in an 1182 document. In the 11th century it was a possession of the lords of Lobdeburg, but in the following century it developed into an independent market town with laws and magistrates of its own. Economy was based mainly on wine production. In 1286 the Dominicans were established in the city, followed by the Cistercians in 1301.

The margraves of Meißen imposed their authority over Jena in 1331. From 1423 it belonged to Electoral Saxony of the Housen of Wettin, who had inherited Meißen, remaining with it also after the division of their lands in 1485.

The Protestant Reformation was brought into the city in 1523. In the following years the Dominican and the Carmelite convents were attacked by the townsmen. In 1548, the university was founded by elector John Frederick the Magnanimous.

For a short period (1670-1690), Jena was the capital of an independent dukedom (Saxe-Jena). In 1692 it was annexed to Saxe-Eisenach and in 1741 to the Duchy (later Grand Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar, to which it belonged until 1918.

At the end of the 18th century the university became the largest and most famous within the German states, and made Jena the center of idealistic philosophy (with professors like Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling) and of the early romanticism (with poets like Novalis, the brothers Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck). In 1794 the poets Goethe and Schiller met at the university and established a long lasting friendship.

On 14 October 1806, Napoleon fought and defeated the Prussian army here in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt. Resistance against the French occupation was strong, especially among the town students, many of whom fought in the Lützow Free Corps in 1813. Two years later the Urburschenschaft fraternity was founded in the city.

At the end of the 19th century, with the building of the railway-line Saalbahn (along the river Saale), Jena became a center for precision machinery, optics and glass making, with the formation of the world famous companies Carl Zeiss Jena and Schott Jenaer Glaswerk, by Carl Zeiss, Ernst Abbe and Otto Schott.

In 1945, towards the end of World War II, Jena was heavily bombed by the American and British Allies. 153 people were killed and most of the medieval town centre was destroyed (though restored after the end of the war).

Part of the State of Thuringia from its foundation in 1920 on, it was incorporated into the German Democratic Republic in 1949 and its district of Gera in 1952. Since 1990, the city of Jena has been a part of the Free State of Thuringia in the united Federal Republic of Germany.

Economy

Today Jena is a manufacturing city, specializing in precision machinery, pharmaceuticals, optics and photographic equipment, and is home to the famous Zeiss optics plant. In 1926, the world's first modern planetarium was built by the Zeiss company in the Damenviertel district of the town.

Today the city's economy diversifies into bioinformatics, biotechnology, software and photonics. The metropolitan area of Jena is among Germany's 50 fastest growing regions, with many internationally renowned research institutes and companies, a comparatively low unemployment, and a very young population structure. Jena was awarded with the title "Stadt der Wissenschaft" (city of science) by the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wirtschaft, the German business association, in 2008.

Main sights

*The 13th century Town Hall ("Rathaus"). It has astronomic clock featuring the "Snatching Hans" ("Schnapphans").
*The Gothic St. Michael's Church ("Michaelskirche", 1506). It has a bronze slab of Martin Luther's tomb
*Monument to John Frederick the Magnanimous (1905-08), in the Market Square
*The Old Castle and numerous towers from the medieval fortifications, including the Powder Tower (13th-14th centuries)
*House of Friedrich Schiller and his Wedding Church.
*The Botanical Garden, founded in 1580, the second oldest botanical garden in Germany
*Jen-Tower, a research edifice built in GDR times. There is a restaurant and viewing platform at the 27th floor.

In the neighbourhood are the Dornburg Castles and the Kapellendorf Moated Castle.

Public transport

*The city is served by an extensive network of buses and trams run by the "Jenah" organization (a pun on Jena and "Nahverkehr", German for public transport).
*busses of the JES Verkehrsgesellschaft connect Jena with cities and villages in the region
*The high-speed railway line from Berlin to München calls at the Jena-Paradies station just to the east of the city centre; trains from Erfurt and further west arrive at the Westbahnhof just west of the city centre.
*The nearest airports to Jena are Leipzig-Altenburg Airport and Erfurt Airport. However international visitors normally arrive at Frankfurt, Berlin or Munich airports, from all of which there are convenient train connections to Jena.

Colleges, universities and research institutes

*The Friedrich Schiller University of Jena was founded in 1558 as the "Collegium Jenense".
*The University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule Jena) was founded in 1991.
*The Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology is an important research center and offers a Ph.D. program.
*The Max Planck Institute of Economics
*The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
*The Institute of Photonic Technology
*The Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF)
*INNOVENT - one of the biggest private research centers in Germany
*The Leibniz Institute for Age Research
*The Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology
*Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses
*Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis
*The Jena Center for Bioinformatics

Museums

* Optical Museum Jena - history of optical instruments
* Schott GlassMuseum - production and usage of glass
* Citymuseum Göhre - urban history of Jena
* Botanical Garden
* Phyletical Museum - biology
* Romanticism House - literary
* Memorial to Goethe - literary
* Oriental Coin Cabinet Jena - Oriental history, numismatics
* Schott Villa - history of the Jena glassworks and of Otto Schott and his family

Culture

* The Jenaer Philharmonie is the largest independent symphony orchestra in Thuringia.
* In the Novel "1632" and several other works in the best-selling fiction "1632 series", Jena and the University of Jena, located in the same region as the displaced town (in both time and space) of Grantville, WV, play a prominent role Jena becomes part of the New United States founded by the Americans of Grantville introducing modern thought a political theory into the middle of the Thirty Years' War, and the University the heart of their attempt to introduce modern medical knowledge and practices into the plague-ridden Germany.
* Kulturarena: annual music festival held in front of the theatre

Famous citizens and Alumni of the University

*Ernst Abbe, physicist, social reformer, partner of Carl Zeiss and Otto Schott
*Anton Wilhelm Amo, African Philosopher
*Johannes R. Becher, poet and politician
*Hans Berger, discoverer of human EEG and two-time Nobel Prize nominee
*Bernhard, Prince of the Netherlands
*Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, influential German naturalist, doctor, comparative anatomist and physiologist
*Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, orientalist and Protestant theologian of the Enlightenment
*Walter Eucken, founder of neoliberal economic theory
*Johann Gottlieb Fichte, philosopher and early German nationalist
*Gottlob Frege, mathematician, logician, and philosopher
*Friedrich August Froebel, inventor of the kindergarten
*Johann Wolfgang Goethe, poet/writer
*Ernst Haeckel, German evolutionary biologist/zoologist
*Georg Hegel, philosopher
*Friedrich Hölderlin, poet
*Martin Luther, reformer
*Philipp Melanchthon, theologian
*Novalis, poet
*Max Reger, composer, pianist, professor and conductor
*Friedrich Schelling
*Friedrich Schiller, poet/writer
*Caroline Böhmer Schlegel Schelling
*Wilhelm Schlegel, philosopher
*Bernd Schneider, German footballer
*Andreas Ritter
*Otto Schott, inventor of fireproof glass, founder of the Schott glass works
*Johann Gustav Stickel, orientalist
*Kurt Tucholsky, writer
*Carl Zeiss, founder of the Zeiss company

ister cities

*flagicon|Romania Lugoj, Romania, since 1983
*flagicon|Germany Erlangen, Germany, since 1987
*flagicon|Nicaragua San Marcos, Nicaragua, since 1996
*flagicon|France Aubervilliers, France, since 1999
*flagicon|USA Berkeley, USA

External links

*wikitravel|Jena
* [http://www.jena.de/ Official Homepage of Jena] de icon en icon
* [http://www.badische-seiten.de/impressionen/index.php?action=showgallery&pfad=Jena Jena: pictures]
* [http://glassproperties.com/jena/ Images from Jena, Germany]
* [http://www.jenah.de/ Jenah local public transport information] de icon
* [http://www.fh-jena.de/ Fachhochschule Jena] en icon de icon
* [http://www.uni-jena.de/ Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena]
* [http://www.uni-jena.de/Orientalisches_Muenzkabinett.html Oriental Coin Cabinet of the Friedrich-Schiller-University] de icon
* [http://www.calle.com/info.cgi?lat=50.9333&long=11.5833&name=Jena&cty=Germany&alt=495 Maps] dead link|date=May 2008
* [http://www.kulturarena.de/ Kulturarena, official homepage] en icon de icon fr icon ru icon
* [http://www.jenakompakt.de/ Local News, Videos and Blogs from Jena] de icon
* [http://www.jena.eins.de/ Local News, Community and Events from Jena] de icon

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • jenă — JÉNĂ s.f. 1. Sentiment de sfială de care este cuprins cineva când se află într o situaţie penibilă; stinghereală. ♦ Situaţie grea, neplăcută; încurcătură, strâmtoare. ♢ Jenă financiară = lipsă de bani. 2. Senzaţie supărătoare, durere organică… …   Dicționar Român

  • Jena — Jena, Stadt im Großherzogtum Sachsen Weimar, Verwaltungsbezirk II (Apolda), liegt, rings von hohen Kalkbergen umgeben, am linken Ufer der Saale und mit zwei Bahnhöfen und der Haltestelle Paradies im Knotenpunkt der Staatsbahnlinien Großheringen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jena — Jena, 1) Amt im Kreise Weimar Jena (Großherzogthum Weimar), ohne die Stadt J. 8200 Ew.; J. war ehedem, von 1672–90, Herzogthum einer Nebenlinie von Weimar, von Bernhard, Sohn des Herzogs Wilhelm von Sachsen Weimar, errichtet, mit dessen Sohn… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • jena — JENÁ, jenez, vb. I. 1. tranz. (Despre obiecte de îmbrăcăminte sau încălţăminte) A strânge, a apăsa, a roade, a supăra. ♦ fig. A stânjeni, a deranja, a incomoda. 2. refl. A avea un sentiment de reţinere faţă de ceva; a se ruşina, a se sfii. – Din… …   Dicționar Român

  • Jena — Jena, LA U.S. town in Louisiana Population (2000): 2971 Housing Units (2000): 1264 Land area (2000): 5.375160 sq. miles (13.921599 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 5.375160 sq. miles (13.921599 sq …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Jena, LA — U.S. town in Louisiana Population (2000): 2971 Housing Units (2000): 1264 Land area (2000): 5.375160 sq. miles (13.921599 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 5.375160 sq. miles (13.921599 sq. km)… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Jena — Jȇna ž DEFINICIJA grad na rijeci Saale, Njemačka; 101.900 stan.; poznata proizvodnja vatrostalnog stakla i optičkih instrumenata (Zeiss) [jena staklo; jena posuđe] …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Jena — Jena, Stadt in S. Weimar Eisenach, an der Saale, (1900) 20.686 (1905: 26.355) E., Garnison, den thüring. Staaten (außer Schwarzburg S.) gemeinsame Universität (seit 1558) und Oberlandesgericht, Amtsgericht, Gymnasium, zwei… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jena — es una ciudad del centro este de Alemania, en el land de Turingia, a orillas del río Saale (afluente del río Elba), al este de Weimar, cerca de Érfurt. * * * Jena, batalla de ► C. del E de Alemania, en el estado de Turingia; 105 825 h. Sede de la …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Jena — Jena, seit 1557 Universitätsstadt der herz. sächs. Lande, liegt an der Saale, hat 6000 Ew., besitzt eine Menge wissenschaftliche Institute, eine orthopädische und Hebammen , eine Heil und Irrenanstalt, eine Sternwarte, botanischen Garten,… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Jena — Jena, sachsen weimarʼsche Stadt an der Saale mit 6700 E., einer 1547 gestifteten Universität, die gute Sammlungen besitzt und in den ersten Decennien dieses Jahrh. ihre Blütezeit hatte. Napoleons großer Sieg über die Preußen 14. Oktbr. 1806 …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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