- Siege of Sarajevo
Siege of Sarajevo Part of the Bosnian War
Bosnian parliament building burns after being hit by Serbian tank fire.
Date 5 April 1992 – 29 February 1996 Location Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Result Siege lifted due to the Dayton Agreement, numerous civilian casualties. Belligerents Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–95)
Republika Srpska (1992–95)
Commanders and leaders Mustafa Hajrulahović Talijan
Milutin Kukanjac (Mar – Jul 1992)
Tomislav Šipčić (Jul–Sep 1992)
Stanislav Galić (Sep 1992 – Aug 1994)
Dragomir Milošević (Aug 1994 – Feb 1996)
Strength 40,000 (1992) 30,000 (1992) Casualties and losses 6,110 soldiers killed or missing 2,229 soldiers killed or missing Civilians: 10,000 killed/missing, 56,000 wounded
The Siege of Sarajevo is the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. Serb forces of the Republika Srpska and the Yugoslav People's Army besieged Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, from 5 April 1992 to 29 February 1996 during the Bosnian War.
After Bosnia and Herzegovina had declared independence from Yugoslavia, the Serbs--whose strategic goal was to create a new Serbian State of Republika Srpska (RS) that would include part of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina,--encircled Sarajevo with a siege force of 18,000 stationed in the surrounding hills, from which they assaulted the city with weapons that included artillery, mortars, tanks, anti-aircraft guns, heavy machine-guns, multiple rocket launchers, rocket-launched aircraft bombs and sniper rifles. From 2 May 1992, the Serbs blockaded the city. The Bosnian government defence forces inside the besieged city were poorly equipped and unable to break the siege.
It is estimated that nearly 10,000 people were killed or went missing in the city, including over 1,500 children. An additional 56,000 people were wounded, including nearly 15,000 children. The 1991 census indicates that before the siege the city and its surrounding areas had a population of 525,980. There are estimates that prior to the siege the population in the city proper was 435,000. The current estimates of the number of persons living in Sarajevo range between 300,000 and 380,000.
After the war, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) convicted three Serb officials for numerous crimes against humanity for the siege. Stanislav Galić and Dragomir Milošević, were sentenced to life imprisonment and to 29 years imprisonment, respectively, while Momčilo Perišić was sentenced to 27 years. One of the 11 indictments against former president of Republika Srpska Radovan Karadžić is for the siege. In the case against Stanislav Galić, the prosecution alleged in an opening statement that:
The siege of Sarajevo, as it came to be popularly known, was an episode of such notoriety in the conflict in the former Yugoslavia that one must go back to World War II to find a parallel in European history. Not since then had a professional army conducted a campaign of unrelenting violence against the inhabitants of a European city so as to reduce them to a state of medieval deprivation in which they were in constant fear of death. In the period covered in this Indictment, there was nowhere safe for a Sarajevan, not at home, at school, in a hospital, from deliberate attack.
— Prosecution Opening Statement, ICTY vs Stanislav Galić, 2003
- 1 Build-up
- 2 Start of the war
- 3 Early fighting for the city
- 4 The siege of Sarajevo
- 5 NATO intervention
- 6 Aftermath
- 7 ICTY convictions
- 8 In popular culture
- 9 References
- 10 External links
From its creation following World War II, the government of Yugoslavia kept a close watch on nationalist sentiment among the many ethnic and religious groups that comprise the country, as it could have led to chaos and the breakup of the state. With the death of Yugoslavia's longtime leader, Marshal Tito, in 1980 this policy of containment took a dramatic reversal.
The legislation for, and formation of, a multi-party democracy that was, even in 1988, a requirement of the UNCHR (UN Convention on Human Rights) by the Milosevic FRY government was a substantial contributory factor in the breakup.
Start of the war
On 2 March 1992, Serb paramilitaries set up barricades and sniper positions near Sarajevo’s parliament building, but the threatened military coup was thwarted by thousands of Sarajevo citizens who took to the streets in front of the snipers.
Following the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence from Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992, sporadic fighting broke out between Serbs and government forces all across the territory. It continued through the run-up to Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognition as a sovereign independent state.
On 5 April, ethnic Serb policemen attacked police stations and then an Interior Ministry training school. The attack killed two officers and one civilian. The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared a state of emergency the following day. Later that day Serb paramilitaries in Sarajevo repeated their action of the previous month. A crowd of peace marchers, between 50,000 and 100,000 comprising all ethnic groups, rallied in protest. As the largest section moved towards the parliament building, gunmen shot and killed two young women in the crowd, Suada Dilberović and Olga Sučić. They are regarded as the first casualties of the siege. Vrbanja Bridge, where they were killed, has since been renamed in their honor.
On 6 April, 12 European Community foreign ministers announced that their countries recognized the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Recognition by the United States followed the next day.
Shortly after the European Community recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina as a sovereign state, armed conflict broke out. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) attacked the Ministry of Training Academy in Vrace, the central tramway depot and the Old Town district with mortars, artillery and tank fire, and also seized control of Sarajevo’s airport. The Bosnian government had expected the international community to deploy a peacekeeping force following recognition, but it did not materialize in time to prevent war breaking out across the country.
Serb and JNA troops overwhelmed the poorly equipped government security forces to take control of large areas of Bosnian territory, beginning with attacks on Bosniak civilians in Eastern Bosnia. Serb military, police and paramilitary forces attacked towns and villages and then, sometimes assisted by local Serb residents, applied what soon became their standard operating procedure: Bosniak houses and apartments were systematically ransacked or burned; civilians rounded up, some beaten or killed; and men separated from the women. Many of the men were forcibly removed to prison camps. The women were incarcerated in detention centres in extremely unhygienic conditions and suffered numerous atrocious abuses. Many were repeatedly raped. Survivors testified that Serb soldiers and police would visit the detention centres, select one or more women, take them out and rape them.
On 22 April, a peace rally in front of the Republic Assembly building was broken up by shots that came from the Holiday Inn. By the end of April, the form of the siege was largely established.
Early fighting for the city
In the months leading up to the war, JNA forces in the region began to mobilize in the hills surrounding Sarajevo. Artillery, together with other ordnance and equipment that would prove key in the coming siege of the city, was deployed at this time. In April 1992, the Bosnian government under President Alija Izetbegović demanded that the government of Yugoslavia remove these forces. Slobodan Milošević, the president of Serbia, agreed only to withdraw individuals who originated from outside Bosnia's borders, an insignificant number. Bosnian Serb forces in the JNA were transferred to the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS) under General Ratko Mladić, the VRS having rescinded its allegiance to Bosnia a few days after Bosnia seceded from Yugoslavia.
On 2 May 1992, Bosnian Serb forces established a total blockade of the city. They blocked the major access roads, cutting supplies of food and medicine, and also cut off the city's utilities (e.g., water, electricity and heating). Although they possessed superior weaponry they were outnumbered by Sarajevo's defenders, and attacks by JNA armored columns failed to take the city. Therefore the Serbs concentrated their efforts on weakening it by continual bombardment from at least 200 reinforced positions and bunkers in the surrounding hills.
The siege of Sarajevo
The second half of 1992 and the first half of 1993 were the height of the siege of Sarajevo, and atrocities were committed during heavy fighting. Serb forces outside the city continuously shelled the government defenders. Inside the city, the Serbs controlled most of the major military positions and the supply of arms. With snipers taking up positions in the city, signs reading Pazite, Snajper! ("Be careful, Sniper!") became commonplace and certain particularly dangerous streets were known as "sniper alleys". The sniper killings of Admira Ismić and Boško Brkić, a couple who tried to cross the lines, became a symbol of the suffering in the city.
Serbian offensives were mounted to take over some neighborhoods, especially in Novo Sarajevo. To counterbalance the siege, Sarajevo Airport was opened to UN (UN) airlifts in late June 1992; Sarajevo's survival became strongly dependent on them.
Compared with the siege force, the Bosnian government forces were very poorly armed. Bosnian black market criminals who joined the army at the outset of the war illegally smuggled arms into the city through Serb lines, and raids on Serb-held positions within the city yielded more. The Sarajevo Tunnel, completed in mid-1993, was a major asset in bypassing the international arms embargo (applied to all parties to the Bosnian conflict, including the defenders of Sarajevo). It helped supplies and weaponry reach the city's defenders, and enabled some inhabitants to leave. The tunnel was said to have saved Sarajevo. However, by April 1995 there were only 20 artillery pieces and five tanks left to defend the city. The strength of the First Corps lay in its considerable supplies of rocket-propelled grenades, anti-aircraft missiles and anti-tank missiles, but they could not really be used in the types of offensive actions needed to break out of Sarajevo.
Reports indicated an average of approximately 329 shell impacts per day during the course of the siege, with a maximum of 3,777 on 22 July 1993. This urbicide by shellfire extensively damaged the city's structures, both residential and cultural. By September 1993 it was estimated that virtually all the buildings in Sarajevo had suffered some degree of damage, and 35,000 were completely destroyed. Among buildings targeted and destroyed were hospitals and medical complexes, media and communication centers, industrial complexes, government buildings and military and UN facilities. Other significant buildings damaged or destroyed included the presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the National Library, which was set on fire and burned to the ground, destroying thousands of irreplaceable texts.
The shelling took a heavy toll on residents in the city. Mass killings of civilians, primarily by mortar attacks made headline news in the West. On 1 June 1993 15 people died and 80 were injured in an attack on a football game. On 12 July 12 people were killed while waiting in line for water.
The biggest single loss of life was the first Markale marketplace massacre on 5 February 1994, with 68 civilians killed and 200 wounded. The scale of civilian casualties left medical facilities overwhelmed, and only a small proportion of the wounded benefited from medical evacuation programmes like 1993's Operation Irma.
On 6 February, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali formally requested NATO to confirm that air strikes would be carried out immediately. On 9 February 1994, at the request of the UN, the North Atlantic Council authorized the Commander of Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), U.S. Admiral Jeremy Boorda, to launch air strikes against artillery and mortar positions in and around Sarajevo that were determined by UNPROFOR to be responsible for attacks against civilian targets. Only Greece failed to support the use of airstrikes, but did not veto the proposal. The Council also issued an ultimatum to the Bosnian Serbs, demanding that they remove heavy weapons around Sarajevo by midnight of 20-21 February or face air strikes. On 12 February, Sarajevo enjoyed its first casualty-free day in 22 months.
In 1995 the international forces firmly turned against the besiegers after the second Markale massacre, in which 37 people were killed and 90 wounded. When Serb forces raided a UN-monitored weapons collection site, NATO jets attacked Bosnian Serb ammunition depots and other strategic military targets. Fighting escalated on the ground as joint Bosnian and Croatian forces went on the offensive. The Serbs were slowly driven back in Sarajevo and elsewhere, which eventually allowed the city's heating, electricity and water supplies to be restored.
A ceasefire was reached in October 1995. On 14 December the Dayton Agreement brought peace to the country and led to stabilization. The Bosnian government officially declared an end to the siege of Sarajevo on 29 February 1996, when Serbian forces left positions in and around the city.
A large number of Sarajevans were killed or wounded throughout the siege. A report on the total number of deaths over a span of 315 days concluded that 2,474 persons died, with an average of approximately eight killed in the city per day. A report on the total number of persons wounded over a span of 306 days concluded that 13,472 were wounded, an average of approximately 44 per day. It should be noted that actual daily casualty numbers in Sarajevo are probably higher than reported, as the varied centralized city casualty counts relied upon may not include many victims who were taken to district morgues and clinics. <citation needed>
The number of people killed or missing in the city is estimated at nearly 10,000. This includes over 1,500 children. An additional 56,000 people were wounded, including nearly 15,000 children. The 1991 census indicates that before the siege the city and its surrounding areas had a population of 525,980. There are estimates that prior to the siege the population in the city proper was 435,000. Estimates of the current population range between 300,000 and 380,000.
The siege affected all sectors of Sarajevo's population. UNICEF reported that of the estimated 65,000 to 80,000 children in the city, at least 40% had been directly shot at by snipers; 51% had seen someone killed; 39% had seen one or more family members killed; 19% had witnessed a massacre; 48% had their home occupied by someone else; 73% had their home attacked or shelled; and 89% had lived in underground shelters. It is probable that the psychological trauma suffered during the siege will bear heavily on the lives of these children in the years to come.
As a result of the high number of casualties and the wartime conditions, there are makeshift cemeteries throughout Sarajevo and its surrounding areas. Parks, athletic fields and other open spaces were utilized as graveyards. One such site is the sports complex built for the 1984 Winter Olympics.
A 1994 report stated that "the siege has also had a profound effect on the psyche and future of the city's population. The Bosnian Government has reported a soaring suicide rate by Sarajevans, a near doubling of abortions and a 50% drop in births since the siege began."
A memorial with the names of 521 children killed during the siege was unveiled on 9 May 2010. The cases of another 500 children are being verified.
Structural and property damage and destruction
The structural and property damage in Sarajevo as a result of the siege included specifically protected targets such as hospitals and medical complexes, medical facilities (including ambulances) and medical personnel, as well as cultural property, such as the manuscript collection of the Oriental Institute in Sarajevo, one of the richest collections of Oriental manuscripts in the world. For foreigners, an event that defined the besiegers' cultural objectives occurred during the night of 25 August 1992. This was the bombardment - with incendiary shells - that resulted in the total destruction of the irreplaceable National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the central repository of Bosnian written culture and a major cultural center for all the Balkans. Among the losses were about 700 manuscripts and incunabula, and a unique collection of Bosnian serial publications, some from the middle of the 19th-century Bosnian cultural revival. Libraries all over the world cooperated afterwards to restore some of the lost heritage, through donations and e-texts, rebuilding the Library in cyberspace. Furthermore, there were attacks upon civilian property that were not justified by military necessity and were equally prohibited. The Bosnian government estimated that shelling destroyed over 10,000 apartments and damaged over 100,000 others. Of the other buildings in the city, 23% were reported as seriously damaged, 64% as partially damaged and 10% as slightly damaged. In its report, the Council of Europe's Committee on Culture and Education commented on the structural damage in the city. The Committee stated:
"It is plain that Sarajevo has suffered badly at the hands of its attackers. Apart from the obvious human cost in the continued suffering and difficulties of day to day living, there has been serious damage to the urban fabric. The infrastructure (drainage, electricity, telephone services, etc.) is badly damaged. Most buildings are damaged significantly and probably all buildings are damaged to a greater or lesser degree (broken glass etc.). Some buildings have been completely destroyed including ancient monuments (such as the Library) and including a number of modern steel framed buildings (such as the Unis Building) which in some cases have simply collapsed. 35,000 dwellings are also assessed to have been destroyed during the past year."
Sarajevo has made a substantial recovery in terms of the number of buildings that have been fully restored and reoccupied. However, as of 2005, many buildings remained heavily damaged and scarred.
Although the city had been a model for inter-ethnic relations, the siege brought dramatic population shifts. In addition to the thousands of refugees who left the city, many Sarajevo Serbs left for the Republika Srpska, and the percentage of Serbs in Sarajevo decreased from more than 30% in 1991 to slightly over 10% in 2002. Regions of Novo Sarajevo that are now part of the Republika Srpska have formed East Sarajevo, where much of the prewar Serbian population lives today.
New construction projects and foreign capital investment have made Sarajevo perhaps the fastest-growing city in the former Yugoslavia. The population grew to 401,000 in 2002, which is 20,000 short of pre-1991 census estimate.
On 5 December 2003 the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) convicted the first commander of the Sarajevo-Romanija Corps, General Stanislav Galić, of the shelling and sniper terror campaign against Sarajevo, including the first Markale massacre. General Galić was sentenced to life imprisonment for the crimes against humanity during the siege. In 2007, General Dragomir Milošević, who replaced Galić as commander of the Sarajevo-Romanija Corps, was found guilty of the shelling and sniper terror campaign against Sarajevo and its citizens from August 1994 to late 1995, including the second Markale massacre. He was sentenced to 29 years in prison. The ICTY concluded that the Markale town market was hit on 28 August 1995 by a 120 mm mortar shell fired from Sarajevo-Romanija Corps positions.
In 2011, the former Chief of the General Staff of the Yugoslav Army, General Momčilo Perišić, was sentenced to 27 years in prison for aiding and abetting murder because the Yugoslav army under his supervision provided "large-scale logistic support in ammunition, fuel and spare parts" as well as "necessary expert assistance" to the VRS during the siege. According to an estimate of the Main Staff from 1994, the VRS received about 25 million bullets and over 7,500 shells from the Yugoslav army to wage the war in Bosnia. However, the judges ruled that he did not have effective control over the VRS officers, who largely fought independently of his instructions yet still received payment and benefits from Belgrade.
In popular culture
- Le Sommeil du monstre, a comic book by Enki Bilal.
- Sarajevo Tango, a comic-art by Hermann Huppen
- Fax From Sarajevo, a comic-art by Joe Kubert
- The Fixer, a graphic novel by Joe Sacco
Songs and Concerts
- U2's PopMart Tour included the first concert to take place in Sarajevo since the war
- "Miss Sarajevo", a song by U2 and Brian Eno under the pseudonym Passengers
- Bosnia, a song by The Cranberries from their album To the Faithful Departed
- "Caído en Sarajevo (Fallen at Sarajevo)", a song by Chilean rock band Arka
- Christmas Eve/Sarajevo 12/24, a song by Savatage and the Trans-Siberian Orchestra
- Romeo and Juliet in Sarajevo, a Cantonese pop song by Hong Kong singer Sammi Cheng
Musicals and Operas
- Blasted, a play by Sarah Kane
- The Music Lesson, a play by Tammy Ryan
- The Bosnia Poem: Someone in Sarajevo, poem by Michael Blackburn
- The Cries of Our People – Sarajevo Octets, a book of poetry by Walter Raniowski
- Sarajevo Blues, a book of poetry by Semezdin Mehmedinović
Books and Stories
- The Question of Bruno, stories by Aleksandar Hemon
- "Sarajevo Roses", a short story by Kírk Barrett
- The Cellist of Sarajevo, by Steven Galloway
- Đavo u Sarajevu (Devil in Sarajevo), a book by Nenad Veličković
- Hearts Grown Brutal: Sagas of Sarajevo, by Roger Cohen, 1998, ISBN 0-679-45243-5
- Empty Casing: A Soldier's Memoir of Sarajevo Under Siege, a book by Canadian peacekeeper Fred Doucette
- Fools Rush In: A True Story of Love, War, and Redemption, by Bill Carter ISBN 9781932958508
- Letters from Sarajevo (Sarajevo: Voci da un assedio 1993), by Anna Cataldi, 1994 (trans. Avril Bardoni) ISBN 1-85230-500-2
- My Childhood Under Fire: A Sarajevo Diary by Nadja Halilbegovich
- Natasha's Story, a book by Michael Nicholson
- Pretty Birds, by Scott Simon, 2005 ISBN 1-4000-6310-8
- Regarding The Pain Of Others, by Susan Sontag
- Sarajevo, A War Journal, a book by Zlatko Dizdarevic
- Sarajevo Days, Sarajevo Nights, a book by Elma Softic
- Sarajevo, Exodus of a City, a book by Dzevad Karahasan
- Sarajevo Roses, a book by South African UN Peacekeeper Anne-Marie Du Preez Bedroz
- Sarajevski Marlboro (Sarajevo Marlboro), a book by Miljenko Jergović, 1994
- State of Siege, a book by Juan Goytisolo
- Witness from Sarajevo, by Boris Jug
- Short Report from a City Long Besieged (Kratko poročilo iz dolgo obleganega mesta, 1994) by Drago Jančar
- Zlata's Diary, a book by Zlata Filipovic
Films and Documentaries
- Sarajevo Roses, a film by Roger M. Richards.
- Romeo and Juliet in Sarajevo, a PBS Frontline documentary
- Veilles d'Armes, a documentary by Marcel Ophuls
- Miss Sarajevo, a documentary directed by Bill Carter
- Diários da Bósnia (Bosnian Diaries), a film by Joaquim Sapinho
- Mladí muži poznávají svět (Young Men Discovering The World), a movie by Radim Špaček
- Savršeni krug (The Perfect Circle), a film by Ademir Kenović
- Shot Through the Heart, a TV film by David Attwood
- Welcome To Sarajevo, a war movie by Michael Winterbottom
- Ulysses' Gaze, a 1995 film by Theo Angelopoulos
- ^ 5 April 1992 was the date of the first attack on Sarajevo by the JNA and Serb paramilitaries and is considered the beginning of the siege. However, as early as 1 March 1992, barricades and armed gunmen started appearing on the streets of Sarajevo.
- ^ 29 February 1996 was the official end of the siege as declared by the Bosnian government. The war ended with the signing of the Dayton Accords on 21 November 1995 and the Paris Protocol on 14 December 1995. The reason that the siege was not declared as over was because the Serbs had not yet implemented the Dayton deal that required them to withdraw from areas north and west of Sarajevo as well as other parts of the city. The Serbs also violated the Dayton peace by firing a rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) at a Sarajevo tram on 9 January 1996, killing 1 and wounding 19.
- ^ a b "Ljudski gubici u Bosni i Hercegovini 91–95 – Sarajevo". The Research and Documentation Center (RDC). p. 16. http://www.idc.org.ba/images/stories/IDC/Ljudski_gubici/regioni/Sarajevo.zip. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- ^ Connelly, Charlie (8 October 2005). "The new siege of Sarajevo". The Times (UK). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article575571.ece. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- ^ Hartmann, Florence (July 2007). "A statement at the seventh biennial meeting of the International Association of Genocide Scholars". Helsinki. http://www.helsinki.org.rs/tjgenocide_t01.html. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
- ^ a b Strange, Hannah (12 December 2007). "Serb general Dragomir Milosevic convicted over Sarajevo siege". The Times (UK). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article3039582.ece. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bassiouni, Cherif (27 May 1994). "Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts established pursuant to security council resolution 780". United Nations. http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/comexpert/ANX/VI-01.htm. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
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- ^ a b c "ICTY: Dragomir Milošević judgement". ICTY. 12 November 2009. http://www.icty.org/x/cases/dragomir_milosevic/acjug/en/091112.pdf. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
- ^ a b "Summary of the Judgement in the Case of Prosecutor v. Momčilo Perišić" (in English). The Hague: International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 6 September 2011. http://www.icty.org/x/cases/perisic/tjug/en/110906_summary.pdf. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- ^ Tran, Mark (2 March 2010). "Radovan Karadzic claims Bosnian Muslims 'killed own people' in Sarajevo". The Guardian. UK. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/02/radovan-karadzic-siege-sarajevo-myth. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
- ^ "ICTY: Stanislav Galić judgement and opinion". ICTY. 5 December 2003. http://sim.law.uu.nl/sim/caselaw/tribunalen.nsf/6c3f0d5286f9bf3cc12571b500329d62/31f622000d199e48c12571fe004be26e?OpenDocument. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
- ^ a b Malcolm, Noel (1996). Bosnia: A Short History. New York University Press. p. 231. ISBN 0814755615.
- ^ a b c Nizich, Ivana (1992). War Crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina. Helsinki Watch. pp. 18–20. ISBN 1564320839.
- ^ Dictionary of Genocide: A-L – Google Books. Google Books. 23 November 2004. http://books.google.com/books?id=xWKjSc0ql3cC&pg=PA190. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ^ Binder, David (29 August 1993). "U.S. Policymakers on Bosnia Admit Errors in Opposing Partition in 1992". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/29/world/us-policymakers-on-bosnia-admit-errors-in-opposing-partition-in-1992.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- ^ "ICTY: The attack against the civilian population and related requirements". http://www.un.org/icty/kunarac/trialc2/judgement/kun-tj010222e-5.htm#VC.
- ^ "'Only a bullet' could separate them". CNN. 10 April 1996. http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/Bosnia/updates/9604/10/. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- ^ "Geneva talks (Bosnia)". Keesing's Record of World Events. August 1993. http://www.keesings.com/search?kssp_search_phrase=%22operation+irma%22&x=0&y=0&kssp_a_id=39603n05xxx&kssp_selected_tab=article&kssp_rspn=1&kssp_v_id=39.
- ^ a b c d Bethlehem, Daniel L.; Weller, Marc (1997). The 'Yugoslav' Crisis in International Law. Cambridge International Documents Series. 5. Cambridge University Press. p. liii. ISBN 9780521463041. http://books.google.com/books?id=7SczBzxA6-IC&pg=PR53.
- ^ NATO Handbook: Evolution of the Conflict, NATO, http://www.nato.int/docu/handbook/2001/hb050102.htm
- ^ Carnes, Mark Christopher (2005). American national biography. 29. Oxford University Press. p. 29. http://books.google.com/books?id=wZczV8ZxgL4C&pg=PA29.
- ^ Agence France-Presse (9 May 2010). "Sarajevo unveils memorial for children killed during siege". National Post. http://www.nationalpost.com/news/story.html?id=3006345. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- ^ Libraries in open societies ... – Google Books. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=wjfBaNW1i4EC&pg=PA62. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ^ "PERISIC SENTENCED TO 27 YEARS FOR CRIMES IN BH AND CROATIA". The Hague: Sense-Agency. 6 September 2011. http://www.sense-agency.com/icty/perisic-sentenced-to-27-years-for-crimes-in-bh-and-croatia.29.html?cat_id=1&news_id=13151. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- ^ "World of Cartooning, LLC: Joe Kubert's "Fax From Sarajevo"". Kubertsworld. http://www.kubertsworld.com/bios/sarajevo.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ^ Content: ARKA / Design: Javier Duhart. "ARKA – News 2003". Arka.cl. http://www.arka.cl/noticias/2003_eng.htm#1. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ^ "Writer’s Digest – Sarajevo Roses". Writersdigest.com. 1 December 2008. http://www.writersdigest.com/article/sarajevo-roses/. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ^ "Excerpt From The Book Witness From Sarajevo". Fortunecity.com. http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/finsbury/37/id18.htm. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- ^ http://www.filmcenter.cz/index.php?PG=FLA&IDFL=94&LANG=EN
- ^ "Remember Sarajevo by Roger Richards". The Digital Journalist. http://digitaljournalist.org/issue0302/rr_index.html. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- SA92.BA: Sarajevo 1992. – 1996. photo gallery
- Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts on the Siege of Sarajevo
- "Remember Sarajevo" by Roger M. Richards, is an eBook of photographs and text from the siege of Sarajevo.
Bosnian War Timeline19911992199319941995 War CrimesEthnic cleansingAhatovići · Ahmići · Bijeljina · Biljani · Čemerno · Doboj · Dobrinja · Doljani · Duša · Foča · Glogova · Grabovica · Kiseljak · Korićani Cliffs · Kravica · Lašva Valley · Makljen · Markale · Mokronoge · Prijedor · Prozor · Raštani · Srebrenica · Stolac · Stupni Do · Štrpci · Tuzla · Višegrad (Barimo, Bosanska Jagodina, Paklenik, Sjeverin) · Vlasenica · Vrbanja · Zaklopača · ZvornikCampsCasesSarajevo · Sijekovac · Trusina · Tuzla · Križančevo selo · Vranica
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Siege de Sarajevo — Siège de Sarajevo L ancien bâtiment de l agence de presse de Sarajevo maintenant devenu mémorial Le siège de Sarajevo est le plus long siège de l histoire de la guerre moderne. Il a duré du 5 avril 1992 jusqu au 29 février 1996 et a opposé les… … Wikipédia en Français
Siège de sarajevo — L ancien bâtiment de l agence de presse de Sarajevo maintenant devenu mémorial Le siège de Sarajevo est le plus long siège de l histoire de la guerre moderne. Il a duré du 5 avril 1992 jusqu au 29 février 1996 et a opposé les forces d … Wikipédia en Français
Siège de Sarajevo — 43° 50′ 51″ N 18° 21′ 23″ E / 43.8476, 18.3564 … Wikipédia en Français
Sarajevo — City City of Sarajevo Grad Sarajevo Град Сарајево … Wikipedia
Sarajevo column case — Date 2 3 May 1992 Location Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Belligerents … Wikipedia
Sarajevo Tunnel — During the Siege of Sarajevo during Bosnian War between 1992 and 1995, the Sarajevo Tunnel was constructed by the besieged citizens of Sarajevo in order to link the city of Sarajevo, which was entirely cut off by Serbian forces, with the Bosnian… … Wikipedia
Sarajevo Film Festival — 2008 logo Location Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Language … Wikipedia
Sarajevo Blues — is a book of poetry first published in 1992 during the siege of Sarajevo by Semezdin Mehmedinović. Mr. Mehmedinović s book was translated into English by Ammiel Alcalay in 1998. Mr. Mehmedinović s text was translated into music by Jewlia… … Wikipedia
Sarajevo Canton — Kanton Sarajevo (bs) Sarajevska županija (hr) Сарајевски кантон (sr) Canton … Wikipedia
Sarajevo Tramway — Info Locale … Wikipedia